Biodiversity, Fall/Winter 2012, Issue 25, 2019 University of Louisville
Biodiversity, Fall/Winter 2012, Issue 25
No abstract provided.
Active Transportation, Spring/Summer 2012, Issue 26, 2019 University of Louisville
Active Transportation, Spring/Summer 2012, Issue 26
No abstract provided.
Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29, 2019 University of Louisville
Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29
No abstract provided.
Sustainable Behavior, Spring/Summer 2013, Issue 28, 2019 University of Louisville
Sustainable Behavior, Spring/Summer 2013, Issue 28
No abstract provided.
Local Foods, Fall/Winter 2013, Issue 27, 2019 University of Louisville
Local Foods, Fall/Winter 2013, Issue 27
No abstract provided.
Campus Sustainability, Spring/Summer 2014, Issue 30, 2019 University of Louisville
Campus Sustainability, Spring/Summer 2014, Issue 30
No abstract provided.
Sumoylation, 2019 Selected Works
Sumoylation, Oliver Kerscher
Eukaryotic cells utilise the dynamic addition and removal of SUMO, a small ubiquitin‐like modifier (UBL), to modulate protein functions, interactions and localisation. Protein SUMOylation involves a cascade of dedicated enzymes that facilitate the covalent modification of specific lysine residues on target proteins with monomers or polymers of SUMO. The cellular homeostasis of SUMOylated proteins is also regulated by SUMO proteases and SUMO‐targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbLs). SUMO proteases cleave SUMO from modified proteins. In contrast, STUbLs ubiquitinate proteins modified with SUMO chains. Recent data suggests that ubiquitination via STUbLs effects the turnover of SUMOylated proteins as well as the ...
Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (Stubl) Slx5 Regulates Proteolysis Of Centromeric Histone H3 Variant Cse4 And Prevents Its Mislocalization To Euchromatin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Alyona Fulp, Oliver Kerscher
Centromeric histone H3, CENP-ACse4, is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Stringent regulation of cellular levels of CENP-ACse4 restricts its localization to centromeres. Mislocalization of CENP-ACse4 is associated with aneuploidy in yeast and flies and tumorigenesis in human cells; thus defining pathways that regulate CENP-A levels is critical for understanding how mislocalization of CENP-A contributes to aneuploidy in human cancers. Previous work in budding yeast shows that ubiquitination of overexpressed Cse4 by Psh1, an E3 ligase, partially contributes to proteolysis of Cse4. Here we provide the first evidence that Cse4 is sumoylated by E3 ligases Siz1 and Siz2 in vivo and ...
Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Oliver Kerscher
Cell viability and gene expression profiles are altered in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s Disease (HD). Using the yeast model system, we show that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 reduces the toxicity and abnormal transcriptional activity associated with a mutant, aggregation-prone fragment of huntingtin (Htt), the causative agent of HD. We demonstrate that expression of an aggregation-prone Htt construct with 103 glutamine residues (103Q), but not the non-expanded form (25Q), results in severe growth defects in slx5Δ and slx8Δ cells. Since Slx5 is a nuclear protein and because Htt expression affects gene transcription ...
Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, 2019 College of William and Mary
Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Oliver Kerscher
SUMO proteases of the SENP/Ulp family are master regulators of both sumoylation and desumoylation and regulate SUMO homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. SUMO conjugates rapidly increase in response to cellular stress, including nutrient starvation, hypoxia, osmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and other proteotoxic stressors. Nevertheless, little is known about the regulation and targeting of SUMO proteases during stress. To this end we have undertaken a detailed comparison of the SUMO-binding activity of the budding yeast protein Ulp1 (ScUlp1) and its ortholog in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, KmUlp1. We find that the catalytic UD domains of both ScUlp1 and ...
Thinking Chickens: A Review Of Cognition, Emotion, And Behavior In The Domestic Chicken, 2019 The Kimmela Center for Animal Advocacy
Thinking Chickens: A Review Of Cognition, Emotion, And Behavior In The Domestic Chicken, Lori Marino
Lori Marino, PhD
Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. At least some birds are now known to be on par with many mammals in terms of their level of intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet, views of chickens have largely remained unrevised by this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the peer-reviewed scientific data on the leading edge of cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities in ...
