Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

6,170 Full-Text Articles 14,153 Authors 1,424,284 Downloads 261 Institutions

All Articles in Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health

Faceted Search

6,170 full-text articles. Page 232 of 233.

Full Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 Touro College and University System

Full Issue: Volume 4, Number 1

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

No abstract provided.


Full Issue: Volume 3, Number 1, 2010 Touro College and University System

Full Issue: Volume 3, Number 1

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

No abstract provided.


An Inventory And Condition Survey Of The Western Australian Part Of The Nullarbor Region, P A. Waddell, A K. Gardner, P Hennig 2010 Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia

An Inventory And Condition Survey Of The Western Australian Part Of The Nullarbor Region, P A. Waddell, A K. Gardner, P Hennig

Technical Bulletins

The inventory and condition survey of the Western Australian part of the Nullarbor region, undertaken by the Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia (DAFWA) between 2005 and 2007, describes and maps the natural resources of the region. This survey report provides a baseline record of the existence and condition of the area's natural resources, to assist with the planning and implementation of land management practices. The report identified and described the condition of soils, landforms, vegetation, habitat, ecosystems, and declared plants and animals. It also assessed the impact of pastoralism and made land management recommendations. The Nullarbor region has …


Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Induced Endothelial Cell Dysfunction And Its Modulation By Dietary Lipids, Zuzana Majkova 2010 University of Kentucky

Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Induced Endothelial Cell Dysfunction And Its Modulation By Dietary Lipids, Zuzana Majkova

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death in Western societies. Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in the pathology of atherosclerosis, which is an underlying cause in the majority of cardiovascular events. Exposure to persistent environmental pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis.

First, we tested a hypothesis that coplanar PCBs, dioxin-like chemicals with affinity for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), can stimulate up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an endothelium-derived chemokine that attracts monocytes into sub-endothelial space in early stages of atherosclerosis. Coplanar PCBs 77 and 126 increased expression of …


A Healthy Home For Everyone: The Guide For Families And Individuals, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA 2010 Texas Southern University

A Healthy Home For Everyone: The Guide For Families And Individuals, Center For Disease Control And Prevention, Atlanta Ga

Mickey Leland Center Information Portal

The purpose of this booklet is to provide information about the connection between housing and health. You will find action steps for making your home healthy, definitions for words used in the booklet, and a resource section to find more information about a making your home a healthy home.


Cytotoxity Of Saponin-Rich Extracts From Phytolacca Americana L. (Phytolaccaceae) (Abstract), Ping Wang, Guangrui Deng, Wei Yuan, Shiyou Li 2010 Stephen F Austin State University, Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture

Cytotoxity Of Saponin-Rich Extracts From Phytolacca Americana L. (Phytolaccaceae) (Abstract), Ping Wang, Guangrui Deng, Wei Yuan, Shiyou Li

NCPC Publications and Patents

No abstract provided.


Sesquiterpenes And Dimeric Sesquiterpenoids From Sarcandra Glabra, Xiu-Feng He, Sheng Yin, Yin-Chun Ji, Zu-Shang Su, Mei-Yu Geng, Jian-Min Yue 2010 State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203, People’s Republic of China

Sesquiterpenes And Dimeric Sesquiterpenoids From Sarcandra Glabra, Xiu-Feng He, Sheng Yin, Yin-Chun Ji, Zu-Shang Su, Mei-Yu Geng, Jian-Min Yue

Faculty Publications

Two new sesquiterpenes, sarcandralactones A (1) and B (2), and five new dimeric sesquiterpenoids, sarcandrolides A-E (3-7), along with 10 known compounds were isolated from the whole plants of Sarcandra glabra. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Some of the new isolates exhibit significant cytotoxicities when tested against a small panel of tumor cell lines.


A Role For Lipid Rafts In Egfr Tki Resistance In Breast Cancer, Mary Elizabeth Irwin 2010 Wayne State University

A Role For Lipid Rafts In Egfr Tki Resistance In Breast Cancer, Mary Elizabeth Irwin

Wayne State University Dissertations

Breast cancer can be divided into genetic sub-types including luminal, HER2+, and basal-type. With the introduction of targeted therapies against estrogen receptor and HER2 receptor mortality rates of American women with breast cancer have declined. Unfortunately, basal-type breast cancers, which have the worst clinical outcome, do not express estrogen receptor or HER2, and as such, have no targeted therapeutic option. The epidermal growth factor receptor is an attractive target for therapeutics in basal-type breast cancer, as it is over-expressed in 60% of these cases. Also, over-expression of EGFR correlates with poor patient prognosis. Unfortunately, inhibitors of EGFR have shown little …


Web Based Services In The Library, Nkiru F. Opara Jarlath 2010 Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority

Web Based Services In The Library, Nkiru F. Opara Jarlath

Nkiru Opara

Sharing knowledge is power’ as opposed to the old adage that, ‘knowledge is power


Ellagic Acid, Phenolic Acids, And Flavonoids In Malaysian Honey Extracts Demonstrate In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Mohd Rais Mustafa 2010 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine Building, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA

