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Optimization Of Dna Extraction From Human Milk, Cassandra Z. Rutherford 2020 Winthrop University

Optimization Of Dna Extraction From Human Milk, Cassandra Z. Rutherford

Graduate Theses

Background: Techniques are emerging for determining the best and most cost-effective way to test for human milk adulteration. Currently, the literature is focused on the use of qPCR testing, a technique used to isolate and amplify pieces of DNA for analysis. However, no recommendation currently exists on the best DNA extraction kit to use to achieve optimal DNA yield or purity from human milk samples for downstream qPCR use. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess and compare two DNA extraction kits for use with human milk samples for future DNA-based analysis in the testing for bovine milk ...


Baclofen-Induced Changes In The Resting Brain Modulate Smoking Cue Reactivity: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study In Cigarette Smokers, Ariel Ketcherside, Kanchana Jagannathan, Sudipto Dolui, Nathan Hager, Nathaniel Spilka, Chaela Nutor, Hengyi Rao, Teresa Franklin, Reagan Wetherill 2020 Old Dominion University

Baclofen-Induced Changes In The Resting Brain Modulate Smoking Cue Reactivity: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study In Cigarette Smokers, Ariel Ketcherside, Kanchana Jagannathan, Sudipto Dolui, Nathan Hager, Nathaniel Spilka, Chaela Nutor, Hengyi Rao, Teresa Franklin, Reagan Wetherill

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: Smoking cue-(SC) elicited craving can lead to relapse in SC-vulnerable individuals. Thus, identifying treatments that target SC-elicited craving is a top research priority. Reduced drug cue neural activity is associated with recovery and is marked by a profile of greater tonic (resting) activation in executive control regions, and increased connectivity between executive and salience regions. Evidence suggests the GABA-B agonist baclofen can reduce drug cue-elicited neural activity, potentially through its actions on the resting brain. Based on the literature, we hypothesize that baclofen’s effects in the resting brain can predict its effects during SC exposure.

Methods: In ...


Phospholipid Remodeling Via Exogenous Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Uptake Modulates Stress Resistance In Vibrio Cholerae, William Strike 2020 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Phospholipid Remodeling Via Exogenous Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Uptake Modulates Stress Resistance In Vibrio Cholerae, William Strike

Honors Theses

Antibiotic-resistant pathogens represent an escalating threat to public health worldwide, substantially increasing the burden of healthcare and community-acquired infections. Several factors contribute to the emergence and spread of this threat, including but not limited to improper antibiotic use and prescriptions in health-care settings and the community, increasing global travel and migration from countries that have higher levels of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and a lack of new antibiotics under development. According to the World Health Organization, rising rates of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria (such as Vibrio cholerae) are of particular concern. These bacteria have evolved a number of endogenous membrane remodeling strategies ...


Analysis Of Cannabinoids In Serum By Gc-Ms/Ms, Christie Cannarozzi 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Analysis Of Cannabinoids In Serum By Gc-Ms/Ms, Christie Cannarozzi

Student Theses

Due to recent changes in federal and state legislations, the availability and consumption of cannabis products have increased in the United States. The expanded use of recreational and medicinal cannabis products increases the importance of implementing sensitive and selective instrumental methods in toxicological laboratories, as legal implications may arise in forensic cases, such as driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-validation for the quantitative analysis of cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) in serum by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GCTQ). This method was fully ...


Dual Role Of Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin In Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease., Fengyuan Li 2020 University of Louisville

Dual Role Of Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin In Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease., Fengyuan Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) have high morbidity and mortality in its severe forms. One of the major features in different forms of ALD is the altered gut microbiota. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a crucial role in maintaining gut microbiota homeostasis. LL-37 (known as CRAMP in mouse) is the sole member of the human cathelicidin family and has piqued great research interest for its dual role in modulating microbiota and the immune response in metabolic diseases. Inflammasome activation is an important component of the liver pathophysiology in ALD and requires two signals for its full activation to induce the ...


