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Amino Acid Transport In Thermophiles: Characterization Of An Arginine-Binding Protein In Thermotoga Maritima, Matthew S. Luchansky, Bryan S. Der, Sabato D'Auria, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Luisa Iozzion, Daniela Marasco, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum 2010 University of Richmond

Amino Acid Transport In Thermophiles: Characterization Of An Arginine-Binding Protein In Thermotoga Maritima, Matthew S. Luchansky, Bryan S. Der, Sabato D'Auria, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Luisa Iozzion, Daniela Marasco, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Members of the periplasmic binding protein superfamily are involved in the selective passage of ligands through bacterial cell membranes. The hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima was found to encode a highly stable and specific periplasmic arginine-binding protein (TM0593). Following signal sequence removal and overexpression in Escherichia coli, TM0593 was purified by thermoprecipitation and affinity chromatography. The ultra-stable protein with a monomeric molecular weight of 27.7 kDa was found to exist as both a homodimer and homotrimer at appreciable concentrations even under strongly denaturing conditions, with an estimated transition temperature of 116 °C. Its multimeric structure may provide further evidence of ...


Southern Lagoon And Village Of Gales Point, Belize, Ca: Water Uses, Water Quality, And Potential Health Impacts, Rasmi Nair, Ritchie Taylor 2010 Western Kentucky University

Southern Lagoon And Village Of Gales Point, Belize, Ca: Water Uses, Water Quality, And Potential Health Impacts, Rasmi Nair, Ritchie Taylor

Impact Belize

An International Health Service Learning Program, Impact Belize 2010, was conducted by Western Kentucky University. Faculty and students worked closely with Gales Point villagers to gain an insight into the use of Southern Lagoon. The objective of the study was to assess fecal coliform levels in Southern lagoon, its primary and secondary contact use by villagers and its potential impact on health. Study methodology involved collection of water samples, both near shore and offshore, in the lagoon and incubating them using ColiQuant EZ method approved by EPA. A questionnaire was administered to villagers attending the WKU clinic to collect data ...


Study Of The Microbial Diversity And Antimicrobial Properties Of Irish Edible Brown Seaweeds, Shilpi Gupta, Gaurav Rajauria, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2010 Technological University Dublin

Study Of The Microbial Diversity And Antimicrobial Properties Of Irish Edible Brown Seaweeds, Shilpi Gupta, Gaurav Rajauria, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

Brown Irish edible seaweeds, Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria sachharina and Laminaria digitata, were evaluated for the microbiota in raw and heat processed form. Raw seaweeds showed complete absence of aerobic mesophiles, halophiles, yeasts and molds. However, heating at 85 C for 15 min resulted in spore germination. Bacterial counts as high as 107 were observed for aerobic mesophiles and halophiles. Heating above 95 C for 15 min resulted in complete inactivation of surface microflora. Bacteria belonging to Bacillaceae, Paenibacillaceae, Moraxellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae family were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts of the seaweed on ...


Pre-Harvest Handling Defects And Measures To Alleviate Them, Neal Matthews, Rob Fitzgerald, Nick Berry, Collette Schultz Kaster, Jeff Hill, Ken Stalder, Anna Johnson, Locke Karriker 2010 PiC North America

Pre-Harvest Handling Defects And Measures To Alleviate Them, Neal Matthews, Rob Fitzgerald, Nick Berry, Collette Schultz Kaster, Jeff Hill, Ken Stalder, Anna Johnson, Locke Karriker

Animal Science Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Pre-harvest handling defects in pigs are defined as defects that occur either during transportation or during the lairage rest period prior to harvest at the processing facility. These defects include pigs that become injured, stressed/fatigued, or die. Furthermore, defects have economical implications, with higher labor costs in the packing facilities and lost revenue for producers, and of course, animal welfare concerns by the entire swine industry. It has been estimated that dead and non-ambulatory pigs cost the US swine industry between $50 and $100 million each year (Ellis et al., 2003). These defects are a result of multiple stressors ...


Pre-Sorting And Pen Size Effects On The Stress Responses At Loading And Unloading And Transport Losses In Market Weight Pigs, L. M. Gesing, A. K. Johnson, K. J. Stalder, H. Hill, C. Feurbach, S. Abrams, A. Whiley, M. Faga, R. Bailey, M. J. Ritter 2010 Iowa State University

Pre-Sorting And Pen Size Effects On The Stress Responses At Loading And Unloading And Transport Losses In Market Weight Pigs, L. M. Gesing, A. K. Johnson, K. J. Stalder, H. Hill, C. Feurbach, S. Abrams, A. Whiley, M. Faga, R. Bailey, M. J. Ritter

Animal Science Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Transport losses represent three challenges for the US swine industry and these are: 1) pig well-being, 2) increased rules and regulations, and 3) direct financial losses to producers and packers. Therefore; improving the well-being of pigs during transport and reducing the incidence of dead and non-ambulatory pigs is a priority for the US swine industry (NPB, 2007). Johnson et al. (2010) studied the effects of grow-finish pen size and manually pre-sorting pigs the day before loading on the stress responses at loading and unloading and transport losses in market weight pigs. The authors reported that pigs loaded from large pens ...