Ellagic Acid, Phenolic Acids, And Flavonoids In Malaysian Honey Extracts Demonstrate In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Mohd Rais Mustafa

Mohd Rais Mustafa

Natural honey has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. This study looked into the extraction of Malaysian honey and the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts. It was hypothesized that honey extracts contain varying amounts of phenolic compounds and that they possess different in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. Honey extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to identify and compare phenolic compounds, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography was used for their quantification. Subsequently, honey methanol extract (HME) and honey ethyl acetate extract (HEAE) were tested in vitro for their effect on nitric oxide production in …


Application Of The Tissue Residue Approach In Ecological Risk Assessment, Steven P. Bradbury, Keith G. Sappington, Todd S. Bridges, Russell J. Erickson, A. Jan Hendriks, Roman P. Lanno, James P. Meador, David R. Mount, Mike H. Salazar, Doug J. Spry 2010 Radboud University

Application Of The Tissue Residue Approach In Ecological Risk Assessment, Steven P. Bradbury, Keith G. Sappington, Todd S. Bridges, Russell J. Erickson, A. Jan Hendriks, Roman P. Lanno, James P. Meador, David R. Mount, Mike H. Salazar, Doug J. Spry

Steven P. Bradbury

The objective of this work is to present a critical review of the application of the tissue residue approach (TRA) in ecological risk and/or impact assessment (ERA) of chemical stressors and environmental criteria development. A secondary goal is to develop a framework for integrating the TRA into ecological assessments along with traditional, exposure concentration-based assessment approaches. Although widely recognized for its toxicological appeal, the utility of the TRA in specific applications will depend on numerous factors, such as chemical properties, exposure characteristics, assessment type, availability of tissue residue-response data, and ability to quantify chemical exposure. Therefore, the decision to use …


Meeting The Common Needs Of A More Effective And Efficient Testing And Assessment Paradigm For Chemical Risk Management, Steven P. Bradbury, Vicki Dellarco, Tala Henry, Phil Sayre, Jennifer Seed 2010 Iowa State University

Meeting The Common Needs Of A More Effective And Efficient Testing And Assessment Paradigm For Chemical Risk Management, Steven P. Bradbury, Vicki Dellarco, Tala Henry, Phil Sayre, Jennifer Seed

Steven P. Bradbury

Significant advances have been made in human health and ecological risk assessment over the last decade. Substantial challenges, however, remain in providing credible scientific information in a timely and efficient manner to support chemical risk assessment and management decisions. A major challenge confronting risk managers is the need for critical information to address risk uncertainties in large chemical inventories such as high- and medium-production-volume industrial chemicals or pesticide inert ingredients. From a strategic and tactical viewpoint, an integrated approach that relies on all existing knowledge and uses a range of methods, including those from emerging and novel technologies, is needed …


Spectroscopic Study Of The Inhibition Of Calcium Oxalate Calculi By Larrea Tridentata, Luis Alonso Pinales 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Spectroscopic Study Of The Inhibition Of Calcium Oxalate Calculi By Larrea Tridentata, Luis Alonso Pinales

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion …


Hyperbaric Oxygen In The Prevention Of Carbon Monoxide Induced Delayed Neurological Sequelae In Male Sprague Dawley Rats (Rattus Norvegicus), Chester P. Gut Jr. 2010 Wright State University

Hyperbaric Oxygen In The Prevention Of Carbon Monoxide Induced Delayed Neurological Sequelae In Male Sprague Dawley Rats (Rattus Norvegicus), Chester P. Gut Jr.

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

In Carbon Monoxide (CO) induced Delayed Neurological Sequelae (DNS) clinical signs develop 1 to 6 weeks after CO has cleared the body. The aim of this experiment was to develop a model of CO induced DNS which closely mimics "real world" conditions both in exposure and treatment. The model was challenged with hyperbaric or normobaric oxygen, or room air. Basic behaviors were measured by Open Field test on days 1, 7, 14 post exposure and treatment. No significant difference in behavior was observed between exposed and control animals or between treatment groups. Histological analyses showed no DNA or necrotic damage …


Evaluating And Regulating Lead In Artificial Turf, Gregory Van Ulirsch, Kevin Gleason, Shawn Gerstenberger, Deaphne B. Moffett, Glenn Pulliam, Tariq Ahmed, Jerald Fagliano 2010 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Evaluating And Regulating Lead In Artificial Turf, Gregory Van Ulirsch, Kevin Gleason, Shawn Gerstenberger, Deaphne B. Moffett, Glenn Pulliam, Tariq Ahmed, Jerald Fagliano

Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background: In 2007, a synthetic turf recreational field in Newark, New Jersey, was closed because lead was found in synthetic turf fibers and in surface dust at concentrations exceeding hazard criteria. Consequently, public health professionals across the country began testing synthetic turf to determine whether it represented a lead hazard. Currently, no standardized methods exist to test for lead in synthetic turf or to assess lead hazards.

