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Feed Additives For Swine: Fact Sheets – Prebiotics And Probiotics, And Phytogenics, J Y. Jacela, Joel M. DeRouchey, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, David G. Renter, Steven S. Dritz 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Feed Additives For Swine: Fact Sheets – Prebiotics And Probiotics, And Phytogenics, J Y. Jacela, Joel M. Derouchey, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, David G. Renter, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

There is increasing pressure for livestock producers to minimize the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in food animals. Supplementing beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract is one potential alternative. A diverse population of beneficial and potentially harmful microorganisms exists in the gastrointestinal tract of the pig. In a healthy animal, a delicate balance between these two groups of organisms is maintained. However, during times of stress, such as during weaning in the case of piglets, this balance may be affected and can lead to a rapid growth of harmful microorganisms. This may result in poor performance or disease. Thus ...


Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert Kerris, Wuyi Wang, G. Schaller 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert Kerris, Wuyi Wang, G. Schaller

Brad M. Binder

Background The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived in Arabidopsis thaliana by a five-member receptor family composed of ETR1, ERS1, ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4. Methodology/Principal Findings Gel-filtration analysis of ethylene receptors solubilized from Arabidopsis membranes demonstrates that the receptors exist as components of high-molecular-mass protein complexes. The ERS1 protein complex exhibits an ethylene-induced change in size consistent with ligand-mediated nucleation of protein-protein interactions. Deletion analysis supports the participation of multiple domains from ETR1 in formation of the protein complex, and also demonstrates that targeting to and retention of ETR1 at the endoplasmic reticulum only requires the first 147 amino ...


Cell Adhesion Property Affected By Cyclooxygenase And Lipoxygenase: Opto-Electric Approach (With Chang Kyoung Choi, Mugdha Sukhthankar, Chul-Ho Kim, Seong-Ho Lee, Anthony English, Kenneth D. Kihm., Seung Baek 2009 The University of Tennessee

Cell Adhesion Property Affected By Cyclooxygenase And Lipoxygenase: Opto-Electric Approach (With Chang Kyoung Choi, Mugdha Sukhthankar, Chul-Ho Kim, Seong-Ho Lee, Anthony English, Kenneth D. Kihm., Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed-time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed-time point experiment, only COX-1- ...


The Tick Saliva Protein, Salp15, Contributes To Th17-Induced Pathology During Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Juan Anguita, I.J. Juncadella, T.C. Bates, R. Suleiman, A. Monteagudo-Mera, C.M. Olson, N. Navasa, E.R. Olivera, C. Teuscher, B.A. Osborne 2009 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

The Tick Saliva Protein, Salp15, Contributes To Th17-Induced Pathology During Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Juan Anguita, I.J. Juncadella, T.C. Bates, R. Suleiman, A. Monteagudo-Mera, C.M. Olson, N. Navasa, E.R. Olivera, C. Teuscher, B.A. Osborne

Juan Anguita

No abstract provided.


Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Hematopoietic cell lineages are best described in terms of distinct progenitors with limited differentiative capacity. To distinguish cell lineages, it is necessary to define progenitors and induce their differentiation in vitro. We previously reported in vitro development of immature dendritic-like cells (DCs) in long-term cultures (LTCs) of murine spleen, and in cocultures of spleen or bone marrow (BM) over splenic endothelial cell lines derived from LTCs. Cells produced are phenotypically distinct CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)CD8(-)MHC-II(-) cells, tentatively named L-DCs. Here we delineate L-DC progenitors as different from known DC progenitors in BM and DC precursors in spleen. The ...


A Rapid Direct Solvent Extraction Method For The Extraction Of 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone From Irradiated Ground Beef Patties Using Acetonitrile., Amit Kumar 2009 Kansas State University

A Rapid Direct Solvent Extraction Method For The Extraction Of 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone From Irradiated Ground Beef Patties Using Acetonitrile., Amit Kumar

Amit Kumar, DVM, MS, PhD

The amount of irradiated beef in the U.S. market is growing, and a reliable, rapid method is needed to detect irradiated beef and quantify the irradiation dose. The official analytical method (BS EN 1785 2003) that has been adopted by the European Union is time consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid method for the analysis of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in irradiated beef. A 5 g sample of commercially irradiated ground beef patty (90/10) was extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus or with acetonitrile via direct solvent extraction. The Soxhlet hexane extract was evaporated ...


Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken 2009 Gettysburg College

Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken

Ryan Kerney

Genetic and developmental alterations associated with the evolution of amphibian direct development remain largely unexplored. Specifically, little is known of the underlying expression of skeletal regulatory genes, which may reveal early modifications to cranial ontogeny in direct-developing species. We describe expression patterns of three key skeletal regulators (runx2, sox9, and bmp4) along with the cartilage-dominant collagen 2a1 gene (col2a1) during cranial development in the direct- developing anuran, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Expression patterns of these regulators reveal transient skeletogenic anlagen that correspond to larval cartilages, but which never fully form in E. coqui. Suprarostral anlagen in the frontonasal processes are detected through ...


Bioelectronics, J. Fleming, Steven Ripp 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Bioelectronics, J. Fleming, Steven Ripp

Steven Ripp

The Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology was published in order to help readers make sense of the vast amounts of information that have been published around the world across a broad array of ournals, books, and websites. With its comprehensive coverage, Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology is the ideal starting point for research projects involving any aspect of industrial biological processes, including fermentation, biocatalysis, bioseparation, and biofabrication


Fitness Variation Due To Sexual Antagonism And Linkage Disequilibrium, Manus Patten, David Haig, Fransisco Úbeda de Torres 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fitness Variation Due To Sexual Antagonism And Linkage Disequilibrium, Manus Patten, David Haig, Fransisco Úbeda De Torres

Francisco Úbeda de Torres

Extensive fitness variation for sexually antagonistic characters has been detected in nature. However, current population genetic theory suggests that sexual antagonism is unlikely to play a major role in the maintenance of variation. We present a twolocus model of sexual antagonism that is capable of explaining greater fitness variance at equilibrium than previous single-locus models. The second genetic locus provides additional fitness variance in two complementary ways. First, linked loci can maintain gene variants that are lost in single-locus models of evolution, expanding the opportunity for polymorphism. Second, linkage disequilibrium results between any two sexually antagonistic genes, producing an excess ...


Bacteriophage Probe-Based Biosensors, M. Zourob, Steven Ripp 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Bacteriophage Probe-Based Biosensors, M. Zourob, Steven Ripp

Steven Ripp

This book presents a significant and up-to-date review of various recognition receptors, their immobilization, and an overview of surface characterization techniques. Distinguished scientists from key institutions worldwide have contributed chapters that provide a deep analysis of their particular subjects; at the same time, each topic is framed within the context of this integrated approach. This work explores comprehensively the field of recognition receptors, presenting a thorough review of the subject and effective integration of these receptors on sensor surfaces in order to appropriately convey state-of the-art fundamentals and applications of the most innovative approaches.


Biosensors As Environmental Monitors, S. Ripp, M. DiClaudio, Gary Sayler 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Biosensors As Environmental Monitors, S. Ripp, M. Diclaudio, Gary Sayler

Gary S. Sayler

This is the long-awaited and much-anticipated revision of the bestselling text and reference. Based on the latest information and investigative techniques from molecular biology and genetics, this Second Edition offers an in-depth examination of the role of microbiological processes related to environmental deterioration with an emphasis on the detection and control of environmental contaminants. Its goal is to further our understanding of the complex microbial processes underlying environmental degradation, its detection and control, and ultimately, its prevention.


Diagnostic Exercise: Chronic Vomiting In A Dog., Debra Miller 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Diagnostic Exercise: Chronic Vomiting In A Dog., Debra Miller

Debra L Miller

An approximately one-and-a-half-year-old, neutered male, mixed-breed dog was presented for a chronic history of vomiting. Profuse diarrhea was also noted during examination. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, bone chips were removed from the stomach, and a raised, circular area of gastric mucosa was biopsied. Histologically, there was severe gastric cryptosporidiosis as well as numerous spiral bacteria, consistent with Helicobacter spp. Polymerase chain reaction revealed visible bands for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene for Cryptosporidium spp. The polymerase chain reaction product was sequenced and was found to be most similar to Cryptosporidium muris. Both the gastric location and the species of ...


The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson 2009 University of Rhode Island

The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson

David R. Nelson

Background: The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a limited-genome organism that must obtain many of its biochemical building blocks, including N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), from its tick or vertebrate host. GlcNAc can be imported into the cell as a monomer or dimer (chitobiose), and the annotation for several B. burgdorferi genes suggests that this organism may be able to degrade and utilize chitin, a polymer of GlcNAc. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi to utilize chitin in the absence of free GlcNAc, and we attempted to identify genes involved in the process. We also examined the ...


