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Mechanisms Of Overyielding And Coexistence In Diverse Tallgrass Prairie Communities, Leslie E. Forero 2021 Utah State University

Mechanisms Of Overyielding And Coexistence In Diverse Tallgrass Prairie Communities, Leslie E. Forero

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plants compete for the same basic nutrient and water resources. According to the competitive exclusion principle, when a substantial overlap in resource pools exists, the best competitor for resources should drive all other species to extinction. The ability for plants to coexist in violation of the competitive exclusion principle is the “biodiversity paradox”. Coexistence is actually beneficial for plants: as species diversity increases, you typically see increases in plant biomass production (known as the biodiversity-productivity relationship). The mechanisms behind coexistence and the biodiversity-productivity relationship remain an ecological mystery. One hypothesis is that plants obtain water and nutrients from different places ...


Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Long-term agricultural sustainability and productivity are controlled by the integrative effects of different management practices on the soil. Many Arkansas producers use the double-crop system to grow soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Studying combinations of different, non-traditional, alternative agricultural techniques may help producers better understand the long-term implications of various management practice options on sustainability and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agricultural management practices, including residue level, tillage, irrigation, and burning, and soil depth on the change in various soil properties from 2010 to 2020 in a long-term ...


Baseline Sensitivity To Dmi Fungicides In Cercospora Spp. And Corynespora Spp. In Arkansas Soybeans, Evan Buckner 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Baseline Sensitivity To Dmi Fungicides In Cercospora Spp. And Corynespora Spp. In Arkansas Soybeans, Evan Buckner

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cercospora spp. and Corynespora spp. are two common foliar fungal pathogens in Arkansas amongst other soybean producing areas. Two primary diseases caused by Cercospora spp. are Cercospora Leaf Blight (CLB, caused mainly by C. kikuchii) and Frogeye Leaf Spot (C. sojina). Both diseases affect foliage, and when lesions collapse, leaves may fall prematurely resulting in yield loss. In the specific case of CLB, this is a disease on the rise since 2000, and also causes seed infection reducing seed quality. Target spot is a disease caused by Corynespora cassiicola, and is of less damaging for farmers in larger soybean producing ...


Biochar-Swine Manure Impact On Soil Nutrients And Carbon Under Controlled Leaching Experiment Using A Midwestern Mollisols, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Mriganka De, Darcy Bonds, Baitong Chen, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht 2021 Iowa State University

Biochar-Swine Manure Impact On Soil Nutrients And Carbon Under Controlled Leaching Experiment Using A Midwestern Mollisols, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Mriganka De, Darcy Bonds, Baitong Chen, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biochar application to the soil can improve soil quality and nutrient leaching loss from swine manure adapted soils. Our working hypothesis was that the biochar-incubated with manure could be a better soil amendment than conventional manure application. The manure-biochar application to the soil would decrease nutrient leaching from manure and increase plant-available nutrients. The study objectives were to 1) assess the physicochemical properties of the manure-biochar mixture after lab incubation and 2) evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and other major and minor nutrients in comparison to conventional manure application to soil. Three biochars ...


Yield Performance Of Barley Hybrids (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Under Drought Stress And Non-Stressed Conditions, Yadgar Ali Mahmood, Halgurd Nasraden Hassan, Masood Saber Mohammed 2021 University of Garmian

Yield Performance Of Barley Hybrids (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Under Drought Stress And Non-Stressed Conditions, Yadgar Ali Mahmood, Halgurd Nasraden Hassan, Masood Saber Mohammed

Passer Journal

Abstract

This study was carried out at the experiment field, Kalar Technical Institute, Garmian Region in two growing seasons of 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 in order to evaluate the growth and yield potentials of barley under water stressed using hybrids as a source of wide range of genotypic variations. Therefore, five F2 barley hybrids (Hordeum vulgare L.) were screened for grain yield, biomass dry matter, plant height and harvest index under irrigated and drought conditions. Results showed that there was no effect of drought on grain yield (P>0.05) in 2017, while significantly reduced yield in 2018 and across-year ...


Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht 2021 Iowa State University

Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The use of swine manure as a source of plant nutrients is one alternative to synthetic fertilizers. However, conventional manure application with >90% water and a low C:N ratio results in soil C loss to the atmosphere. Our hypothesis was to use biochar as a manure nutrient stabilizer that would slowly release nutrients to plants upon biochar-swine manure mixture application to soil. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and plant-available macro- and micronutrients in greenhouse-cultivated corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Neutral pH red oak ...


Silicate-Solubilizing Bacteria In Louisiana Soils: Identification, Profiling, And Functions In Crop Production, Jayvee A. Cruz 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Silicate-Solubilizing Bacteria In Louisiana Soils: Identification, Profiling, And Functions In Crop Production, Jayvee A. Cruz

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Studies were conducted to determine the potential of silicate-solubilizing bacteria (SSB) as biostimulant in Louisiana rice (Oryza sativa L.) production systems. Isolation and profiling of SSB in Louisiana soils; evaluation on its effects on the silicon (Si) uptake and productivity of rice using various carriers derived from slag, rice hull, and sugarcane (Officinarum spp.) bagasse; and development of a feasible approach of incorporating SSB to the rice production system were conducted. Results showed that numerous bacteria isolated from Louisiana soils can solubilize silicate and produce multiple plant growth-promoting compounds. These potential SSBs were identified into four genera: Aeromonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter ...


A Microbiome Engineering Framework To Evaluate Rhizobial Symbionts Of Legumes, Kenjiro W. Quides, Hagop S. Atamian 2021 Chapman University

A Microbiome Engineering Framework To Evaluate Rhizobial Symbionts Of Legumes, Kenjiro W. Quides, Hagop S. Atamian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background

For well over a century, rhizobia have been recognized as effective biofertilizer options for legume crops. This has led to the widespread use of rhizobial inoculants in agricultural systems, but a recurring issue has emerged: applied rhizobia struggle to provide growth benefits to legume crops. This has largely been attributed to the presence of soil rhizobia and has been termed the ‘rhizobial competition problem.’

Scope

Microbiome engineering has emerged as a methodology to circumvent the rhizobial competition problem by creating legume microbiomes that do not require exogenous rhizobia. However, we highlight an alternative implementation of microbiome engineering that focuses ...


Cultivating Hops For Cone Production In Nebraska, Stacy A. Adams 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Cultivating Hops For Cone Production In Nebraska, Stacy A. Adams

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The hop cone is the primary product of agronomic value when growing Humulus lupulus L. (common hop). Cones are modified stem and leaf structures that protect the female flower cluster that forms chemical compounds important for flavoring beer and other uses. The majority of hops in the United States (~96%) is grown in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Hops can be grown in very diverse climates, but it is the climatic consistency of the Pacific NW that provides product consistency and reasoning commercial hops production is prevalent in the region. Hops is a niche crop outside of the ...


Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2020, Nathan A. Slaton 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2020, Nathan A. Slaton

Research Series

Rapid technological changes in crop management and production require that the research efforts be presented in an expeditious manner. The contributions of soil fertility and fertilizers are major production factors in all Arkansas crops. The studies described within will allow producers to compare their practices with the university’s research efforts. Additionally, soil-test data and fertilizer sales are presented to allow comparisons among years, crops, and other areas within Arkansas.


Mosaic Agriculture: A Guide To Irrigated Crop And Forage Production In Northern Wa, Geoff A. Moore Mr, Clinton K. Revell Dr, Christopher Schelfhout Dr, Christopher Ham Mr, Samuel Crouch Mr 2021 DPIRD, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development

Mosaic Agriculture: A Guide To Irrigated Crop And Forage Production In Northern Wa, Geoff A. Moore Mr, Clinton K. Revell Dr, Christopher Schelfhout Dr, Christopher Ham Mr, Samuel Crouch Mr

Bulletins 4000 -

The Bulletin is a comprehensive guide for pastoralists, agronomists, agribusiness and the broader community on the growing of irrigated crops and pastures within a rangeland pastoral setting.

