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Development, Evaluation, And Validation Of Environmental Assessment Tools To Evaluate The College Nutrition Environment, Marjorie Freedman 2010 San Jose State University

Development, Evaluation, And Validation Of Environmental Assessment Tools To Evaluate The College Nutrition Environment, Marjorie Freedman

Faculty Publications

Objective: To develop, evaluate, and validate 2 nutrition environment assessment tools (surveys), for specific use in combating overweight on college/university campuses.Participants and Methods: Invitations to complete surveys were e-mailed to food service and health center directors at 47 universities, Winter 2008. Overall response rate was 48%. Responses from the 39 individuals who completed tool evaluations at the end of each survey were analyzed. Follow-up interviews and site visits performed through Summer 2008 validated responses. Results: The majority of respondents (64%) indicated tools were effective at assessing their nutrition environments; 78% believed these types of assessment tools to be ...


Impacts Of A Herbivorous Fish, Campostoma Anomalum (Central Stoneroller), On Nitrogen Fixation By Benthic Algae, Chad Robert Schwinnen 2010 Wright State University

Impacts Of A Herbivorous Fish, Campostoma Anomalum (Central Stoneroller), On Nitrogen Fixation By Benthic Algae, Chad Robert Schwinnen

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Herbivorous fish negatively impact algal biomass and promote the growth of cyanobacteria. In nutrient poor conditions that sustain high levels of productivity nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria can supply up to 28% of the available nitrogen (Higgins et al. 2001) We investigated the role of grazing fish in sustaining high levels of productivity in nutrient poor conditions. We used the grazing minnow, Campostoma anomalum, and the acetylene reduction technique in a controlled environment to analyze rates of nitrogen fixation and primary production by the periphyton. Fish grazing reduced algal biomass and promoted the growth of cyanobacteria but had no impact on overall ...


Tissue Specific Effects Of Adipose Stem Cells (Asc) In A Melanoma Tumor Environment, Drew Michael Nedderman 2010 Wright State University

Tissue Specific Effects Of Adipose Stem Cells (Asc) In A Melanoma Tumor Environment, Drew Michael Nedderman

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This study determined the tissue-specific effect of adipose stem cells (ASC) within a melanoma environment for development of a cell-based melanoma therapy. Analysis included a subcutaneous B16-F1 melanoma model using thirty-one C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Melanoma xenografts were treated with cell-based therapies of CFDA-SE-labeled human fibroblasts HF20x (control), non-differentiated ndASC or hematopoietic-differentiated HdASC. No tumor regression was observed in presence of cell-based therapies, thus, the HdASC group demonstrated an increase in tumor growth accompanied with an up-regulated macrophage response, and increased angiogenesis. In addition, this group demonstrated a decrease in Melan-A tumor marker and interferon-γ expression suggesting that ASC-supported tumor ...


Ecological Speciation In A Multi-Trophic Complex: Gall Midges, Goldenrods, And Parasitoids, Brenda L. Wells 2010 Wright State University

Ecological Speciation In A Multi-Trophic Complex: Gall Midges, Goldenrods, And Parasitoids, Brenda L. Wells

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The importance of ecological interactions in the origin and maintenance of species diversity remains unclear. The current study assesses how ecological interactions shape the process of evolutionary diversification using a gall midge-host plant system in Ohio involving the gall midge, Asteromyia carbonifera (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and its goldenrod (Solidago) host-plants. A. carbonifera form four morphologically distinctive gall morphs and differ genetically. I studied phenology, host-plant specialization, and parasitism at three field sites in Southwestern Ohio. Phenology was assessed for twelve weeks while host-plant distribution and pressure from parasitoids were measured by monthly plot and rearing gall collections. Relative gall frequencies and ...


