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Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

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Natural Sources And Bioactivities Of 2,4-Di-Tert-Butylphenol And Its Analogs, Fuqiang Zhao, Ping Wang, Rima D. Lucardi, Zushang Su, Shiyou Li 2020 Shenyang University

Natural Sources And Bioactivities Of 2,4-Di-Tert-Butylphenol And Its Analogs, Fuqiang Zhao, Ping Wang, Rima D. Lucardi, Zushang Su, Shiyou Li

NCPC Publications and Patents

2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol or 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol (2,4-DTBP) is a common toxic secondary metabolite produced by various groups of organisms. The biosources and bioactivities of 2,4-DTBP have been well investigated, but the phenol has not been systematically reviewed. This article provides a comprehensive review of 2,4-DTBP and its analogs with emphasis on natural sources and bioactivities. 2,4-DTBP has been found in at least 169 species of bacteria (16 species, 10 families), fungi (11 species, eight families), diatom (one species, one family), liverwort (one species, one family), pteridiphyta (two species, two families), gymnosperms (four species, one ...


Characterization Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors People Living With Hiv In A Veteran Population, Veronica Taylor, Joe Castillo, Daniel Tassone PharmD, BCPS 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterization Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors People Living With Hiv In A Veteran Population, Veronica Taylor, Joe Castillo, Daniel Tassone Pharmd, Bcps

Graduate Research Posters

Background: CVD is the leading cause of death in PLWH. HIV positive individuals have a 1.5-2-fold greater risk of CVD compared to uninfected individuals, even if complete viral load suppression is achieved. HIV-associated CVD has tripled over the past 20 years, yet scant data is available describing this population. We have characterized CVD risk factors and treatment in PLWH in order to assess and improve cardioprotective treatment.

Methods: A retrospective EMR review was conducted for HIV positive patients enrolled at the McGuire VAMC between 12/2018 and 12/2019. Patients were excluded if labs were older than one year ...


Development Of A Method For The Detection And Quantification Of Various Benzodiazepines And Z-Drugs In Human Blood And Qualitative Identification In Urine Samples Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Haley Michel 2020 The University of Akron

Development Of A Method For The Detection And Quantification Of Various Benzodiazepines And Z-Drugs In Human Blood And Qualitative Identification In Urine Samples Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Haley Michel

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This method developed in the toxicology department at the Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner’s Office (CCMEO) detects 40 benzodiazepines and metabolites along with several z-drugs in blood and urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A sample amount of 0.5 mL was used to detect analytes in postmortem drug facilitated sexual assault and impaired driving cases. Twenty-nine analytes met criteria for quantification while the remaining 14 were used as qualitative indicators. Bias and precision results for quality controls met criteria, staying within ±15% except for clonazolam and etizolam which were within ±20%. Quantitative reporting criteria which included dilution integrity ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


The Effects Of Staining Cyanobacteria With Sytoxgreen After Lysis By Freeze-Thaw And Lysis By Ethanol, Samantha Galambos 2020 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Staining Cyanobacteria With Sytoxgreen After Lysis By Freeze-Thaw And Lysis By Ethanol, Samantha Galambos

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project is to find the effects of staining toxic cyanobacteria with SYTOXGreen after lysis by freeze-thaw and lysis by ethanol. This project will focus on two strains of toxic cyanobacteria known as Aphanizomenon - A. flos-aquae and Planktothrix - P. agardhii. The live and dead cells are observed under blue and red fluorescent light to show the effectiveness of each lysis. It is important that this topic is researched because it is significantly affecting our waterways and sometimes drinking water. We often see that you cannot swim in Lake Erie due to algae, more specifically, these algae. We ...