Tobacco Product-Derived Aldehydes: Effects On Circulating Angiogenic Cells & Implications For Cardiovascular Disease., Jordan B. Lynch 2020 University of Louisville

Tobacco Product-Derived Aldehydes: Effects On Circulating Angiogenic Cells & Implications For Cardiovascular Disease., Jordan B. Lynch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Tobacco smoke is the most significant modifiable risk factor in CVD development and contains numerous toxic compounds, including aldehydes, which have been linked to CVD. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde have been identified as significant contributors to cigarette-induced health effects, but the mechanism of these effects is not well understood. These aldehydes are also found in aerosols produced by e-cigarettes (e-cigs). The goal of this dissertation was to explore the systemic, hematological, and endothelium-related effects of exposure to tobacco products and constituent aldehydes and to identify potential mechanisms of injury ...


Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn 2020 William & Mary

Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The orexin (also called hypocretin) system projects to a wide array of brain regions and is activated by drugs of abuse. The orexin system is best known for its function in wakefulness and arousal, but recent research has suggested that orexins play a vital role in attentional processing. The orexin-1 receptor has been implicated in crucial mechanisms of attention, specifically the transmission of acetylcholine to the cortex. Nicotine is a commonly administered psychoactive drug that has been shown to have cognitive-enhancing effects. Nicotine appears to target the orexin system, suggesting a potential role of the orexin system in mediating the ...


The Role Of Slc7a11 In Controlling Extracellular And Intracellular Redox Environments Of Lung Fibroblasts - Potential Targets For Intervention In Aging And Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis., Yuxuan Zheng 2020 University of Louisville

The Role Of Slc7a11 In Controlling Extracellular And Intracellular Redox Environments Of Lung Fibroblasts - Potential Targets For Intervention In Aging And Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis., Yuxuan Zheng

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease characterized by extracellular matrix deposition by fibroblasts. Aging and oxidative stress increase the susceptibility to IPF. Redox couples, cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) and glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG), and their redox potentials (Eh) quantify oxidative stress. Fibroblasts from old mice maintain more oxidized extracellular Eh(Cys/CySS) than young mice. Microarray shows down-regulation of Slc7a11 potentially mediates this age-related oxidation. Slc7a11 is the key component of system Xc-, an antiporter that imports CySS and exports glutamate. The first aim of this dissertation is to investigate the mechanistic link ...


Impact Of Slco1b1 Genetic Variation On Rosuvastatin Systemic Exposure In Pediatric Hypercholesterolemia., Jonathan B. Wagner, Susan M. Abdel-Rahman, Andrea Gaedigk, R Gaedigk, Geetha Raghuveer, Vincent S. Staggs, Leon Van Haandel, J Steven Leeder 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Impact Of Slco1b1 Genetic Variation On Rosuvastatin Systemic Exposure In Pediatric Hypercholesterolemia., Jonathan B. Wagner, Susan M. Abdel-Rahman, Andrea Gaedigk, R Gaedigk, Geetha Raghuveer, Vincent S. Staggs, Leon Van Haandel, J Steven Leeder

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

This study investigated the impact of SLCO1B1 genotype on rosuvastatin systemic exposure in hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents. Participants (8-21 years) with at least one allelic variant of SLCO1B1 c.521T>C (521TC, n = 13; 521CC, n = 2) and wild type controls (521TT, n = 13) completed a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study. The variability contributed by SLCO1B1 c.521 sequence variation to rosuvastatin (RVA) systemic exposure among our pediatric cohort was comparable to previous studies in adults. RVA concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours (AUC


Volatile Organic Compound Exposure And Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk In A Nationally Representative Cohort., Stacey Lane Konkle 2020 University of Louisville

Volatile Organic Compound Exposure And Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk In A Nationally Representative Cohort., Stacey Lane Konkle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: The relative importance of environmental exposures such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the paramount public health priorities of our time, yet is presently unstudied. VOCs are ubiquitous in the environment and have been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including a number of cardiovascular and metabolic effects that are components of Cardiometabolic Syndrome (CMS). OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between CMS and individual-level exposures to VOCs, measured as urinary metabolites of VOCs (UM-VOCs), in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Associations between urinary biomarkers of exposure to 19 parent VOCs and CMS were assessed using the National ...