Inhibition Of Cell Invasion By Targeting Pld, Terry C. Farkaly 2010 Wright State University

Inhibition Of Cell Invasion By Targeting Pld, Terry C. Farkaly

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Phospholipase D (PLD) is a crucial signaling enzyme involved in many cellular processes. The catalytic activity of PLD is essential for the production of Phosphatidic Acid (PA), a critical second messenger in cell signaling cascades downstream. Using the highly invasive rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line mTLn3 as a metastatic model, we investigated the proficiency of these cells to invade using matrigels that mimic the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix (ECM), their activity through PLD enzymatic assays, as well as the potency of our potential inhibitors to inhibit PLD-mediated cell invasion and lipase activity. This study reveals that PLD-mediated cell ...


Physiological And Toxicological Effects Of Pb Plus Cd Mixtures On Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) In Soft Acidic Water, Yvonne Kara 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Physiological And Toxicological Effects Of Pb Plus Cd Mixtures On Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) In Soft Acidic Water, Yvonne Kara

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The ability of a metal to cause toxicity in aquatic environments is highly dependant upon the water chemistry, which can influence metal bioavailability. Metal bioavailability is affected by the concentration of the metal, complexation of the metal by organic and inorganic ligands, and by the speciation of the metal. Predictive models of metal toxicity, such as the biotic ligand model (BLM) have mainly focused upon predicting the toxicity of individual metals rather than the toxicity of metals in mixtures, which are more commonly found in contaminated waters. Two metals that are commonly found together are Pb and Cd which can ...


Insights Into The World Of Pea Nodulation Using The Low Nodulator R50, Scott Clemow 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Insights Into The World Of Pea Nodulation Using The Low Nodulator R50, Scott Clemow

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Cytokinin oxidase (CKX) is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of cytokinin, a class of adenine-based plant hormones that stimulate cell division, among other physiological processes. The pea mutant R50 is characterized by having a pale leaf phenotype, dwarf stature, few lateral roots, low nodule formation, and elevated levels of endogenous cytokinins in its shoots, roots and nodules. When compared to that of the wild-type Sparkle, total CKX activity is low but the transcript levels of PsCKX1 are significantly higher. In this study, I investigated the expression of PsCKX1 throughout the development of a nodule and the localization of PsCKX1 ...


Insights Into Genome Functional Organisation Through The Analysis Of Interaction Networks, Andre Masella 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Insights Into Genome Functional Organisation Through The Analysis Of Interaction Networks, Andre Masella

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Using computational techniques to identify orthology and operon structure, it is possible to find functional interactions between genes, which, together, define the genetic interactome. These large networks contain information about the relationships between phenotypes in organisms as genes responsible for related abilities are often co-regulated and reasserting of these genes can be detected in the operon structure. However, these networks are too large to analyse by hand In order to practically analyse the networks, a computational tool, gisql, was developed and, using this tool, the connectivity patterns in the genetic interactome can be analysed to understand high-level organisation of the ...


Microbial Community Characterization And Pathogen Analysis Within Constructed Wetlands Of Varying Scale Designed For Contaminant Removal, Michael R. Mitzel 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Microbial Community Characterization And Pathogen Analysis Within Constructed Wetlands Of Varying Scale Designed For Contaminant Removal, Michael R. Mitzel

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are complex treatment environments, requiring an integrative research approach to improve our understanding of them. The goal of this thesis was to establish an understanding of the functional and structural characteristics of microbial communities within bench-, field- and industrial-scale environmental treatment systems. The impact of pathogenic and/or antibiotic contaminants on these communities based on their functional and structural profiles using community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) and denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively, was investigated. Under normal operation, bench-, field- and industrial-scale treatment systems were able to produce similarly behaving structural and functional profiles. Increased retention time was consistently ...


Regional Management Units For Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework For Prioritizing Conservation And Research Across Multiple Scales, Bryan P. Wallace, John A. Musick 2010 et al

Regional Management Units For Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework For Prioritizing Conservation And Research Across Multiple Scales, Bryan P. Wallace, John A. Musick

VIMS Articles

Background: Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques - including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry - can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings: To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all ...