Dispersed irrigation developments on stations throughout the northern rangelands (sometimes referred to as mosaic agriculture) has created opportunities for the introduction of more productive forage species and pastoralists can now grow high quality forage for 12 months of the year. This can help to overcome the key constraint of traditional pastoral systems, the low quality of the feed over the dry season that typically results in stock losing condition.


Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2020, F. Bourland, A. Beach, E. Brown, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2020, F. Bourland, A. Beach, E. Brown, C. Kennedy, L. Martin, B. Robertson

Research Series

The primary goal of the Arkansas Cotton Variety Test is to provide unbiased data regarding the agronomic performance of cotton varieties and advanced breeding lines in the major cotton-growing areas of Arkansas. This information helps seed companies establish marketing strategies and assists producers in choosing varieties to plant. These annual evaluations will then facilitate the inclusion of new, improved genetic material in Arkansas cotton production. Adaptation of varieties is determined by evaluating the lines at five University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture research sites (Manila, Keiser, Judd Hill, Marianna, and Rohwer). Entries in the 2020 Arkansas Cotton Variety Test ...


Soil Properties Limiting Vegetation Establishment Along Roadsides, Shad D. Mills, Martha Mamo, Sabrina J. Ruis, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Walter Schacht, Tala Awada, Xu Li, Pamela Sutton 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Soil Properties Limiting Vegetation Establishment Along Roadsides, Shad D. Mills, Martha Mamo, Sabrina J. Ruis, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Walter Schacht, Tala Awada, Xu Li, Pamela Sutton

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Roadside vegetation provides a multitude of ecosystem services, including pollutant remediation, runoff reduction, wildlife habitat, and aesthetic scenery. Establishment of permanent vegetation along paved roads after construction can be challenging, particularly within 1 m of the pavement. Adverse soil conditions could be one of the leading factors limiting roadside vegetation growth. In this study, we assessed soil physical and chemical properties along a transect perpendicular to the road at six microtopographic positions (road edge, shoulder, side slope, ditch, backslope, and field edge) along two highway segments near Beaver Crossing and Sargent, NE. At the Beaver Crossing site, Na concentration was ...


Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Performance Tests 2020, J. F. Carlin, R. D. Bond, R. B. Morgan 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Performance Tests 2020, J. F. Carlin, R. D. Bond, R. B. Morgan

Research Series

Corn and grain sorghum performance tests are conducted each year in Arkansas by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture. The tests provide information to companies marketing seed within the state and aid the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service in formulating recommendations for producers.

The 2020 corn performance tests contained 85 hybrids and were conducted at the Northeast Research and Extension Center (NEREC) at Keiser, the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station (LMCRS) near Marianna, the Bell Farming Company (BFC) near Des Arc, the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) near Colt, the Rohwer Research Station (RRS) near Rohwer, and the Rice ...


A Comparison Of Media To Determine Optimal Growth In Aquaponics: Prg Virtual Showcase January 2021, Rachel L. Fogle, Andrea Nagy, Claribel Asare, Steven Berry, Jordan Brown, Aquila Durham-Lewis 2021 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology

A Comparison Of Media To Determine Optimal Growth In Aquaponics: Prg Virtual Showcase January 2021, Rachel L. Fogle, Andrea Nagy, Claribel Asare, Steven Berry, Jordan Brown, Aquila Durham-Lewis

Presidential Research Grants

No abstract provided.


Yearling Cattle Grazing Pastures Burned During Summer Perform Similarly To Cattle Grazing Pastures Burned In Early Spring: Year 2 Of 6, Z. M. Duncan, A. J. Tajchman, M. P. Ramirez, J. Lemmon, W. R. Hollenbeck, D. A. Blasi, K C. Olson 2021 Kansas State University

Yearling Cattle Grazing Pastures Burned During Summer Perform Similarly To Cattle Grazing Pastures Burned In Early Spring: Year 2 Of 6, Z. M. Duncan, A. J. Tajchman, M. P. Ramirez, J. Lemmon, W. R. Hollenbeck, D. A. Blasi, K C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: The objective was to evaluate the impact of prescribed fire timing on grazing performance of yearling beef cattle in the Kansas Flint Hills.

