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21st International Grassland Congress / 8th International Rangeland Congress: Foreward And Acknowledgement, Organizing Committee of 2008 IGC/IRC Conference 2020 University of Kentucky

21st International Grassland Congress / 8th International Rangeland Congress: Foreward And Acknowledgement, Organizing Committee Of 2008 Igc/Irc Conference

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Biomass And Carbon Stock Estimation In Woody Grass (Dendrocalamus Strictus L.) In Doon Valley, India, V. Subbulakshmi, Rajesh Kaushal, J. M. S. Tomar, N. M. Alam, J. Jayparkash, Harsh Mehta, A. K. Gupta, A. C. Rathore, O. P. Chaturvedi, P. K. Mishra 2020 Central Arid Zone Research Institute, India

Biomass And Carbon Stock Estimation In Woody Grass (Dendrocalamus Strictus L.) In Doon Valley, India, V. Subbulakshmi, Rajesh Kaushal, J. M. S. Tomar, N. M. Alam, J. Jayparkash, Harsh Mehta, A. K. Gupta, A. C. Rathore, O. P. Chaturvedi, P. K. Mishra

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Bamboos commonly kown as woody grass are one of the most important species particularly in Asia, where it is frequently considered as the ―timber of the poor‖ (Rao et al., 1985). With about 23 genera and 136 species, India is the second largest reservoir of bamboos, next only to China (SFR, 2013 and Nath et al., 2009). Bamboos occur extensively in the managed ecosystems of India—both as plantations (and in agroforestry (scattered clumps, hedgerows on farm boundaries etc.

Dendrocalamus strictus L. is most commonly found bamboo in India. It is widely distributed in dry deciduous forests and grows rapidly ...


Effect Of Including Arachis Pintoi In Tropical Forages Diets Megathyrsus Maximus And Brachiaria Humidicola On In Vitro Methane Production, Diana Marcela Valencia Echavarría, Luis Alfonso Giraldo Valderrama, Alexandra Torres, Alejandra Marín Gomez 2020 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

Effect Of Including Arachis Pintoi In Tropical Forages Diets Megathyrsus Maximus And Brachiaria Humidicola On In Vitro Methane Production, Diana Marcela Valencia Echavarría, Luis Alfonso Giraldo Valderrama, Alexandra Torres, Alejandra Marín Gomez

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Ruminants have the capability to ferment structural carbohydrates found in forages and obtain from them a usable form of energy to produce high quality food, i.e milk and meat (Kamra et al., 2012). However, as a gaseous by-product from the enteric fermentation of those carbohydrates, methane is produced in a significant proportion, being considered as one of the most important greenhouse gases (GHG). In Colombian tropical livestock, inclusion of legumes in on poor quality grasses diets based have allowed an improvement of their nutritive quality, besides enteric methanogenesis reduction because their content of condensed tannins (CT); however, this is ...


Phyto-Ruminal-Bioremediation: Grasses To The Rescue, Morrie Craig, Jennifer Duringer, Linda Blythe 2020 Oregon State University

Phyto-Ruminal-Bioremediation: Grasses To The Rescue, Morrie Craig, Jennifer Duringer, Linda Blythe

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The US EPA has defined Super Fund sites for 594 toxins in the United States. The EPA definition of toxins is one that causes acute or chronic human health effects, or causing significant environmental harm. One of the categories of toxins is nitroaromatic molecules, which are used primarily as munitions. In the United States alone there are 16,000 Department of Defense (DoD) sites. The most common munitions there are TNT, RDX, HMX, and 2,4 DNT. In the world, these sites range historically from World War II residues to those from recent Middle East conflicts. Human health effects from ...


Comparison Of Two Different Pasture Species Compositions For Recovery Of Deep Soil Nitrogen During Winter, Brendon Malclom, Keith Cameron, Grant Edwards, Jim Moir, Hong Di 2020 The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd., New Zealand

Comparison Of Two Different Pasture Species Compositions For Recovery Of Deep Soil Nitrogen During Winter, Brendon Malclom, Keith Cameron, Grant Edwards, Jim Moir, Hong Di

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Surplus nitrate (NO3-) beneath animal urine patches is highly vulnerable to leaching, particularly during winter when soil drainage is often highest. Most common pastures in New Zealand (i.e. Lolium perenne) have relatively shallow root systems and produce low dry matter (DM) yields during winter months. Recent investigations suggest that alternative pasture species may be able to recover more soil nitrogen (N) during winter and consequently reduce NO3- leaching losses (Moir et al., 2013; Malcolm et al., 2014; 2015). However, further work is required to better understand the importance of root system architecture and plant growth of these ...