The Cardiovascular Effects Of Tobacco Product-Derived Aldehydes: Contribution Of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1., Lexiao Jin 2020 University of Louisville

The Cardiovascular Effects Of Tobacco Product-Derived Aldehydes: Contribution Of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1., Lexiao Jin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in most countries and are significant health and financial burden worldwide. Smoking contributes to more than 480,000 premature deaths annually -- accounting for one of every five deaths in the United States each year. Numerous studies have shown that smoking increases the risk of factors including endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis, which may lead to an incidence of myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a new kind of tobacco product, and some studies show that e-cigarettes also could induce CVD since both e-cigarettes and conventional tobacco ...


The Relationship Between Tree Canopy And Social Capital On Physical Activity In Unlv Students, Melissa Bartshe 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Relationship Between Tree Canopy And Social Capital On Physical Activity In Unlv Students, Melissa Bartshe

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Despite the numerous health benefits, rates of physical activity are low, especially among the college student population. Neighborhood tree canopy is one aspect of the built environment that has been shown to positively impact physical activity. Social capital has also been correlated with higher rates of physical activity. The sprawling urban design and arid desert climate of Las Vegas pose unique challenges to both tree canopy and social capital. Additionally, the relationship between tree canopy, social capital, and physical activity is understudied in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of tree canopy ...


Rna Therapeutics: Informational Drugs As A Pandemic Response Tool, Anastasia Khvorova 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rna Therapeutics: Informational Drugs As A Pandemic Response Tool, Anastasia Khvorova

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Seminars

This presentation, hosted by the Community Engagement and Research Section, University of Massachusetts Medical School Center for Clinical and Translational Science, describes the development of siRNA-based approaches for modulation of COVID-19 in the lung in a three-month time frame.

This talk was the second in the COVID-19 Research Community Forum webinar series, a collaboration of the four federally-funded Clinical and Translational Science Awardees (CTSA) in Massachusetts, that provided an opportunity for community members, institutions and other organizations to be part of the discussions surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. The MA CTSAs, consisting of the UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science ...


Investigating The Effects Of Temperature On Lesser Celandine, Regina Bellian 2020 Cleveland State University

Investigating The Effects Of Temperature On Lesser Celandine, Regina Bellian

The Downtown Review

This paper explores invasive species Ficaria verna (Lesser celandine) and the effects of temperature on its growth. Trials were completed with two treatments, 13OC cold temperature and 20OC ambient temperature. Germinated bulbils of Lesser celandine were planted on February 15, 2017 and placed in their respective growing chambers. The plants were watered weekly and monitored for growth until harvest on March 29, 2017. Upon harvest, the plants’ height, largest leaf diameter and biomass were measured after extraction from soil and the removal of the leftover soil debris. Average height was found to be 11.66cm for the cold treatment and ...


Understanding The Toxicity Of Single Hydrocarbons, Oil, And Dispersed Oil: A Species Sensitivity Assessment For Five Atlantic Coral Species, Nicholas R. Turner 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Understanding The Toxicity Of Single Hydrocarbons, Oil, And Dispersed Oil: A Species Sensitivity Assessment For Five Atlantic Coral Species, Nicholas R. Turner

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Coral reefs are keystone coastal ecosystems that are at risk of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons from a range of sources, including oil spill incidents and chronic runoff, and are usually one of the highest valued natural resources for protection in Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA)/Spill Impact Mitigation Assessment (SIMA) of response methods and environmental damage. Previous research evaluating hydrocarbon impacts to corals has resulted in no clear characterization of sensitivity, as work has generally focused on higher-level effects, compounded by significant variability in experimental methodology. This represents an important knowledge gap in oil spill preparedness and response as it ...