The Combined Effects Of Chemicals Used In Textile Processing On Plankton Communities., Diana Wilson 2020 Georgia Southern University

The Combined Effects Of Chemicals Used In Textile Processing On Plankton Communities., Diana Wilson

University Honors Program Theses

Industrial discharge, such as textile effluent, is a major source of chemical mixtures to surface waters. The effects of these mixtures on interacting aquatic organisms can be difficult to predict. We hypothesized that individual chemical effects on phytoplankton and a zooplankton grazer are altered by the presence of other chemicals in mixtures. Microcosms containing a phytoplankton food source (Chlorella sp.) and a zooplankton grazer (Daphnia magna) were exposed to THPC, ammonium, and hydrogen peroxide in a fully crossed design in a greenhouse for one week. Phytoplankton abundance was quantified and zooplankton response was measured as mortality and stress. THPC increased ...


An Evaluation Of The Susceptibility Of Goats To Larkspur Toxicosis, Kevin D. Welch, Clint A. Stonecipher, Dale R. Gardner, Benidict T. Green, Daniel Cook 2020 USDA-ARS

An Evaluation Of The Susceptibility Of Goats To Larkspur Toxicosis, Kevin D. Welch, Clint A. Stonecipher, Dale R. Gardner, Benidict T. Green, Daniel Cook

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are a major cause of cattle losses in western North America, whereas sheep have been shown to be resistant to larkspur toxicosis. Goats are often used as a small ruminant model to study poisonous plants, even though they can be more resistant to some poisonous plants. It is not known how susceptible goats are to the adverse effects of larkspurs. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of goats to larkspur toxicosis by performing a dose-response study. We dosed goats with D. barbeyi collected near Cedar City, Utah at 3.3, 4.4, 6.6, 8.8 ...


The Efficacy Of Ketamine In Adult Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder With Symptoms Refractory To Standard Of Care Treatment., Brooke Thornton 2020 Arcadia University

The Efficacy Of Ketamine In Adult Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder With Symptoms Refractory To Standard Of Care Treatment., Brooke Thornton

Capstone Showcase

First line pharmacologic treatments for adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involve selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRIs). These drug classes often fail to deliver timely relief of symptoms as well as maintain longevity of symptom recurrence. This research analyzed the use of ketamine in adult patients suffering with OCD for the purposes of more efficacious management of symptoms. Although ketamine demonstrated a timelier relief of symptoms in some small clinical studies, its effects were ultimately unable to be sustained long term. Additionally, a wide range of adverse effects including dissociation, and rebound symptoms were observed. As a ...


Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia

VIMS Articles

Workers in several industries are occupationally exposed to flame retardants. This study characterizes flame retardant exposure for nine industries through air and hand wipe measures for 105 workers. Specifically, we analyzed 24 analytes from three chemical classes: organophosphate flame retardants (OFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NPBFRs). The industries were: carpet installation, chemical manufacturing, foam manufacturing, electronic scrap, gymnastics, rigid board installation, nail salons, roofing, and spray polyurethane foam. Workers wore personal air samplers for two entire workdays and provided hand wipe samples before and after the second work day. Bulk products were also analyzed. The ...


Assessment Of The Toxicological Effects Of Cnt-Ab In Mice Followed By Microwave Hyperthermia 14 Days Post Treatment., Andrew C. Mixson 2020 Georgia Southern University

Assessment Of The Toxicological Effects Of Cnt-Ab In Mice Followed By Microwave Hyperthermia 14 Days Post Treatment., Andrew C. Mixson

University Honors Program Theses

Serious side effects and treatment resistance are the main impediments to successful cancer therapy. A variety of nanoparticles have been used for localized, site-specific treatment that prevent or circumvent these impediments. Microwaves alone have been previously used for thermal ablation of various tumors, setting precedence for their successful use in live organisms. In cell culture studies, it has been observed that multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) instantly and efficiently absorb microwaves, causing hyperthermia of cells in direct contact with them with unnoticed harm to other cells. It is hypothesized that a treatment can be developed based on a safe microwave heating ...