Using Gene Expression Databases For Classical Trait Qtl Candidate Gene Discovery In The Bxd Recombinant Inbred Genetic Reference Population: Mouse Forebrain Weight, Lu Lu, Lai Wei, Jeremy L. Peirce, Xusheng Wang, Jianhua Zhou, Ramin Homayouni, Robert W. Williams, David C. Airey
BACKGROUND: Successful strategies for QTL gene identification benefit from combined experimental and bioinformatic approaches. Unique design aspects of the BXD recombinant inbred line mapping panel allow use of archived gene microarray expression data to filter likely from unlikely candidates. This prompted us to propose a simple five-filter protocol for candidate nomination. To filter more likely from less likely candidates, we required candidate genes near to the QTL to have mRNA abundance that correlated with the phenotype among the BXD lines as well as differed between the parental lines C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also required verification of mRNA abundance ...
The Genetic Basis Of Baculum Size And Shape Variation In Mice, 2019 University of Southern California
The Genetic Basis Of Baculum Size And Shape Variation In Mice, Nicholas G. Schultz, Jesse Ingels, Andrew Hillhouse, Keegan Wardwell, Peter L. Chang, James M. Cheverud, Cathleen Lutz, Lu Lu, Robert W. Williams, Matthew D. Dean
The rapid divergence of male genitalia is a preeminent evolutionary pattern. This rapid divergence is especially striking in the baculum, a bone that occurs in the penis of many mammalian species. Closely related species often display diverse baculum morphology where no other morphological differences can be discerned. While this fundamental pattern of evolution has been appreciated at the level of gross morphology, nearly nothing is known about the genetic basis of size and shape divergence. Quantifying the genetic basis of baculum size and shape variation has been difficult because these structures generally lack obvious landmarks, so comparing them in three ...
Joint Mouse–Human Phenome-Wide Association To Test Gene Function And Disease Risk, 2019 University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Joint Mouse–Human Phenome-Wide Association To Test Gene Function And Disease Risk, Xusheng Wang, Ashutosh K. Ciobanu, Megan K. Mulligan, Evan G. Williams, Khyobeni Mozhui, Zhengsheng Li, Virginija Jovaisaite, L. Darryl Quarles, Zhousheng Xiao, Jinsong Huang, John A. Capra, Zugen Chen, William L. Taylor, Lisa Bastarache, Xinnan Niu, Katherine S. Pollard, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Alexander O. Reznik, Artem V. Tishkov, Igor B. Zhulin, Junmin Peng, Stanley F. Nelson, Joshua C. Denny, Johan Auwerx, Lu Lu, Robert W. Williams
Phenome-wide association is a novel reverse genetic strategy to analyze genome-tophenome relations in human clinical cohorts. Here we test this approach using a large murine population segregating for ~5 million sequence variants, and we compare our results to those extracted from a matched analysis of gene variants in a large human cohort. For the mouse cohort, we amassed a deep and broad open-access phenome consisting of ~4,500 metabolic, physiological, pharmacological and behavioural traits, and more than 90 independent expression quantitative trait locus (QTL), transcriptome, proteome, metagenome and metabolome data sets—by far the largest coherent phenome for any experimental ...
Microarray Analysis Reveals Distinctive Signaling Between The Bed Nucleus Of The Stria Terminalis, Nucleus Accumbens, And Dorsal Striatum, 2019 Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Microarray Analysis Reveals Distinctive Signaling Between The Bed Nucleus Of The Stria Terminalis, Nucleus Accumbens, And Dorsal Striatum, Christopher M. Olsen, Yong Pandey, Shirlean Goodwin, Daniel C. Ciobanu, Lu Lu, Thomas R. Sutter, Danny G. Winder
Microarray analysis reveals distinctive signaling between the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum. Physiol Genomics 32: 283–298, 2008. First published October 2, 2006; doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00224.2006.—To identify distinct transcriptional patterns between the major subcortical dopamine targets commonly studied in addiction we studied differences in gene expression between the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and dorsal striatum (dStr) using microarray analysis. We first tested for differences in expression of genes encoding transcripts for common neurotransmitter systems as well as calcium binding proteins routinely used in neuroanatomical ...