Effect Of Selected Tanniniferous Leaves On In Vivo Enteric Methane Emission In Sheep, M. Saravanan, R. Bhatta, L. Baruah, P. K. Malik, N. Ravi 2020 National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India

Effect Of Selected Tanniniferous Leaves On In Vivo Enteric Methane Emission In Sheep, M. Saravanan, R. Bhatta, L. Baruah, P. K. Malik, N. Ravi

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Concentration of methane is continuously increasing in atmosphere and now almost 155% (IPCC, 2007) more than that recorded during pre-industrial era. Livestock production is a major sector accountable for high methane emission into atmospheric pool. World’s livestock is contributing around 15% of total atmospheric methane on annual basis feeds (Moss et al., 2000). Additionally, methane emission from ruminants leads to a loss of 2 to 15% of the dietary energy (Holter and Young, 1992). Due to these two crucial issues, researchers are working tirelessly to find a suitable and effective way for enteric methane amelioration accompanied with minimal inputs ...


Methane Emission Estimated From Different Cattle Intake Data In Heifers Grazing A Tropical Pasture, José Augusto Imaz, O. Hernández, D. dos Santos, A. Radrizzani, J. I. Arroquy 2020 Instituto de Investigación Animal para el Chaco Semiárido, Argentina

Methane Emission Estimated From Different Cattle Intake Data In Heifers Grazing A Tropical Pasture, José Augusto Imaz, O. Hernández, D. Dos Santos, A. Radrizzani, J. I. Arroquy

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The quantification of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation related to cattle diet is a useful tool to identify strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This is even important in tropical and subtropical regions due to the lack of CH4 estimations in beef cattle, particularly from Bos Indicus breeds grazing tropical grasses (Kurihara et al., 1999). Several modelling approaches have been developed in order to predict CH4 emission. However, the use of these models has limitations associated with uncertainty information required such as feed intake (FI), composition of the selected diet and animal responses (Gonzalez et al., 2014 ...


Effect Of Graded Levels Of Condensed Tannin (Ct) From Mimosa Pudica On In-Vitro Methane Production, P. K. Malik, R. Bhatta, N. Ravi, M. Saravanan, L. Baruah 2020 National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India

Effect Of Graded Levels Of Condensed Tannin (Ct) From Mimosa Pudica On In-Vitro Methane Production, P. K. Malik, R. Bhatta, N. Ravi, M. Saravanan, L. Baruah

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Livestock in the country are primarily being fed on fibrous feed resulted in high enteric methane (CH4) emission along with low nutrients availability to host animal. Rumen methano genesis is necessary for the host system as this process ensure the removal of fermentative H2 through the reduction of CO2 into CH4. At the same time this process is wasteful because the emission also represents a loss of dietary energy (6-12% of gross energy intake) apart from contributing to global warming.

Worldwide livestock contribute around 90-95 Tg methane to the pool with a contribution of 12-13% from ...


Gross Biomass And Root/Shoot Ratio Mediated Drought Sensitivities Of Ecosystem Carbon Exchange In A Meadow Steppe, Yunbo Wang, Wei Sun, Deli Wang 2020 Northeast Normal University, China

Gross Biomass And Root/Shoot Ratio Mediated Drought Sensitivities Of Ecosystem Carbon Exchange In A Meadow Steppe, Yunbo Wang, Wei Sun, Deli Wang

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

According to IPCC’s Report (2007), global precipitation regimes will change largely in the future, with more annual precipitation at the mid-latitude regions. Simultaneously, due to the accelerating industrialization and use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, significant increase in nitrogen deposition has been widely documented (Liu et al., 2013).

Water and nitrogen are the two most important limiting factors for the ecological processes of arid and semi-arid grassland ecosystems; therefore, altered precipitation regimes and enhanced nitrogen deposition are likely to change vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and aboveground vs belowground biomass distribution.

In addition to these long-term changes, short-term climate extremes, such ...


Spatial Heterogeneity Of Soil And Vegetation Characteristics And Soil-Vegetation Relationships Along An Ecotone In Southern Mu Us Sandy Land, China, Yingzhong Xie, Kaiyang Qiu, Dongmei Xu, Richard Pott 2020 Ningxia University, China

Spatial Heterogeneity Of Soil And Vegetation Characteristics And Soil-Vegetation Relationships Along An Ecotone In Southern Mu Us Sandy Land, China, Yingzhong Xie, Kaiyang Qiu, Dongmei Xu, Richard Pott

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Spatial pattern analysis is an essential component of spatial heterogeneity studies on soil properties and vegetation characteristics. It was conducted in several studies for both soil and vegetation characteristics (Strand et al., 2007; Dick and Gilliam, 2007; Zuo et al., 2010). This study aims to examine the changes in the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties at different soil layers, the spatial heterogeneity of soil and vegetation characteristics along an ecotone, and soil-vegetation relationships along the ecotone in a critical area of desertification.


