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Dentistry: Are Stem Cells The Future?, Tova Zemel 2019 Touro College

Dentistry: Are Stem Cells The Future?, Tova Zemel

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Stem cell research is currently advancing in every area of medicine. New information about regenerating stem cells is being uncovered on a daily basis. An area of stem cells that has not been focused on until recently is the use of dental stem cells. The objective of this paper is to elucidate the most current research about dental stem cells. Much of what is discussed in this paper has not been implemented yet, and is still in clinical trials. Dental stem cells are important because they could be an alternative way of treating caries, performing root canals, and other traumas ...


Degeneration Of Rods And Cones In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Rachel Stern 2019 Touro College

Degeneration Of Rods And Cones In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Rachel Stern

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Retinitis Pigmentosa, most commonly characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, is a rare genetically inherited group of diseases affecting the retina of the eye. It is estimated that 1 in 4000 people in the USA are affected by some form of the disease. Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), is caused by a mutation or change in one or more of 55 genes. There are many causes to this disease as RP presents with many different symptoms and biological effects on the eye. These are then grouped together because they share a common result, deterioration of vision. Presently, there is ...


Energy Drinks: Cardiovascular Effects And The Specific Components Responsible, Malka B. Gelbfish 2019 Touro College

Energy Drinks: Cardiovascular Effects And The Specific Components Responsible, Malka B. Gelbfish

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Energy drink usage as a stimulant is on the rise among adolescents and young adults. While these drinks have positive energizing effects, they pose significant health concerns. This paper examines the adverse cardiovascular effects of energy drinks and the components that could possibly be responsible. Analysis was conducted by reviewing and comparing many studies available in this area of research. Studies of energy drinks in general and energy drinks versus drinks containing caffeine alone were analyzed. Additionally, this review investigated studies of the specific ingredients in energy drinks such as caffeine, taurine, guarana, and sugar. This review found that energy ...


The Effects Of Bisphenol F On Embryonic Cardiac Output In Zebrafish, Kyle Monnot 2019 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Bisphenol F On Embryonic Cardiac Output In Zebrafish, Kyle Monnot

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Bisphenol F (BPF) is an analog compound of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA). BPA utilization has decreased dramatically due to its detrimental effects as an endocrine disrupter. In place of BPA, BPF is growing to be a ubiquitous chemical in epoxy resin manufacturing. Recent research has begun to investigate the possible endocrinal effects of BPF as an analog of BPA. This study was performed to examine the potential effects of BPF exposure on cardiac parameters of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Embryos were exposed to 50 µg/L BPF for 48 hours, and cardiac parameters (stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac ...


Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra

Theses and Dissertations

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs that exert their characteristic effects through agonist activity at the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2A). In this study, I aimed to characterize the modulatory role of the metabotropic glutamate subtype 2 receptor (mGluR2) in the 5-HT2A-specific rodent model of hallucinogenic action, head-twitch response (HTR). Secondly, I aimed to explore if 5-HT2A agonist-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, an additional model of hallucinogenic action, could be produced in mice. Though 5-HT2A agonist-induced PPI deficits, which represent interruptions in normal sensorimotor gating, have been described in both ...


Ground Ingredients: Analysis Of Lead Exposure In The California Condor’S (Gymnogyps Californianus) Ground Foraging Habitat, Evan Michael McWreath 2019 West Virginia University

Ground Ingredients: Analysis Of Lead Exposure In The California Condor’S (Gymnogyps Californianus) Ground Foraging Habitat, Evan Michael Mcwreath

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a critically endangered species that reached its nadir in 1987 with a population of 27 birds in the wild. Intensive management efforts have been implemented to aid the condors’ recovery, however, anthropogenic factors, like use of lead ammunition, continue to cause fatalities in this vulnerable population. Lead toxicosis, which is responsible for approximately 40% of all condor deaths since 1992, is one of the most significant threats to condors. In birds lead poisoning leads to neurological dysfunction, reproductive impairment, immune suppression, gastrointestinal disturbance, anemia, and ultimately increased vulnerability to predation, starvation, and infection. For ...


Suction Dredge Mining Impacts On Pacific Lamprey Populations And Habitat In Washington State: A Case Study Of The Entiat River, Jaime Liljegren 2019 Central Washington University

Suction Dredge Mining Impacts On Pacific Lamprey Populations And Habitat In Washington State: A Case Study Of The Entiat River, Jaime Liljegren

All Master's Theses

Suction dredge mining is a largely unregulated recreational activity in Washington State with potentially significant impacts to aquatic habitat. Although dredging has the potential to cause widespread ecological effects, only impacts to select species have been thoroughly assessed. Due to their reliance on freshwater habitat throughout multiple life stages, Pacific lamprey are significantly vulnerable to impacts from dredging practices. This thesis focuses on assessing the effects of dredging to lamprey habitat within state-owned aquatic lands of Washington. Pacific lamprey are anadromous, utilizing freshwater habitat throughout key life stages including spawning in substrate ranging from coarse gravel to fine sand, and ...