Murine Gut Microbiota Is Defined By Host Genetics And Modulates Variation Of Metabolic Traits, 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Murine Gut Microbiota Is Defined By Host Genetics And Modulates Variation Of Metabolic Traits, Autumn M. Mcknite, Maria Elisa Perez-Munoz, Lu Lu, Evan G. Williams, Simon Brewer, Penelope A. Andreux, John W. M. Bastiaansen, Xusheng Wang, Stephen D. Kachman, Johan Auwerx, Robert W. Williams, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Daniel C. Ciobanu
The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors and is associated with several polygenic diseases. In this study we combined next-generation sequencing, genetic mapping, and a set of physiological traits of the BXD mouse population to explore genetic factors that explain differences in gut microbiota and its impact on metabolic traits. Molecular profiling of the gut microbiota revealed important quantitative differences in microbial composition among BXD strains. These differences in gut microbial composition are influenced by host-genetics, which ...
Genetic Control Of A Central Pattern Generator: Rhythmic Oromotor Movement In Mice Is Controlled By A Major Locus Near Atp1a2, Steven J. St. John, John D. Boughter Jr, Megan K. Mulligan, Kenichi Tokita, Lu Lu, Detlef H. Heck, Robert W. Williams
calreticulin, Animals, Chromosome Mapping, Mammalian Chromosomes, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic Linkage, Genome-Wide Association Study. Inbred C57BL Mice, Inbred DBA Mice, Quantitative Trait Loci, Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics, Atp1a2 protein, Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase, feeding behavior, drinking behavior, mice, central pattern generator, genetic control
Drainage Water Quality Impacts Of Agricultural Management Practices: Effectof Manure Application Timing And Cover Crops, Brian Dougherty, Carl Pederson, Matt Helmers, Michelle Soupir, Dan Andersen, Antonio Mallarino, John Sawyer
John E. Sawyer
A primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of various cropping and nutrient management systems on crop yields and drainage water quality. This progress report only includes the first-year corn grain yield results. Treatment comparisons include the impact of early fall vs. late fall vs. spring application of liquid swine manure, nitrification inhibitor with late fall swine manure application, cereal rye cover crop, and gypsum application. These comparisons will be conducted for multiple years and used to develop appropriate manure and nutrient management practices to minimize water contamination potential and enhance the use of swine manure as ...
Predicting Economic Optimal Nitrogen Rate With The Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen Test, 2019 South Dakota State University
Predicting Economic Optimal Nitrogen Rate With The Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen Test, Jason D. Clark, Fabián G. Fernández, Kristen S. Veum, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan
John E. Sawyer
Estimates of mineralizable N with the anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) test could improve predictions of corn (Zea mays L.) economic optimal N rate (EONR). A study across eight US midwestern states was conducted to quantify the predictability of EONR for single and split N applications by PMNan. Treatment factors included different soil sample timings (pre-plant and V5 development stage), planting N rates (0 and 180 kg N ha−1), and incubation lengths (7, 14, and 28 d) with and without initial soil NH4–N included with PMNan. Soil was sampled (0–30 cm depth) before ...
United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, 2019 South Dakota State University
United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabián G. Fernández, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan
John E. Sawyer
Nitrogen provided to crops through mineralization is an important factor in N management guidelines. Understanding of the interactive effects of soil and weather conditions on N mineralization needs to be improved. Relationships between anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) and soil and weather conditions were evaluated under the contrasting climates of eight US Midwestern states. Soil was sampled (0–30 cm) for PMNan analysis before pre-plant N application (PP0N) and at the V5 development stage from the pre-plant 0 (V50N) and 180 kg N ha−1 (V5180N) rates and incubated for 7, 14, and 28 d ...