Evaluate The Interactions Between Grassland Ecosystems And Precipitation Anomalies Under Changing Grazing Intensity In Central Asia, Dildora Aralova, Babatunde A. Osunmadewa, Toderich Kristina, Dilshod Gafurov, Elmar Csaplovics 2020 Technical University of Dresden, Germany

Evaluate The Interactions Between Grassland Ecosystems And Precipitation Anomalies Under Changing Grazing Intensity In Central Asia, Dildora Aralova, Babatunde A. Osunmadewa, Toderich Kristina, Dilshod Gafurov, Elmar Csaplovics

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Long term monitoring of grassland being the largest ecosystem on earth plays an important role in understanding its productivity and transformation (changes) over time. With the availability of remote sensing data, most ecological and environmental problems caused either by human activities such as extensive agriculture, pastoralism which might lead to desertification, land degradation, loss of biodiversity and climate change amongst others can be monitored. For this study, vegetation cover was selected as the main source of examination and subsets of area covered with grasslands were profiled for further monitoring of grassland increasing and decreasing trends in selected areas of Central ...


Effect Of Climate Change In 50-Years Period On Grassland Productivity In Central Poland, Piotr Goliñski, Marek Czerwinski, Barbara Golinska 2020 Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland

Effect Of Climate Change In 50-Years Period On Grassland Productivity In Central Poland, Piotr Goliñski, Marek Czerwinski, Barbara Golinska

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In Central Europe, the climate change is predicted to bring more rainfall in winter, less rainfall in summer, and an increased drought risk (Trnka et al., 2011). Smit et al., (2008) reported that significant drops in grassland productivity can usually be attributed to drier summers. Also in Poland, the most important abiotic factor limiting grassland productivity is water shortage and its distribution during vegetative season. Indicating the influence of climate on grass vegetation growth could be an important tool in grassland management on the national, regional and single grassland scales. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect ...


Climate Change Adaptation In Vulnerable Crop And Livestock Production Systems In Mgeta, Tanzania, Leif Jarle Asheim, Zabron C. Nziku, Lars O. Eik, Dismas Mwaseba, George C. Kifaro 2020 Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute, Norway

Climate Change Adaptation In Vulnerable Crop And Livestock Production Systems In Mgeta, Tanzania, Leif Jarle Asheim, Zabron C. Nziku, Lars O. Eik, Dismas Mwaseba, George C. Kifaro

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Awareness regarding effects of climate change on the environment and livelihoods is becoming more apparent than at any time before (Elisha, 2006). Among the farming systems that have attracted the attention in Tanzania, are those in Mgeta in thehigh altitude water catchment area in the Uluguru Mountains. Land degradation have been widely reported in Mgeta (Ponte, 2001), and is currently threatening the source of water for domestic use and livelihoods of the local communities. Increased occurrence of droughts and dry spells during the growing seasons might reinforce the problem. A robust cropping system toreplace the erosion vulnerable vegetables seems needed ...


Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg 2020 Iowa State University

Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg

Statistics Publications

Floral nectar is a rich secretion produced by the nectary gland and is offered as reward to attract pollinators leading to improved seed set. Nectars are composed of a complex mixture of sugars, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, lipids, organic and inorganic acids. This composition is influenced by several factors, including floral morphology, mechanism of nectar secretion, time of flowering, and visitation by pollinators. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of flowering time, plant phylogeny, and pollinator selection on nectar composition in Nicotiana. The main classes of nectar metabolites (sugars and amino acids) were quantified using gas ...


Response Of Dynamic Change Of Vegetation Index To Precipitation Fluctuations In Hulunbeier Typical Steppe, Zhaoyan Diao, Shihai Lu, Zhirong Zheng, Shengxing Ye 2020 Beijing Forestry University, China

Response Of Dynamic Change Of Vegetation Index To Precipitation Fluctuations In Hulunbeier Typical Steppe, Zhaoyan Diao, Shihai Lu, Zhirong Zheng, Shengxing Ye

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In arid and semi-arid regions, precipitation is an important environmental limiting factor for ecosystems, where precipitation characteristic parameters at different time scales have great variability (Mohammad and Howard, 2006), and the small precipitation events (< 5 mm) is the subject of precipitation events (Loik et al., 2004, Sala and Lauenroth, 1982). In this study, we used vegetation index extracted from TM or MODIS image to establish the regression models between vegetation index and precipitation, and then analyzed the response of typical steppe vegetation to precipitation fluctuations. Our result can supply reference for the productivity measurement model in typical steppe.


