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Optimizing Energy Use In Pig Production: An Examination Of Iowa Systems, Peter J. Lammers, M. Douglas Kenealy, Mark S. Honeyman, James B. Kliebenstein, Jay D. Harmon, Matthew J. Helmers 2010 Iowa State University

Optimizing Energy Use In Pig Production: An Examination Of Iowa Systems, Peter J. Lammers, M. Douglas Kenealy, Mark S. Honeyman, James B. Kliebenstein, Jay D. Harmon, Matthew J. Helmers

Animal Industry Report

Energy is used in all aspects of pig production, from the manufacture of materials used in building construction to the cultivation and processing of feedstuffs. Historically the availability of fossil fuels has minimized pressure to consider all uses of energy in pig production. Rising energy prices, uncertain access to petroleum supplies, and recognition of the environmental impacts of fossil fuels are increasing awareness and incentive to reduce consumption of limited resources. This project estimates non-solar energy use for pig production options in Iowa.

The baseline system produces 15,600 pigs annually using confinement facilities and a corn-soybean cropping sequence. Diet ...


Independent Study 490a: Do Gilts Adapt To A Confined Farrowing Stall After Being Housed In A Loose Deep Bedded Gestation Environment?, Alicia Arp, Anna K. Johnson 2010 Iowa State University

Independent Study 490a: Do Gilts Adapt To A Confined Farrowing Stall After Being Housed In A Loose Deep Bedded Gestation Environment?, Alicia Arp, Anna K. Johnson

Animal Industry Report

Gestation stalls will be banned in the European Union by 2013. Similar legislative pursuits are occurring in the U.S. However, little work has addressed the sows’ behavioral adaption from a loose housed gestation environment to a more confined farrowing / lactation environment, and in turn if this has any adverse effects on her overall behavioral repertoire and performance. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare gilt behavior and performance over lactation after gilts had been housed in a deep bedded gestation hoop. The project was approved by Iowa State University’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. A ...


Loading Gantry Versus Traditional Chute For The Finisher Pig: Effect On Fresh Pork Quality Attributes When Properly Loaded At First Pull, Nick L. Berry, Anna K. Johnson, Steven M. Lonergan, Thomas J. Baas, Locke A. Karriker, Kenneth J. Stalder, Jeffery Hill, Collette Schultz-Kaster, Neal Matthews 2010 Iowa State University

Loading Gantry Versus Traditional Chute For The Finisher Pig: Effect On Fresh Pork Quality Attributes When Properly Loaded At First Pull, Nick L. Berry, Anna K. Johnson, Steven M. Lonergan, Thomas J. Baas, Locke A. Karriker, Kenneth J. Stalder, Jeffery Hill, Collette Schultz-Kaster, Neal Matthews

Animal Industry Report

Pig mortalities from the farm to the harvest facility have been estimated to cost the U.S. swine industry over 55 million dollars annually. Improved understanding of the major factors impacting the behavioral and physiological responses of the finisher pig during transportation and its effects on final meat quality is needed. Fresh pork loin quality attribute evaluations were performed on a total of 200 (n = 100 per treatment) pigs from the first pull (FP defined as first pigs marketed from a finishing facility). Two loading system designs were compared in the study. The first loading system design (T) was the ...


The Effect Of Selection For Residual Feed Intake On Lesion Scores In Yorkshire Gilts, Larry J. Sadler, Anna K. Johnson, Steven M. Lonergan, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Daniel S. Nettleton 2010 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Selection For Residual Feed Intake On Lesion Scores In Yorkshire Gilts, Larry J. Sadler, Anna K. Johnson, Steven M. Lonergan, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Daniel S. Nettleton

Animal Industry Report

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selection for reduced residual feed intake (RFI) on lesion scores in gilts in their home pen. A total of 192 gilts were used; 96 were from a line that had been selected for low residual feed intake over 5 generations (LRFI) and 96 from a randomly bred control line (CRFI). Gilts were housed in 12 pens (16 gilts/pen; 0.82 m2 /gilt) containing 8 gilts from each line in a conventional grow-finish unit. Lesion scores were collected the day after placement and every 4 weeks for 3 ...


Reproductive Performance Of Yorkshire Sows Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Jennifer Young, Robert Bergsma, Egbert Knol, John F. Patience, Jack C.M. Dekkers 2010 Iowa State University

Reproductive Performance Of Yorkshire Sows Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Jennifer Young, Robert Bergsma, Egbert Knol, John F. Patience, Jack C.M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Sow reproductive performance traits were evaluated in Yorkshire sows from the ISU residual feed intake (RFI) selection experiment. Compared to the randomly selected control line, sows from the line selected for reduced RFI had more piglets born and born alive and the piglets weighed more at birth, had greater pre-weaning growth rates, and weighed more at weaning. However, sows from the select line lost more weight and body condition during lactation than did sows from the control line.