Root Contraction Helps Protect The "Living Rock" Cactus Ariocarpus Fissuratus From Lethal High Temperatures When Growing In Rocky Soil, Gretchen North, T.Y. Garrett, C.V. Huynh 2009 Occidental College

Root Contraction Helps Protect The "Living Rock" Cactus Ariocarpus Fissuratus From Lethal High Temperatures When Growing In Rocky Soil, Gretchen North, T.Y. Garrett, C.V. Huynh

Gretchen North

• Premise of the study: We investigated how the “living rock” cactus Ariocarpus fissuratus, like other low-growing desert plants, can endure potentially lethal high temperatures at the soil surface. Specifically, we examined how shoot descent by root contraction in the presence or absence of soil rocks influences shoot temperatures and transpiration. • Methods: Root contraction was identified by measuring shoot descent and anatomical analysis. Temperatures and transpiration were measured for plants at two heights in sandy and rocky soil, and temperature tolerances were determined by vital staining. • Key results: Plants embedded in rocky soil survived an extreme heat episode, unlike plants in ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Context-Dependency In Plant Response To Inoculation With Mycorrhizal Fungi, Veer Chaudhary 2009 Loyola University Chicago

A Meta-Analysis Of Context-Dependency In Plant Response To Inoculation With Mycorrhizal Fungi, Veer Chaudhary

V. Bala Chaudhary

Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 394-407 Abstract Mycorrhizal fungi influence plant growth, local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Effects of the symbiosis on plants span the continuum from mutualism to parasitism. We sought to understand this variation in symbiotic function using meta-analysis with information theory-based model selection to assess the relative importance of factors in five categories: (1) identity of the host plant and its functional characteristics, (2) identity and type of mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal vs. ectomycorrhizal), (3) soil fertility, (4) biotic complexity of the soil and (5) experimental location (laboratory vs. field). Across most subsets of the data, host plant ...


Amphibian Decline And Mass Mortality: The Value Of Visualizing Ranavirus In Tissue Sections., Debra Miller, Matthew Gray 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Amphibian Decline And Mass Mortality: The Value Of Visualizing Ranavirus In Tissue Sections., Debra Miller, Matthew Gray

Debra L Miller

No abstract provided.


Circadian Wheel-Running Activity During Withdrawal From Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure In Mice, Joseph Seggio 2009 Bridgewater State College

Circadian Wheel-Running Activity During Withdrawal From Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure In Mice, Joseph Seggio

Joseph A. Seggio

Alcohol withdrawal is associated with affective–behavioral disturbances in both human alcoholics and in animal models. In general, these phenomena are potentiated by increased alcohol exposure duration and by prior withdrawal episodes. Previous studies have also reported locomotor hypoactivity during ethanol withdrawal in rats and mice, but only in novel test environments and not in the home cage. In the present study, we examined the effects of withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure on the level and circadian periodicity of wheel-running activity in C57BL/6J mice. CIE treatment resulted in reductions in wheel-running activity compared with plain-air controls ...


Using A Free Online Citizen-Science Project To Teach Observation & Quantification Of Animal Behavior, Margaret Voss, Caren Cooper 2009 No institutional affiliation

Using A Free Online Citizen-Science Project To Teach Observation & Quantification Of Animal Behavior, Margaret Voss, Caren Cooper

Margaret A Voss

Students of animal behavior must learn to accurately define and quantify observations and to be aware of observational bias. We designed an introductory, college-level animal behavior laboratory that uses a free, online citizen-science project (CamClickr) to help students identify and overcome biases when interpreting observations. The exercise encourages proficiency in making structural descriptions of animal behavior while teaching students to use ethograms to generate and test discrete hypotheses.


Composition Of Ceanothus Gregii Oil As Determined By Steam Distillation And Solid-Phase Microextraction, Ed Frederickson, R. Estell, M. Lucero 2009 Eastern Kentucky University

Composition Of Ceanothus Gregii Oil As Determined By Steam Distillation And Solid-Phase Microextraction, Ed Frederickson, R. Estell, M. Lucero

Ed L. Frederickson

Ceanothus gregii Gray was collected from the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico. Current year’s growth was collected from ten plants found within an approximate 50 m radius of the GPS coordinates N32°40.605’ and W106°33.486’at an altitude of 1,741 m during July 2001. Composite samples of the plants were steam distilled in triplicate, and the composite oil was analyzed using both GC-FID and GC/MS. The volatile composition of the same plants was also examined using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a 100?m polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Mass spectra and retention indices were ...


Bees In America: How The Honey Bee Shaped A Nation, Tammy Horn 2009 Eastern Kentucky University

Bees In America: How The Honey Bee Shaped A Nation, Tammy Horn

Tammy Horn

" Honey bees--and the qualities associated with them--have quietly influenced American values for four centuries. During every major period in the country's history, bees and beekeepers have represented order and stability in a country without a national religion, political party, or language. Bees in America is an enlightening cultural history of bees and beekeeping in the United States. Tammy Horn, herself a beekeeper, offers a varied social and technological history from the colonial period, when the British first introduced bees to the New World, to the present, when bees are being used by the American military to detect bombs. Early ...


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