Effect Of Silting Yield Index On Biomass And Carbon Sequestration Potential Along An Altitudinal Gradient Of Subtropical Chir Pine Forests And Grasslands In North Western Himalaya, India, Debasis Mahato, B. Gupta, Matber Singh 2020 Birsa Agricultural University, India

Effect Of Silting Yield Index On Biomass And Carbon Sequestration Potential Along An Altitudinal Gradient Of Subtropical Chir Pine Forests And Grasslands In North Western Himalaya, India, Debasis Mahato, B. Gupta, Matber Singh

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Biomass is an important characteristic of vegetation and is regarded as an important indicator of ecological and management processes in the vegetation. Measures of standing crop also reflect the amount of energy stored in the vegetation, which can indicate the potential productivity at the site. Forests are important for carbon sequestration besides playing very important role in the global carbon cycle. They store about 80% of all aboveground and 40% of all belowground terrestrial organic carbon. This study comprises to estimate the biomass and carbon stock of chirpine forests at different altitudinal gradients.


The Found World: The Role Of Findability In The History Of Botany, Douglas Tuers 2020 University of South Carolina - Columbia

The Found World: The Role Of Findability In The History Of Botany, Douglas Tuers

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

This study will investigate how a community of botanists used the findability inherent in botanical localities to rediscover species that were previously lost to botany. This article will look at the literature that announced the rediscovery of three species in the vicinity of White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. These species are Heuchera hispida, Phlox buckleyi, and Gaylussacia brachycera. These three plants were rediscovered over a short period of time, about 13 years from 1919 to 1932. This study will draw from the announcement of these rediscoveries. In each of these cases there was a surrounding literature that preceded or followed ...


Frost Tolerance, Deacclimation And Reacclimation Traits In Perennial Ryegrass, Mats Höglind, Hans Martin Hanslin 2020 Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Norway

Frost Tolerance, Deacclimation And Reacclimation Traits In Perennial Ryegrass, Mats Höglind, Hans Martin Hanslin

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The ability of perennial grasses to harden and maintain frost tolerance throughout the winter is crucial for winter survival. This includes the ability to resist deacclimation during transient mild spells in winter, and the ability to reacclimate when cold temperatures return. The latter traits are especially critical in regions with cycles of freezing and thawing, and lack of a stable, insulating snowcover that can protect the plants from extreme air temperatures. Such conditions are typical for many coastal areas in Northern Eurasia and America, such as the southwestern coast of Norway. The climate is changing and one of the consequences ...


Importance Of Grassland Management For Carbon Sequestration And To Mitigate Climate Change: A Review, Poonam Yadav, Sheela Choudhary, Sunil Dutt Choudhary, Praveen Kaushik 2020 Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, India

Importance Of Grassland Management For Carbon Sequestration And To Mitigate Climate Change: A Review, Poonam Yadav, Sheela Choudhary, Sunil Dutt Choudhary, Praveen Kaushik

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Grasslands, including rangelands, shrub lands, pastureland, and cropland sown with pasture and fodder crops, covered approximately 3.5 billion ha in 2000, representing 26 percent of the world land area and 70 percent of the world agricultural area, and containing about 20 percent of the world’s soil carbon stocks (Ramankutty et al., 2008). All ecosystems- forested ecosystems, agro-ecosystems, grassland, ecosystems etc. take up atmospheric CO2 and mineral nutrients and transform them into organic products In undisturbed ecosystems, the carbon balance tends to be positive: carbon uptake through photosynthesis exceeds losses from respiration, even in mature, old-growth forest ecosystems ...


Effect Of Topographical Condition On Radioactive Cesium Pollution Of Herbaceous Plants In A Mountainous Grazing Pasture After Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, Shin-ichiro Ogura, Masanori Saito 2020 Tohoku University, Japan

Effect Of Topographical Condition On Radioactive Cesium Pollution Of Herbaceous Plants In A Mountainous Grazing Pasture After Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, Shin-Ichiro Ogura, Masanori Saito

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, followed by tsunami, incurred the accident of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS). The radioactive fallout was dispersed by wind and deposited in large part of eastern Japan by rainfall or snowfall after the accident (Chino et al., 2011; Katata et al., 2012; Terada et al., 2012). That caused extensive pollution by radioactive cesium (Cs) (the sum of 134Cs and 137Cs) in agricultural lands (MEXT, 2011) including permanent pastures and meadows. In mountainous areas, it can be thought that radioactive Cs migrated from convex to concave regions by snow melting ...


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