Objectives: Our objectives were to increase awareness of potential lead exposure from synthetic turf by presenting data showing elevated lead in fibers and turf-derived dust; identify risk assessment uncertainties; recommend that federal and/or …


Environmentally Sensitive Life-Cycle Traits Have Low Elasticity: Implications For Theory And Practice, Valery E. Forbes, Mette Olsen, Annemette Palmqvist, Peter Calow 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Environmentally Sensitive Life-Cycle Traits Have Low Elasticity: Implications For Theory And Practice, Valery E. Forbes, Mette Olsen, Annemette Palmqvist, Peter Calow

Valery Forbes Publications

The relationships between population growth rate and the life-cycle traits contributing to it are nonlinear and variable. This has made it difficult for ecologists to consistently predict changes in population dynamics from observations on changes in life-cycle traits. We show that traits having a high sensitivity to chemical toxicants tend to have a low elasticity, meaning that changes in them have a relatively low impact on population growth rate, compared to other life-cycle traits. This makes evolutionary sense in that there should be selection against variability in population growth rate. In particular, we found that fecundity was generally more sensitive …


Integrating Population Modeling Into Ecological Risk Assessment, Valery E. Forbes, Peter Calow, Volker Grimm, Takehiko Hayashi, Tjalling Jager, Annemette Palmqvist, Rob Pastorok, Dan Salvito, Richard Sibly, Julann Spromberg, John Stark, Richard A. Stillman 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Integrating Population Modeling Into Ecological Risk Assessment, Valery E. Forbes, Peter Calow, Volker Grimm, Takehiko Hayashi, Tjalling Jager, Annemette Palmqvist, Rob Pastorok, Dan Salvito, Richard Sibly, Julann Spromberg, John Stark, Richard A. Stillman

Valery Forbes Publications

Current approaches to ecological risk assessment (ERA) are not sufficient to address environmental protection goals stated in current regulations in the European Union, North America and elsewhere. For example, the data used to estimate the likelihood of adverse ecological effects typically include responses of survival, growth, or reproduction of individuals measured under constant and typically favorable laboratory conditions. But these organism-level endpoints are far removed from the ecological features that the process aims to protect (i.e., the long-term persistence of populations of species in space and time under naturally varying field conditions and in the presence of other stressors). Ecological …


Improving The Value Of Standard Toxicity Test Data In Reach, Magnus Breitholtz, Elin Lundström, Ulrika Dahl, Valery E. Forbes 2010 Stockholm University

Improving The Value Of Standard Toxicity Test Data In Reach, Magnus Breitholtz, Elin Lundström, Ulrika Dahl, Valery E. Forbes

Valery Forbes Publications

Worldwide, environmental risk assessment strategies are based on the assumption that measuring direct effects of single substances, using a few single species tests, in combination with safety factors correcting for extrapolation inconsistencies, can be used to protect higher levels of biological organization, such as populations and even ecosystems. At the same time, we are currently facing a range of pollution problems (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series 2005), of which some could at least indirectly be linked to the fact that this assumption may not be fully valid. Consequently, there is an ongoing scientific debate on whether current chemical control protocols are …


Investigation Of The Fate And Effects Of Acetyl Cedrene On Capitella Teleta And Sediment Bacterial Community, Lea Ellegaard-Petersen, Henriette Selck, Anders Priemé, Daniel Salvito, Valery E. Forbes 2010 Copenhagen University

Investigation Of The Fate And Effects Of Acetyl Cedrene On Capitella Teleta And Sediment Bacterial Community, Lea Ellegaard-Petersen, Henriette Selck, Anders Priemé, Daniel Salvito, Valery E. Forbes

Valery Forbes Publications

The fate of the fragrance material, acetyl cedrene (AC), in sediment was examined in a 16 day laboratory experiment using the sediment microbial community subjected to the following treatments: AC (nominal concentration; 0 and 50 μg g−1 dw sediment) and macrofaunal worms (with/without Capitella teleta (formerly Capitella sp. I)). Furthermore effects of AC on microbial respiration in the system were determined by examining CO2 flux. T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) was used to analyze PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplified 16S DNA gene fragments from the sediments to detect changes in the structure and diversity of the bacterial community. …


Weight Gain Among Adults With Intellectual Disabilities Receiving Atypical Antipsychotics, Sherri Lyn Transier 2010 Louisiana Tech University

Weight Gain Among Adults With Intellectual Disabilities Receiving Atypical Antipsychotics, Sherri Lyn Transier

Doctoral Dissertations

The present study assessed whether the atypical antipsychotic agents olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine are associated with significant weight gain among adults with intellectual disabilities after 6 months of drug treatment. The body weights of 79 participants were retrieved 6 months prior to the initiation of drug treatment, at the start of the atypical antipsychotic agent, and after 6 months of drug therapy. Each individual served as his or her own control by utilizing pretreatment baseline trends in weight change to calculate a dependent measure of adjusted posttreatment weight gain. Doing so allowed for a stringent determination of the liability for …


Digital Commons powered by bepress