Using Serum Cortisol To Distinguish Between Acute Stress And Pain Response Following Castration In Piglets, M. Hensch, L. L. Layman, L. A. Karriker, J. Coetzee, A. K. Johnson 2010 Iowa State University

Using Serum Cortisol To Distinguish Between Acute Stress And Pain Response Following Castration In Piglets, M. Hensch, L. L. Layman, L. A. Karriker, J. Coetzee, A. K. Johnson

Animal Science Conference Proceedings and Presentations

In the United States swine industry, castration is essentially universal and only a select number of male pigs are left intact as potential breeder boars. Pain and distress inflicted by castration is an animal well-being concern in livestock production. Castration in pigs has been shown to cause a stressful and painful response. The need for a robust, repeatable pysiological indicator of pain for use in the assessment of production practices designed to minimize these impacts has been recognized.


The State Of The System And Steps Toward Resilience Of Disturbancedependent Oak Forests, Tricia G. Knoot, Lisa A. Schulte, John C. Tyndall, Brian J. Palik 2010 Iowa State University

The State Of The System And Steps Toward Resilience Of Disturbancedependent Oak Forests, Tricia G. Knoot, Lisa A. Schulte, John C. Tyndall, Brian J. Palik

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Current ecological, economic, and social conditions present unique challenges to natural resource managers seeking to maintain the resilience of disturbance-dependent ecosystems, such as oak (Quercus spp.) forests. Oak-dominated ecosystems throughout the U.S. have historically been perpetuated through periodic disturbance, such as fire, but more recently show decline given shifting disturbance regimes associated with human land management decisions. We characterized the state of the social-ecological oak forest ecosystem in the midwestern U.S. through the perspectives of 32 natural resource professionals. Data from interviews with these change agents provided an integrative understanding of key system components, cross-scale interactions, dependencies, and ...


Growth And Kinetics Of Lactobacillus Plantarum In The Fermentation Of Edible Irish Brown Seaweeds, Shilpi Gupta, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam, Amalia G.M. Scannell 2010 Technological University Dublin

Growth And Kinetics Of Lactobacillus Plantarum In The Fermentation Of Edible Irish Brown Seaweeds, Shilpi Gupta, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam, Amalia G.M. Scannell

Articles

The aim of the present study was to see the applicability of using brown edible seaweeds as a sole source of nutrition for the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Growth kinetics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus plantarum) was studied using three species of edible Irish brown seaweeds Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria digitata and Laminaria saccharina. As part of the screening process, growth of the LAB was carried out on raw and heat treated forms of seaweeds. The seaweed species in their raw state could not support the growth of L. plantarum. Heat treatment resulted in almost 4 times increase in ...


Effect Of Ultrasonic Processing On Food Enzymes Of Industrial Importance, Paula Bourke, Brijesh Tiwari, Colm O Donnell, Patrick Cullen 2010 Technological University Dublin

Effect Of Ultrasonic Processing On Food Enzymes Of Industrial Importance, Paula Bourke, Brijesh Tiwari, Colm O Donnell, Patrick Cullen

Articles

In the last decade power ultrasound has emerged as an alternative processing option to conventional thermal approaches for pasteurisation and sterilisation of food products. While sonication alone is not adequate for inactivation of various spoilage and harmful enzymes present in food, ultrasound in combination with mild heat treatment and/or pressure has shown potential for both enzyme and pathogen inactivation. Numerous studies have investigated ultrasound for inactivating enzymes such as pectinmethylesterase, polyphenoloxidases and peroxidases responsible for deterioration of fruit & vegetable juice and various enzymes pertinent to milk quality. The efficacy of ultrasound for the inactivation of enzymes in food is ...


Quality And Safety Assessment During The Ozonation Of Cloudy Apple Juice, Sonal Patil, B. Torres, Brijesh Tiwari, Hilda Wingaard, Paula Bourke, Patrick Cullen, C. O'Donnell, Vasilis Valdramidis 2010 Technological University Dublin

Quality And Safety Assessment During The Ozonation Of Cloudy Apple Juice, Sonal Patil, B. Torres, Brijesh Tiwari, Hilda Wingaard, Paula Bourke, Patrick Cullen, C. O'Donnell, Vasilis Valdramidis

Articles

Traditionally, ozone processing within the food industry has focused on solid foods by either gaseous treatment or washing with ozonated water. However, with the FDA’s approval of ozone as a direct additive to food, the potential for liquid applications has emerged. This study investigates the effect of ozone processing on microbial inactivation (E. coli ATCC 25922 and NCTC 12900), and quality parameters (colour, phenolic content) of apple juice. Apple juice samples were ozonated at room temperature (20±1.5oC) with an ozone concentration of 0.048 mg O3 min-1 ml-1 and treatment time of ...