Evolutionary Characters, Phenotypes And Ontologies: Curating Data From The Systematic Biology Literature, Wasila M. Dahdul, Eric J. Hilton 2010 et al

Evolutionary Characters, Phenotypes And Ontologies: Curating Data From The Systematic Biology Literature, Wasila M. Dahdul, Eric J. Hilton

VIMS Articles

Background: The wealth of phenotypic descriptions documented in the published articles, monographs, and dissertations of phylogenetic systematics is traditionally reported in a free-text format, and it is therefore largely inaccessible for linkage to biological databases for genetics, development, and phenotypes, and difficult to manage for large-scale integrative work. The Phenoscape project aims to represent these complex and detailed descriptions with rich and formal semantics that are amenable to computation and integration with phenotype data from other fields of biology. This entails reconceptualizing the traditional free-text characters into the computable Entity-Quality (EQ) formalism using ontologies. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used ontologies ...


Increased Ocean Carbon Export In The Sargasso Sea Linked To Climate Variability Is Countered By Its Enhanced Mesopelagic Attenuation, M. W. Lomas, Deborah K. Steinberg, T. Dickey, C.A. Carlson, N.B. Nelson, R.H. Condon, N.R. Bates 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Increased Ocean Carbon Export In The Sargasso Sea Linked To Climate Variability Is Countered By Its Enhanced Mesopelagic Attenuation, M. W. Lomas, Deborah K. Steinberg, T. Dickey, C.A. Carlson, N.B. Nelson, R.H. Condon, N.R. Bates

VIMS Articles

Photosynthetic CO(2) uptake by oceanic phytoplankton and subsequent export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean interior comprises a globally significant biological carbon pump, controlled in part by the composition of the planktonic community. The strength and efficiency of this pump depends upon the balance of particle production in the euphotic zone and remineralization of those particles in the mesopelagic (defined here as depths between 150 and 300 m), but how these processes respond to climate-driven changes in the physical environment is not completely understood. In the Sargasso Sea, from similar to 1996-2007, we have observed a decade-long ...


Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa de Melo, Kimberly S. Reece 2010 et al

Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuca (Para state) to Santos (Sao Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceara state) to Florianopolis ...


Net Removal Of Nitrogen Through Ingestion Of Phytoplankton By Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia Tyrannus In Chesapeake Bay, Patrick D. Lynch, Mark J. Brush, Elizabeth D. Condon, Robert J. Latour 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Net Removal Of Nitrogen Through Ingestion Of Phytoplankton By Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia Tyrannus In Chesapeake Bay, Patrick D. Lynch, Mark J. Brush, Elizabeth D. Condon, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

As filter-feeding planktivores, Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus have the potential to influence water quality through ingestion of phytoplankton and assimilation of resultant nutrients. To evaluate the influence of young-of-the-year (YOY) and age-1+ menhaden in Chesapeake Bay, rates of phytoplankton (chl a) ingestion and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) excretion were measured experimentally across varying phytoplankton concentrations. Ingestion rates of YOY menhaden increased (0.03 to 185 mu g chl a fish(-1) min(-1)) in response to increasing phytoplankton concentration (4.98 to 198.22 mu g chl a l(-1)), while age-1+ menhaden exhibited virtually no ingestion of the phytoplankton ...


Genetic Studies Of Genes Involved In The Initiation Of Dna Replication In The Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces Pombe, Zhuo Wang 2010 Wright State University

Genetic Studies Of Genes Involved In The Initiation Of Dna Replication In The Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces Pombe, Zhuo Wang

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The initiation of DNA replication is a highly conserved process in all eukaryotes. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Genetic studies in the fission yeast S. pombe have contributed greatly to and will continue to provide insights to our understanding of this important biological process.

In the first chapter, we have used a complementary method to test three recently identified human replication proteins DUE-B, Ticrr/Treslin, and GEMC1 as the candidate functional homologue of Sld3 in S. pombe. Sld3 is an essential replication initiation protein discovered in yeasts. Since no apparent sequence similarity can be found, its homologue ...