Potential For Human Exposure To Legionella Near Newtown Creek In Brooklyn, New York, Azlan Maqbool 2019 Bard College

Potential For Human Exposure To Legionella Near Newtown Creek In Brooklyn, New York, Azlan Maqbool

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.

The air environment is known to contain a wide array of microbes. Urban coastal environment studies have shown plenty of interchange between land and sea bacteria. While there have been several studies analyzing the transfer between aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities, few have looked at the impact this transfer might have on individuals. Moreover, facilities like wastewater treatment plants situated in dense urban environments may play an important role in the proliferation of potentially pathogenic bacteria to nearby human populations. Wastewater treatment plants are known to be associated ...


A Data Analytics Approach For Rational Design Of Nanomedicines With Programmable Drug Release, Adam S. Mullis, Scott R. Broderick, Andrea M. Binnebose, Nathan Peroutka-Bigus, Bryan H. Bellaire, Krishna Rajan, Balaji Narasimhan 2019 Iowa State University

A Data Analytics Approach For Rational Design Of Nanomedicines With Programmable Drug Release, Adam S. Mullis, Scott R. Broderick, Andrea M. Binnebose, Nathan Peroutka-Bigus, Bryan H. Bellaire, Krishna Rajan, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Drug delivery vehicles can improve the functional efficacy of existing antimicrobial therapies by improving biodistribution and targeting. A critical property of such nanomedicine formulations is their ability to control the release kinetics of their payloads. The combination of (and interactions between) polymer, drug, and nanoparticle properties gives rise to nonlinear behavioral relationships and a large data space. These factors complicate both first-principles modeling and screening of nanomedicine formulations. Predictive analytics may offer a more efficient approach toward rational design of nanomedicines by identifying key descriptors and correlating them to nanoparticle release behavior. In this work, antibiotic release kinetics data were ...


Use Of Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Mass Spectrometry For The Development Of A Rapid Untargeted Screening Method For Veterinary Drug Residues In Animal Tissues, Laura Burns 2019 Iowa State University

Use Of Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Mass Spectrometry For The Development Of A Rapid Untargeted Screening Method For Veterinary Drug Residues In Animal Tissues, Laura Burns

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Veterinary diagnostic laboratories provide a variety of services to livestock producers and companion animal owners. One of these services is a general untargeted screening of animal tissues for veterinary drug residues. Results from this assay are used to determine animal cause of death or emergency treatment options in the case of toxic exposure. The established analytical methods used for this type of screening require a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction and cleanup along with a liquid or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS or GC/MS) analysis. Although these current methods are sensitive they require several ...


M22 Hormesis In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Models, Alexa Mejorada 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

M22 Hormesis In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Models, Alexa Mejorada

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cryoprotectant toxicity (CT), or the injury due to cryoprotectant (CPA) exposure, remains the most limiting barrier to performing successful organ cryopreservation. An intervention alleviating the stress induced by CT in mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) models may translate well into tissue and organ models of cryopreservation. Such discoveries could enable large-scale organ banking and, potentially, end the transplantable-organ shortage. In this study, I sought to see if CT could be combated through a hormetic approach. Hormesis will be defined as the negation of the detrimental effects of a high, lethal dosage of a stressor via a prior nonlethal dosage of ...


Examination Of The Role Of Neuroimmune Signaling In Drug Addiction, Catherine Levy 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Examination Of The Role Of Neuroimmune Signaling In Drug Addiction, Catherine Levy

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cocaine and oxycodone addictions are chronic, relapsing disorders characterized by maladaptive patterns of drug seeking that create significant impairment for the user. While the homeostatic functions of neuroimmune cells such as microglia and astrocytes have been well characterized, little work has examined the structural and functional alterations of these neuroglial cells following repeated drug intake. The first experiment of this study used male and female Sprague-Dawley rats to examine sex differences in microglial cells following repeated cocaine intake. The second experiment used a rodent model of oxycodone self-administration to test the ability of ibudilast, a non-selective anti-inflammatory drug, to reduce ...