Amino Acid Transport In Thermophiles: Characterization Of An Arginine-Binding Protein In Thermotoga Maritima. 2. Molecular Organization And Structural Stability, Andrea Scirè, Anna Marabotti, Maria Staiano, Luisa Iozzion, Matthew S. Luchansky, Bryan S. Der, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Fabio Tanfani, Sabato D'Auria 2010 University of Richmond

Amino Acid Transport In Thermophiles: Characterization Of An Arginine-Binding Protein In Thermotoga Maritima. 2. Molecular Organization And Structural Stability, Andrea Scirè, Anna Marabotti, Maria Staiano, Luisa Iozzion, Matthew S. Luchansky, Bryan S. Der, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Fabio Tanfani, Sabato D'Auria

Chemistry Faculty Publications

ABC transport systems provide selective passage of metabolites across cell membranes and typically require the presence of a soluble binding protein with high specificity to a specific ligand. In addition to their primary role in nutrient gathering, the binding proteins associated with bacterial transport systems have been studied for their potential to serve as design scaffolds for the development of fluorescent protein biosensors. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the physicochemical properties of a hyperthermophilic binding protein from Thermotoga maritima. We demonstrated preferential binding for the polar amino acid arginine and ...


Plasticity Of Acquired Secondary Metabolites In Clathria Prolifera (Demospongia: Poecilosclerida): Putative Photoprotective Role Of Carotenoids In A Temperate Intertidal Sponge, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Drew Sieg, Malcolm Hill, Chris M. Manieri, Giles Thomson 2010 University of Richmond

Plasticity Of Acquired Secondary Metabolites In Clathria Prolifera (Demospongia: Poecilosclerida): Putative Photoprotective Role Of Carotenoids In A Temperate Intertidal Sponge, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Drew Sieg, Malcolm Hill, Chris M. Manieri, Giles Thomson

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Several marine sponges sequester high concentrations of carotenoids in their tissues. The diversity of carotenoid compounds has been described in detail for a handful of species, but to date, little attention has been paid to natural variability in the concentration and constituency of carotenoid pools. Also lacking are experimental tests of some of the proposed adaptive benefits of carotenoids to the sponge. To address some of these deficits in our understanding of sponge ecology, we used a combination of analytic chemistry, field surveys, and manipulative experiments to determine what function these compounds might play. Attention was focused on the common ...


Is It A Jungle Out There? Meat Packing, Immigrants, And Rural Communities, Georgeanne Artz, Rebecca Jackson, Peter Orazem 2010 University of Missouri

Is It A Jungle Out There? Meat Packing, Immigrants, And Rural Communities, Georgeanne Artz, Rebecca Jackson, Peter Orazem

Economics Publications

The shift of the U.S. meat packing industry from urban to rural areas has generated controversy regarding potential social and economic costs of meat packing plants on their host communities. This study uses media comments to identify the most prominent controversies regarding meat packing, its largely immigrant workforce, and rural communities. We find that the industry has impacted the demographic composition of rural communities and their schools, but find no evidence that the industry increases per capita government expenditures. Our results suggest rural communities trade off the economic benefits of hosting these large employers against the costs of accommodating ...


Tariff-Rate Quotas, Rent-Shifting And The Selling Of Domestic Access, Bruno Larue, Harvey E. Lapan, Jean-Philippe Gervais 2010 Universite Laval

Tariff-Rate Quotas, Rent-Shifting And The Selling Of Domestic Access, Bruno Larue, Harvey E. Lapan, Jean-Philippe Gervais

Economics Publications

Tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) have replaced quotas at the end of the Uruguay Round. We analyze TRQs when a foreign firm competes against a domestic firm in the latter's market. Our benchmark is the strategic rent-shifting tariff. We show that the domestic price-equivalent TRQ is a better instrument welfare-wise, as it can extract all of the rents from the foreign firm. We show that different pairs of within-quota tariff and quota can support full rent extraction. The implication is that reduction of the former and enlargement of the latter, holding the above-quota tariff constant, may have no liberalizing effects. The ...