Study Description: This study was conducted at the Kansas State University Beef Stocker Unit. Yearling stocker cattle were assigned randomly to one of three prescribed-burn treatments: spring (April 7 ± 2.1 days), summer (August 21 ± 5.7 days), or fall (October 2 ± 9.9 days) and grazed from May to August of 2019 and 2020. Individual body weights were recorded at the beginning and end of the grazing season to determine total body weight gain and ...


Arkansas Soybean Performance Tests 2020, J. F. Carlin, R. D. Bond, R. B. Morgan 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Soybean Performance Tests 2020, J. F. Carlin, R. D. Bond, R. B. Morgan

Research Series

Soybean variety and strain performance tests are conducted each year in Arkansas by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s Arkansas Crop Variety Improvement Program. The tests provide information to companies developing varieties and/or marketing seed within the State, and aid the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service in formulating variety recommendations for soybean producers.


Environmental Trade-Offs Of Relay-Cropping Winter Cover Crops With Soybean In A Maize-Soybean Cropping System, Andrea Cecchin, Ghasideh Pourhashem, Russ W. Gesch, Andrew W. Lenssen, Yesuf A. Mohammed, Swetabh Patel, Marisol T. Berti 2021 North Dakota State University

Environmental Trade-Offs Of Relay-Cropping Winter Cover Crops With Soybean In A Maize-Soybean Cropping System, Andrea Cecchin, Ghasideh Pourhashem, Russ W. Gesch, Andrew W. Lenssen, Yesuf A. Mohammed, Swetabh Patel, Marisol T. Berti

Agronomy Publications

Winter camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] and field pennycress [Thlaspi arvense L.] are oilseed feedstocks that can be employed as winter-hardy cover crops in the current cropping systems in the U.S. upper Midwest. In addition to provide multiple ecosystem services, they can be a further source of income for the farmer. However, using these cover crops is a new agricultural practice that has only been studied recently. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the environmental performance of a maize [Zea mays L.]-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cropping system with different winter cover crops - camelina ...


The Environmental Impact Of Ecological Intensification In Soybean Cropping Systems In The U.S. Upper Midwest, Andrea Cecchin, Ghasideh Pourhashem, Russ W. Gesch, Yesuf A. Mohammed, Swetabh Patel, Andrew W. Lenssen, Marisol T. Berti 2021 North Dakota State University

The Environmental Impact Of Ecological Intensification In Soybean Cropping Systems In The U.S. Upper Midwest, Andrea Cecchin, Ghasideh Pourhashem, Russ W. Gesch, Yesuf A. Mohammed, Swetabh Patel, Andrew W. Lenssen, Marisol T. Berti

Agronomy Publications

Introducing cover crops is a form of ecological intensification that can potentially reduce local, regional and global environmental impacts of soybean cropping systems. An assessment of multiple environmental impacts (global warming potential, eutrophication, soil erosion and soil organic carbon variation) was performed on a continuous soybean system in the U.S. upper Midwest. Four sequences were assessed and compared: a soybean cropping system with winter camelina, field pennycress, or winter rye as cover crop, plus a control (sole soybean). Cover crops were interseeded into standing soybean in Year 1, while in Year 2 soybean was relay-cropped into standing camelina or ...


Does Biochar Improve All Soil Ecosystem Services?, Humberto Blanco-Canqui 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Does Biochar Improve All Soil Ecosystem Services?, Humberto Blanco-Canqui

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Biochar is considered to sequester C and deliver other soil ecosystem services, but an overview that synthesizes the current knowledge of biochar implications on all essential soil ecosystem services is difficult to find in the ample biochar literature. Most previous research and review articles on this topic focused on a single ecosystem service and did not integrate all essential soil ecosystem services. This overview paper (1) synthesizes the impacts of biochar on water and wind erosion, C sequestration, soil water, nutrient leaching, soil fertility, crop yields, and other soil ecosystem services based on published literature and (2) highlights remaining research ...


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