The Influence Of Acidification And Copper Exposure On Copper Accumulation And Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Responses In The Pond Snail, Lymnaea Stagnalis, Gretchen K. Bielmyer-Fraser, Francis Alip, Ruth Adeyemi, Nolan Carney, Fasinia Santiago, Kyla Siemen, Kiley Donaghy 2020 Jacksonville University

The Influence Of Acidification And Copper Exposure On Copper Accumulation And Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Responses In The Pond Snail, Lymnaea Stagnalis, Gretchen K. Bielmyer-Fraser, Francis Alip, Ruth Adeyemi, Nolan Carney, Fasinia Santiago, Kyla Siemen, Kiley Donaghy

Georgia Journal of Science

Atmospheric carbon dioxide is rising at an accelerated rated due to increased anthropogenic activities. Metals have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed combined exposure of both pollutants to sensitive, calcifying organisms in freshwater habitats. This study examined copper accumulation (over 7 d) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (over 2 d), in the freshwater common pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after exposure to ambient and increased (2000 µatm) CO2 and copper (control, 5, and 20 µg/L). Results demonstrated increased copper accumulation in soft tissue of snails exposed to copper; however, exposure ...


Microrna Expression Profiling Of Normal And Malignant Human Colonic Stem Cells Identifies, Vignesh Viswanathan, Lynn Opdenaker, Shirin Modarai, Jeremy Z Fields, Gregory Gonye, Bruce M Boman 2020 Helen F Graham Cancer Center and Research Institute

Microrna Expression Profiling Of Normal And Malignant Human Colonic Stem Cells Identifies, Vignesh Viswanathan, Lynn Opdenaker, Shirin Modarai, Jeremy Z Fields, Gregory Gonye, Bruce M Boman

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a critical role in regulating stem cells (SCs) during development, and because aberrant expression of miRNAs occurs in various cancers, our goal was to determine if dysregulation of miRNAs is involved in the SC origin of colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously reported that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a marker for normal and malignant human colonic SCs and tracks SC overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis. MicroRNA expression was studied in ALDH-positive SCs from normal and malignant human colon tissues by Nanostring miRNA profiling. Our findings show that: (1) A unique miRNA signature distinguishes ALDH-positive CRC cells from ALDH-positive normal ...


Computational Chemistry - Ulk 101, Michaela Montpas 2020 Olivet Nazarene University

Computational Chemistry - Ulk 101, Michaela Montpas

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Autophagy is a process that generates the necessary building components for cells by cytoplasmic breakdown of unnecessary materials (Martin, Celano, Solitro, Gunaydin, Scott, et. al., 2018). This is a survival technique for cells in times of stress, especially during periods of nutrient starvation. Cancer cells, unfortunately, benefit from this process due to their ability to flourish in nutrient-starved environments, becoming resistant to therapy. The primary protein in mammals responsible for this process is a serine/threonine kinase called ULK 1 (unc-51 like autophagy initiating kinase 1). As such, inhibitors of ULK 1 can be used in cancer therapies in order ...


Antidepressants Versus Music Therapy: Which Treatment Is Better For Treating Depression In Parkinson's Disease?, Emaan Dawood 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Antidepressants Versus Music Therapy: Which Treatment Is Better For Treating Depression In Parkinson's Disease?, Emaan Dawood

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Music and medicine are merging to treat depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Antidepressants, the current standard, demonstrate mixed effects in clinical trials, warranting other treatment options. Here, I compare music therapy to antidepressants in the treatment of depression in PD via literature review. Studies of depressed PD patients undergoing music therapy and/or antidepressants were reviewed with attention to variables including depression (on a patient-reported outcome) that were measured pre- and post- therapy. In the music studies, improvements were seen in depression. Methodological inconsistencies across these studies, a paucity of studies, and small sample sizes, however, necessitate more research ...


Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study is focused on the population of federally-endangered American burying beetles in south-central Nebraska. It is focused on changes in land cover over time and at several levels of spatial scale, and how management efforts are impacting both the beetle and a changing landscape. Our findings are applicable to a large portion of the Great Plains, which is undergoing the same shift from grassland to woodland, and to areas where the beetle is still found.


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