Determining Optimal Maximum Culling Parity In Commercial Swine Breeding Herds, Caitlyn Abell, Kenneth J. Stalder, Anna K. Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, Gordon Jones 2010 Iowa State University

Determining Optimal Maximum Culling Parity In Commercial Swine Breeding Herds, Caitlyn Abell, Kenneth J. Stalder, Anna K. Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, Gordon Jones

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to estimate the value of the genetic lag associated with maintaining sows for additional parities. Number born alive (NBA), 21 day litter weight (W21), and days to market (D113) were the traits examined in this study. The genetic improvement per generation (economic values assigned) for these traits were 0.3 pigs ($22.00/pig), 1.36 kg ($1.54/kg), and 3.0 days ($0.17/day), respectively. The value of the genetic lag represents lost opportunity and when this value exceeds the gilt development variable costs, it represents the optimal time for culling ...


Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2007, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman 2010 Iowa State University

Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2007, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman

Animal Industry Report

Information is provided on pig production efficiency for niche pork production. Information from 27 niche pork producers is included in the analysis.

The average female breeding herd size was 81 females. The average feed efficiency was 4.42 pounds of feed per pound of production, although the average for the top 9 herds was 3.78 and the average for the bottom 9 herds was 5.24. Average labor use was 1.01 hours per hundred pounds of pork produced. About one of every four pigs born alive died before weaning. Another 13 percent died from weaning to market. Breeding ...


Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman 2010 Iowa State University

Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman

Animal Industry Report

Information is provided on pig production efficiency for niche pork production. Information from 18 niche pork producers is included in the analysis.

The average female breeding herd size was 61 females. The average feed efficiency was 4.63 pounds of feed per pound of production, although the average for the top 6 herds was 4.20 and the average for the bottom 6 herds was 5.25. Average labor use was 1.02 hours per hundred pounds of pork produced. About one of every five pigs born alive died before weaning. Another 10 percent died from weaning to market. Breeding ...


Returns And Costs Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman 2010 Iowa State University

Returns And Costs Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman

Animal Industry Report

Information is provided on the return, cost and financial efficiency for niche pork production. Information from 18 niche pork producers is included in the analysis. Return levels showed that the average return to capital, unpaid labor and management return to capital, unpaid labor and management for the top 6 producers was $5.23 per hundred pounds of pork produced, while this average was -$10.68 for the bottom 6 producers and -$3.80 for all 18 producers. The average margin over all costs on a per head sold basis showed a large loss ($-52.89 for the average producer). The ...


2009 Review—Isu Dairy Farm, Ames, Iowa, Joe Detrick 2010 Iowa State University

2009 Review—Isu Dairy Farm, Ames, Iowa, Joe Detrick

Animal Industry Report

No abstract provided.


2009 Review—Poultry Science Center. South State Avenue, Ames, Iowa, Bill Larson 2010 Iowa State University

2009 Review—Poultry Science Center. South State Avenue, Ames, Iowa, Bill Larson

Animal Industry Report

The ISU Poultry Farm is located on State Street approximately 3 miles southwest of the main campus. It is part of the teaching farm complex that also includes the beef, sheep, and swine teaching units. The unit is utilized for teaching and research activities with broilers, layers, turkeys, and other avian species. At least five courses annually use the farm either directly or indirectly. Animal science faculty and faculty from other departments in the college of agriculture and from the National Animal Disease center utilize the birds and farm facilities for their research. The farm continues to maintain the oldest ...


2009 Review—Isu Sheep Teaching Farm, South State Avenue, Ames, Iowa, Daniel Kiesling 2010 Iowa State University

2009 Review—Isu Sheep Teaching Farm, South State Avenue, Ames, Iowa, Daniel Kiesling

Animal Industry Report

No abstract provided.


Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide And Dietary Natural Source Vitamin E Effects On Broiler Chick Immune Response, Michael G. Kaiser, Erin Beach, Ceren Ciraci, Susan J. Lamont 2010 Iowa State University

Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide And Dietary Natural Source Vitamin E Effects On Broiler Chick Immune Response, Michael G. Kaiser, Erin Beach, Ceren Ciraci, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection and dietary natural source vitamin E (NSVE) levels on RNA expression levels of 14 immune related genes were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes of broiler. Broilers immunologically responded to injection of LPS (bacterial membrane component) with a pro-inflammatory response of interleukin 6 (IL6) and an innate response of avian beta-defensing 10 (AvBD10) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The genes profiled in this study did not differed only moderately in RNA expression level between the NSVE dietary levels. This study confirmed and expanded our understanding of the network of genes involved in chicken’s immune ...


Kinetic Profile Of Chicken Macrophage Immune Response Upon Exposure To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Daniel S. Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont 2010 Iowa State University

Kinetic Profile Of Chicken Macrophage Immune Response Upon Exposure To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Daniel S. Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Large scale gene expression studies expedite the discovery process and provide a comprehensive view of host immune response. We used the Affymetrix GeneChip chicken genome array to determine the nature and breadth of the gene activation elicited by endotoxin from Salmonella typhimirium (ST) 798. The data obtained from this type of research are important to improve vaccine development efficacy and to enhance animal health and food safety. Our findings may contribute to elucidation of disease response pathways.