Hog Marketing Practices And Competition Questions, John Lawrence 2010 Iowa State University

Hog Marketing Practices And Competition Questions, John Lawrence

Economics Publications

Hog production and marketing practices in the U.S. pork industry have changed dramatically over the past two decades. In the early 1990s, nearly 90% of hogs were purchased in the spot market through auctions, dealers or directly by packers. By early 2010, the percent of spot market hogs had fallen to 5-7%. Approximately 25% of hogs are owned and processed by packers in their own plants and 70% of hogs are traded between seller and buyer through marketing contracts. The contracts vary in duration and specification but are similar in that the transaction price is derived by a formula ...


Crop Registration: The Pathway To Public Access Of Plant Genetic Materials To Build Crops For The Future, D. D. Ellis, K. A. Garland-Campbell, J. A. Grotenhuis, M. M. Jenderek, Jeffrey F. Pedersen 2010 USDA, ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

Crop Registration: The Pathway To Public Access Of Plant Genetic Materials To Build Crops For The Future, D. D. Ellis, K. A. Garland-Campbell, J. A. Grotenhuis, M. M. Jenderek, Jeffrey F. Pedersen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Starting in 1926 and continuing for 80+ yr, 11,241 crop genetic materials have been registered as of 31 Dec. 2008. The crop registration process is an important pathway to publically describe and document new and useful genetic materials and to incorporate these into the public domain via the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). Crop Registration materials are now searchable via the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) and demand for registered materials remains strong with more than 9150 registered accessions distributed in the past 26 yr by the NPGS. Guidelines continue to evolve to accommodate global factors effecting germplasm exchange ...


Efficacy Of Singular And Stacked Brown Midrib 6 And 12 In The Modification Of Lignocellulose And Grain Chemistry, Scott E. Sattler, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Jeffrey F. Pedersen 2010 USDA-ARS

Efficacy Of Singular And Stacked Brown Midrib 6 And 12 In The Modification Of Lignocellulose And Grain Chemistry, Scott E. Sattler, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Jeffrey F. Pedersen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

In sorghum, brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 impair the last two steps of monolignol synthesis. bmr genes were introduced into grain sorghum to improve the digestibility of lignocellulosic tissues for grazing or bioenergy uses following grain harvest. Near-isogenic grain sorghum hybrids (AWheatland X RTx430) were developed containing bmr6, bmr12, and the bmr6 bmr12 double mutant (stacked), and their impacts were assessed in a two-year field study. The bmr genes did not significantly impact grain or lignocellulosic tissue yield. Lignocellulosic tissue from bmr6, bmr12, and stacked hybrids had reduced lignin content and increased in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) compared ...


Heterosis In Sweet Sorghum And Selection Of A New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid For Use In Syrup Production In Appalachia, T. W. Pfeiffer, M. J. Bitzer, J. J. Toy, Jeffrey F. Pedersen 2010 University of Kentucky

Heterosis In Sweet Sorghum And Selection Of A New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid For Use In Syrup Production In Appalachia, T. W. Pfeiffer, M. J. Bitzer, J. J. Toy, Jeffrey F. Pedersen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum × sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorghum hybrids for research and industry. Male sterility may also affect allocation of photosynthate to plant parts, creating the potential to increase sugar content in stems by eliminating seed as a sink. The objectives of this study were to compare performance of A3 cytoplasmic male-sterile lines and A3 cytoplasmic male-sterile hybrids to fertile B3 counterparts ...


Over-Nutrition And Changing Health Status In High Income Countries, Wallace E. Huffman, Sonya K. Huffman, Kyrre Rickertsen, Abebayehu Tegene 2010 Iowa State University

Over-Nutrition And Changing Health Status In High Income Countries, Wallace E. Huffman, Sonya K. Huffman, Kyrre Rickertsen, Abebayehu Tegene

Economics Publications

As per capita incomes in developed countries have grown over the past three decades, overnutrition leading to obesity and elevated health risks for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer has occurred. We use economic and econometric models to identify the impact of food prices on the aggregate demand for calories and the supply of health, as reflected in mortality rates. Our models are fitted to unique panel data for 18 developed countries over 1971-2001, a period when the relative price of food first rose and then declined steadily. Some findings, using de-trended data, are that a lower real ...


Food And Consumer Economics, Laurian Unnevehr, James Eales, Helen Jensen, Jayson Lusk, Jill McCluskey, Jean Kinsey 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Food And Consumer Economics, Laurian Unnevehr, James Eales, Helen Jensen, Jayson Lusk, Jill Mccluskey, Jean Kinsey

Economics Publications

Agricultural economists first carried out demand studies in order to understand determinants of farm prices and incomes. The shift to a focus on consumer welfare began with studies of the role of food and food assistance in standards of living. Now the profession is more concerned with how information and quality attributes influence consumer behavior. Agricultural economists’ empirical work in this field has informed the development of household production theory, hedonic price theory, definitions of poverty thresholds, complete demand systems, and survey and experimental techniques to elicit preferences.


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