Prevention Of Crystalline Silica-Induced Inflammation By The Anti-Malarial Hydroxychloroquine, Rachel Dawn Burmeister 2019 University of Montana

Prevention Of Crystalline Silica-Induced Inflammation By The Anti-Malarial Hydroxychloroquine, Rachel Dawn Burmeister

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Exposure to inhaled crystalline silica (cSiO2) is common in occupations where there is cutting, milling, or grinding of cSiO2 containing material. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration estimates that over 2 million workers may be exposed to inhaled cSiO2 in the United States. Inhalation of cSiO2 causes acute and chronic inflammation and may lead pulmonary diseases such as silicosis, as well as an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases.Unfortunately, treatment of cSiO2-induced lung diseases is limited and primarily focused on supportive care.

Inflammation caused by cSiO2 begins when, cSiO2 particles are phagocytized by alveolar macrophages. Interaction between the particle ...


The Effect Of Abstinence From Smoking On Stress Reactivity, Cheyenne Allenby 2019 University of Pennsylvania

The Effect Of Abstinence From Smoking On Stress Reactivity, Cheyenne Allenby

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Subjective stress is a well-documented predictor of early smoking relapse, yet our understanding of stress and tobacco use is limited by the reliability of current available measures of stress. Functional magnetic reasoning imaging (fMRI) could provide a much-needed objective measure of stress reactivity. The goal of this dissertation is to contribute to the understanding of abstinence-induced changes in stress reactivity by examining neural, neuroendocrine (cortisol), and subjective measures of stress response during abstinence. In addition, this study investigated the influence of individual variation in nicotine metabolism rates on these measures of stress reactivity. Seventy-five treatment-seeking smokers underwent blood oxygen level ...


Negative Effects Of Common Herbicides On Non-Target Invertebrates, Debbi Albanese 2019 Georgia Southern University

Negative Effects Of Common Herbicides On Non-Target Invertebrates, Debbi Albanese

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Three herbicide formulations, Roundup® Ready to Use Weed and Grass Killer, Bayer Advanced Southern Weed Killer for Lawns and Pure 20% Vinegar Solution were directly applied to eggs of four species of butterflies, Danaus plexippus, Papilio cresphontes, Papilio polyxenes and Papilio troilus. Roundup and Bayer Advanced containing 2,4-D, mecoprop-p and dicamba significantly reduced hatch success in all four species. Lethal and sublethal effects of these herbicides on the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, was also examined. Direct contact by E. andrei with a heavy dose of the herbicides applied to tops of soil 24 hours prior was lethal to earthworms. In ...


Chemical And Sensory Evaluation Of Volatile Aroma Compounds From Selected Cold-Hardy Grapes And Wines, Somchai Rice 2019 Iowa State University

Chemical And Sensory Evaluation Of Volatile Aroma Compounds From Selected Cold-Hardy Grapes And Wines, Somchai Rice

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Hybrid wine grape cultivars such as St. Croix (E.S. 283 x E.S. 193), Brianna

(‘Kay Gray’ x E.S. 2-12-13), Frontenac (‘Landot 4511’ x University of Minnesota 89),

La Crescent (‘St. Pepin’ x E.S. 6-8-25), Frontenac gris (single bud sport cane from

‘Frontenac’), Marquette (MN 1094 x Ravat 262) have been developed to be cold-hardy

and disease-resistant in order to thrive in the cold climates such as the upper Midwest.

Grape growers, area of grape production, wineries, and wine production has been

increasing since the early 2000. The Iowa wine industry generated a $420 million (USD)

economic ...


Herbicide Toxicity To Non-Target Aquatic Organisms Does Not Increase In Mixtures With Surfactants, Courtney L. Telfort 2019 Georgia Southern University

Herbicide Toxicity To Non-Target Aquatic Organisms Does Not Increase In Mixtures With Surfactants, Courtney L. Telfort

University Honors Program Theses

Agricultural herbicides enter aquatic environments after rain events where they affect microscopic aquatic plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton) that form the base of aquatic food webs. Atrazine, an herbicide with low solubility in water, is often mixed with surfactants such as alkyl polyglucoside (APG) to improve effectiveness. Although APG has low-toxicity, a potential drawback to increased atrazine solubility is greater adverse effects on aquatic organisms. I hypothesized that atrazine and APG decrease phytoplankton abundance more than atrazine alone. Specifically, I predicted phytoplankton abundance should 1) decrease with increasing concentrations of the mixture compared to the same atrazine concentrations individually, and ...