Snps In Region Of Nf-Kappa-B Gene Associated With Expression Of Immune-Related Genes, Erin Sandford, Ceren Ciraci, Behnam Abasht, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont 2010 Iowa State University

Snps In Region Of Nf-Kappa-B Gene Associated With Expression Of Immune-Related Genes, Erin Sandford, Ceren Ciraci, Behnam Abasht, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Selection to enhance immune response is difficult. Gene expression was assessed in two advanced intercross lines of chickens for various immune-related genes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, were identified in regions local to each gene and around a distant transcription factor, NF-Kappa-B, NFKB. These SNPs were used to identify expression QTL, eQTL, to aid in selection of immune gene expression. These eQTL may provide effective resources to which marker assisted selection may be applied.


Lawsonia Intracellularis Elisa: A New Test At The Isu-Vdl, Ronaldo L. Magtoto, John K. Johnson, Sheela Ramamoorthy 2010 Iowa State University

Lawsonia Intracellularis Elisa: A New Test At The Isu-Vdl, Ronaldo L. Magtoto, John K. Johnson, Sheela Ramamoorthy

Animal Industry Report

Porcine Proliferative Enteropathy (PPE) is a common disease of swine which is caused by the intracellular bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis.

The performance of a recently available commercial ELISA for L. intracellularis was evaluated by comparison with an immuno-peroxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and found to have at least 97% correlation. The same assay when conducted at different laboratories showed 100% agreement in results. Examination of serum samples from various cases submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic laboratory indicated that 87% of the herds examined were sero-positive for L. intracellularis. Therefore, the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Lawsonia intracellularis is a ...


1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Enhances Bovine Mammary Epithelial Innate Immune Responses, Corwin Nelson, Donald C. Beitz, Timothy A. Reinhardt, John Lippolis 2010 Iowa State University

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Enhances Bovine Mammary Epithelial Innate Immune Responses, Corwin Nelson, Donald C. Beitz, Timothy A. Reinhardt, John Lippolis

Animal Industry Report

Bovine mammary epithelial cells that were treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 showed an increase in the expression of the genes for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and S100 calcium binding protein A12 (S100 A12). iNOS and S100 A12 are part of the innate immune response and expressed in the mammary gland during mastitis. Production of 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the mammary gland during mastitis, then, may be an important component of the innate immune response.


Survival And Growth Of Clostridium Perfringens On Commercial No-Nitrate-Or-Nitrite Added (Natural And Organic) Bacon And Ham, Armitra Jackson, Gary Sullivan, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson 2010 Iowa State University

Survival And Growth Of Clostridium Perfringens On Commercial No-Nitrate-Or-Nitrite Added (Natural And Organic) Bacon And Ham, Armitra Jackson, Gary Sullivan, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson

Animal Industry Report

Four out of nine commercial brands of natural/organic bacon showed significantly greater (P<0.05) growth by inoculated Clostridium perfringens than that observed for the conventionally cured control (n=1). All natural/organic commercial ham analyzed in the study (n=7) showed significantly greater (P<0.05) growth by inoculated Clostridium perfringens than that observed for the conventionally cured control hams (n=4). These products also demonstrated a wide variation in growth response. This means that natural and organic processed meats may require additional protective measures in order to consistently provide the same level of safety from bacterial pathogens that is achieved by conventionally cured meat products.


Use Of Natural Ingredients To Control Growth Of Clostridium Perfringens On Frankfurters And Ham, Armitra Jackson, Gary Sullivan, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson 2010 Iowa State University

Use Of Natural Ingredients To Control Growth Of Clostridium Perfringens On Frankfurters And Ham, Armitra Jackson, Gary Sullivan, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson

Animal Industry Report

Three out of seven naturally cured frankfurter and naturally cured ham treatments with natural or clean label inhibitors showed no significantly greater (P<0.05) growth by inoculated Clostridium perfringens than that of the control. These results will be used to prepare guidelines for manufacturing these products in a manner that will achieve a safety level that is equivalent to traditionally cured meat products without altering the uniqueness of this category of processed meats.


Use Of Natural Ingredients To Control Growth Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Ham, Steven Niebuhr, Gary Sullivan, Armitra Jackson, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson 2010 Iowa State University

Use Of Natural Ingredients To Control Growth Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Ham, Steven Niebuhr, Gary Sullivan, Armitra Jackson, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson

Animal Industry Report

Five out of seven naturally cured ham products showed no significantly greater (P<0.05) growth by inoculated Listeria monocytogenes than that of the control. The manufacture of cured ham with natural nitrate in combination with starter culture had highest residual nitrite levels. The treatments produced similar results to those in traditionally cured ham. The pH was affected by the addition of different antimicrobials. These results will be used to prepare guidelines for manufacturing these products in a manner that will achieve a safety level that is equivalent to traditionally cured meat products without altering the uniqueness of this category of processed meats.


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