Investigating The Toxicology Of Intramuscular Injected Cnt-Ab In Mice Followed By Microwave Hyperthermia., Conner Clark 2020 Georgia Southern University

Investigating The Toxicology Of Intramuscular Injected Cnt-Ab In Mice Followed By Microwave Hyperthermia., Conner Clark

University Honors Program Theses

The advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has led to a wide range of research in various fields including cancer therapy for targeting specific localized and site-specific treatment. Carbon nanotubes bound to tumor specific antibodies (Ab) offers specific treatment for cancer cells without affecting surrounding tissue. This treatment makes use of infrared absorptive properties of nanotubes to incinerate both the nanotube and its associated tumor in vivo. We seek to affirm the initial results of CNT in cancer therapy by investigating the toxicological effect in mice injected with CNT-Ab followed by microwave hypothermia. After 1-week post-injection, mice were sacrificed followed by ...


Humans, Wildlife, And Our Environment: One Health Is The Common Link, Terry A. Messmer 2020 Berryman Institute/Utah State University

Humans, Wildlife, And Our Environment: One Health Is The Common Link, Terry A. Messmer

Human–Wildlife Interactions

One Health has become more important in recent years because interactions between people, animals, plants, and our environment have dramatically changed. This Back Page article discusses One Health during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Pharmacological Inhibition Of Hif-1 Alpha And Its Effects On Dendritic Cell Metabolic Reprogramming, Warrick Sahene 2020 University of Vermont

Pharmacological Inhibition Of Hif-1 Alpha And Its Effects On Dendritic Cell Metabolic Reprogramming, Warrick Sahene

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells (APCs), a subtype of immune cells that present cellular information to T cells in the immune system. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is an important transcription factor that facilitates dendritic cell metabolism by upregulating glycolysis in activated DCs. In this project, we examined the effects of HIF-1 alpha inhibition on metabolic processes of dendritic cells. Using techniques such as flow cytometry, western blotting, and extracellular flux analyzers, we used a selective inhibitor of HIF-1 alpha to test the hypothesis that HIF-1 alpha promotes glycolytic dependent processes such as glucose production, survival ...


The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans PhD 2020 West Virginia University

The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans Phd

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nanotechnology takes advantage of cellular biology’s natural nanoscale operations by interacting with biomolecules differently than soluble or bulk materials, often altering normal cellular processes such as metabolism or growth. To gain a better understanding of how copper nanoparticles hybridized on cellulose fibers called carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) affected growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mechanisms of toxicity were explored. Multiple methodologies covering genetics, proteomics, metallomics, and metabolomics were used during this investigation. The work that lead to this dissertation discovered that these cellulosic copper nanoparticles had a unique toxicity compared to copper. Further investigation suggested a possible ionic or molecular mimicry ...


County-Level Analysis Reveals A Rapidly Shifting Landscape Of Insecticide Hazard To Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) On Us Farmland, Margaret R. Douglas, Douglas B. Sponsler, Eric V. Lonsdorf, Christina M. Grozinger 2020 Dickinson College

County-Level Analysis Reveals A Rapidly Shifting Landscape Of Insecticide Hazard To Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) On Us Farmland, Margaret R. Douglas, Douglas B. Sponsler, Eric V. Lonsdorf, Christina M. Grozinger

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Each year, millions of kilograms of insecticides are applied to crops in the US. While insecticide use supports food, fuel, and fiber production, it can also threaten non-target organisms, a concern underscored by mounting evidence of widespread decline of pollinator populations. Here, we integrate several public datasets to generate county-level annual estimates of total ‘bee toxic load’ (honey bee lethal doses) for insecticides applied in the US between 1997–2012, calculated separately for oral and contact toxicity. To explore the underlying components of the observed changes, we divide bee toxic load into extent (area treated) and intensity (application rate x ...