Ultrafine Black Carbon: A Cumulative Assessment On The Physiology Of Lung - Derived Cells, M Esther Salinas 2019 University of Texas at El Paso

Ultrafine Black Carbon: A Cumulative Assessment On The Physiology Of Lung - Derived Cells, M Esther Salinas

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Combustion-derived nanomaterials are noxious ultrafine (<100 nm) aerosolized by-products generated by human activity. They pose threats to pulmonary health due to their small size, allowing them to penetrate deep into the alveolar regions causing detrimental responses downstream. Indeed, an examination between nanocarbon particle exposure and poor pulmonary health via cellular behavior was needed. I hypothesized that low-dose and long-term administrations of carbonaceous nanoparticles contribute to respiratory conditions by irritating lung-derived cells. Responses to ultrafine black carbon (UBC), a key component of airborne pollutants, by human lung A549 and murine lung LA4 epithelial cells, human peripheral-blood monocytes THP1, and murine macrophages RAW264.7 were investigated. These lines were chosen because epithelial cells and mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages) are the first to come in contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and contribute to stress and inflammation of pulmonary tissues. The cells were first plated on day zero and fed fresh UBC suspended in culture media on days one, four, and seven. The exposure regimen included three different low-level concentrations of UBC. On day ten, all cells were prepared for subsequent assays. Effects on cellular viability revealed that UBC was modestly cytotoxic while ATPase and esterase activity (termed enzyme vitality for the purpose of this study) were significantly diminished in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, beta-galactosidase proportionally increased with UBC concentration compared to untreated cells, indicating that cellular senescence was promoted across all cell types. Multiple markers of oxidative stress were subsequently measured, showing non-uniform trends and displaying moderate accumulation of oxidative damage, contingent upon cell line and UBC treatment. However, a significant induction of inner mitochondrial membrane depolarization of human UBC-treated cells was observed; an aberrant cell-cycle progression was found across all cells. The implemented regimen of UBC exposure elicited an imbalance of free (reduced) glutathione, altered mitochondrial potential, and abnormal cell-cycle activity. This method demonstrated that modifications across both species induced changes to cellular fitness overall. The data supported that compounding nanosized black carbon exposure could negatively affect overall pulmonary cell health by distinctively modifying intracellular activity. Additionally, we further surmised that sustained exposure to nanocarbon could impair innate immunity. Therefore, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and cytokine levels upon continuous administrations to 3.0 μg/mL UBC after brief challenges to microbial proxies were assessed; on day 9, the cells were succumbed to three different microbial insults (LPS, Poly I:C, and Zymosan). On day 10, measurements demonstrated a moderate accumulation of oxidative stress, conditional to each cell type. Thus, UBC plus microbe approach triggered pro-oxidant levels and cytokine production across different cell types and diminished phagocytic response by murine macrophages. Based on the results, ultrafine-PM exposure may impair inflammatory function in response to pathogenic infections. In summation, our findings indicated that additive nanosized UBC in combination with microbe-like challenges may compromise cellular behavior, suggesting potential ways by which inhalation of ultrafine-PM may contribute to or exacerbate poor pulmonary health.


Medication Adherence For Foster Children From The Perspective Of Foster Care Providers, Odette Boyd 2019 Walden University

Medication Adherence For Foster Children From The Perspective Of Foster Care Providers, Odette Boyd

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In 2015, over 427,000 children were in foster care and the largest population were in California's system. Of those children, more than 9,400 were prescribed psychotropic medications. Increases of psychotropic medication use have led to investigations and findings of medication oversights in foster care. Medication oversights included medication nonadherence, which was linked to an increase of problematic behaviors in foster children. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the issues of medication adherence for foster care providers who care for foster children of mild to chronic health concerns who were prescribed medications and experienced multiple ...


An Exploration Into The Identification, Etiology, And Distribution Of Idiopathic Blindness In The American Lobster, Homarus Americanus, Addison T. Ochs 2019 William & Mary - Virginia Institute of Marine Science

An Exploration Into The Identification, Etiology, And Distribution Of Idiopathic Blindness In The American Lobster, Homarus Americanus, Addison T. Ochs

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Idiopathic blindness is an environmental disease observed in the American lobster, Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837. The only diagnostic assay for idiopathic blindness has been the histological assessment of the eye, which is a time consuming, invasive, and a delicate procedure. I investigated several tools, including the otolaryngoscope and enhanced counterstaining using Bouin’s fixative as alternative, rapid methods for the detection of idiopathic blindness in lobsters. I applied these new diagnostic techniques to toxicology studies to explore a possible lead on the etiology of this condition. Divalent manganese is a well-established neurotoxin released from sediments under hypoxic conditions ...


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