Serotonin 5-Ht2a And 5-Ht2c Receptors Regulate Rat Maternal Behavior Through Distinct Behavioral And Neural Mechanisms, Jun Gao, Lina Nie, Yu Li, Ming Li 2020 Southwest University, Chongqing, China

Serotonin 5-Ht2a And 5-Ht2c Receptors Regulate Rat Maternal Behavior Through Distinct Behavioral And Neural Mechanisms, Jun Gao, Lina Nie, Yu Li, Ming Li

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors play important yet distinctive roles in the regulation of rat maternal behavior. The present study investigated their neural substrates and explored the possible behavioral mechanisms (i.e., behavioral organization or maternal motivation). Sprague-Dawley postpartum females were microinjected with either a selective 5-HT2A agonist (TCB-2, 0.4 or 4.0 μg/side) or a 5-HT2C agonist (MK212, 2.5 or 5.0 μg/side) into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or ventral tegmental area (VTA). Ten and 60 min later, their maternal activities were observed in the home cage; and their motivational ...


The Effect Of Prebiotics On Intestinal Digestion Of Carbohydrates In Lead Intoxicated Rats, Lubov S. Kuchkarova, Irodakhon I. Karimova, Gulchekhra T. Kudeshova, Khasan Yu. Kayumov 2019 National University of Uzbekistan

The Effect Of Prebiotics On Intestinal Digestion Of Carbohydrates In Lead Intoxicated Rats, Lubov S. Kuchkarova, Irodakhon I. Karimova, Gulchekhra T. Kudeshova, Khasan Yu. Kayumov

Bulletin of National University of Uzbekistan: Mathematics and Natural Sciences

It has been shown the lead intoxication of growing rats result in increase the cavity and membrane carbohydrate hydrolysis and glucose absorption from small intestine which leads to hyperglicemiya. The oral treatment of intoxicated rats with inulin or lactulose results in decrease of carbohydrate assimilation in small intestine and content glucose level in blood. The correcting effect of lactulose on normalization of carbohydrate assimilation is more expressed in compare with inulin. So, inulin and/or lactulose take part in improving of adaptation of the carbohydrate assimilation system in the small intestine during intoxication with lead ions in growing rats. This ...


Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann

Theses & Dissertations

RATIONALE: Our laboratories birthed the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) theranostics. The new field allows simultaneous detection (diagnostics) and treatment (therapeutic) for the identification, treatment and inevitable elimination of virus in cell and tissue compartments. By employing theranostics, antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) can be tracked in lymph nodes, gut, spleen and liver. Cellular viral reservoirs including CD4+ T cell populations and mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes, macrophages, microglia and dendritic cells) along with subcellular endosomal structures can now be targeted for drug delivery bringing therapeutics to areas where virus replicates. The overarching idea rests in improving precision targeted ARV delivery. Bringing ...


Computational Studies And Design Of Pparγ And Glut1 Inhibitors, Suliman Almahmoud 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Computational Studies And Design Of Pparγ And Glut1 Inhibitors, Suliman Almahmoud

Theses & Dissertations

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily that controls the expression of a variety of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. PPARγ is a target for insulin-sensitizing drugs, and it plays a significant function in prostate cancer. PPARγ antagonists have anti-proliferative effects in a broad range of hematopoietic and epithelial cell lines. The ligand binding domain (LBD) of PPARγ is large and has orthosteric and allosteric binding sites. Several PPARγ-ligand co-crystal structures show two bound molecules, one to the orthosteric pocket and a second to the allosteric ...


There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford 2019 Fordham University

There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford

Student Theses 2015-Present

This report addresses the widespread pollution of domestic groundwater resources with Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) caused by firefighting activities performed at military installations across the United States. Two former military bases in Southeastern Pennsylvania are used as a single case study: the Naval Air Development Center (NADC) in Warminster and the Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NASJRB) in Horsham. Chapter 1 gives a history of domestic military bases from the perspective of the infrastructure buildup and downsizing that occurred over the 20th Century, along with the environmental degradation revealed during brownfield redevelopment. The chapter then gives specifics about ...


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