Growth, Reproductive Condition, And Digestive Tubule Atrophy Of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas In Gamakman Bay Off The Southern Coast Of Korea, DH Kang, Fu-Lin E. Chu, HS Yang, CH Lee, CH Lee, HB Koh, KS Choi 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Growth, Reproductive Condition, And Digestive Tubule Atrophy Of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas In Gamakman Bay Off The Southern Coast Of Korea, Dh Kang, Fu-Lin E. Chu, Hs Yang, Ch Lee, Ch Lee, Hb Koh, Ks Choi

VIMS Articles

Spat of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were collected from Gamakman Bay, Korea, and raised in a spat hardening facility located in the low intertidal zone of the bay for a "hardening/stunting" period of 10 mo. Seasonal changes in growth, reproductive condition, and digestive tubule atrophy (DTA) of these "hardened/stunted" oysters were monitored for more than a year after transplanting to a suspended longline system in a grow-out area in the bay. After transplantation, the hardened/stunted oysters showed a logarithmic increase in shell size for the first 4 mo, from June to October, and growth remained stable from ...


A Comparison Of Crassostrea Virginica And C. Ariakensis In Chesapeake Bay: Does Oyster Species Affect Habitat Function?, HD Harwell, PR Kingsley-Smith, M. Lisa Kellogg, Standish K. Allen Jr., DW Meritt, Kennedy Paynter, Mark Luckenbach 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Comparison Of Crassostrea Virginica And C. Ariakensis In Chesapeake Bay: Does Oyster Species Affect Habitat Function?, Hd Harwell, Pr Kingsley-Smith, M. Lisa Kellogg, Standish K. Allen Jr., Dw Meritt, Kennedy Paynter, Mark Luckenbach

VIMS Articles

We examined the possibility that a nonnative oyster species would provide an ecologically functional equivalent of the native oyster species if introduced into the Chesapeake Bay. Habitat complexity and associated benthic communities of experimental triploid Crassostrea virginica and Crassostrea ariakensis reefs were investigated at 4 sites of varying salinity, tidal regime, water depth, predation intensity, and disease pressure in the Chesapeake Bay region (Maryland and Virginia). Four experimental treatments were established at each site: C. virginica, C. ariakensis, 50:50 of C. virginica and C. ariakensis, and shell only. Abundance, biomass, species richness, evenness, dominance, and diversity of reef-associated fauna ...


Soil Loading Effects Of Planter Depth-Gauge Wheels On Early Corn Growth, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Landon Aldinger 2010 Iowa State University

Soil Loading Effects Of Planter Depth-Gauge Wheels On Early Corn Growth, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Landon Aldinger

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Final soil manipulation before seed germination occurs during the planting operation. Contact force of depth-gauge wheels adjacent to the seed opener potentially alters the environment for corn seed germination and early plant growth. A field experiment was conducted measuring seed spacing, spacing variability, seed depth, emergence rate, plant dry matter, final stand, crop growth stage, and extended leaf height with different soil contact loads [light, 180 to 490 N (40 to 110 lb); medium, 490 to 890 N (110 to 200 lb); and heavy, over 890 N (200 lb)] and a range of three soil moistures (dry, moist, wet). A ...


Using Spatial Uncertainty Of Prior Measurements To Design Adaptive Sampling Of Elevation Data, Samsuzana Abd Aziz, Brian L. Steward, Manoj Karkee 2010 Universiti Putra Malaysia

Using Spatial Uncertainty Of Prior Measurements To Design Adaptive Sampling Of Elevation Data, Samsuzana Abd Aziz, Brian L. Steward, Manoj Karkee

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Field sampling can be a major expense for planning within-field management in precision agriculture. An efficient sampling strategy should address knowledge gaps, rather than exhaustively collect redundant data. Modification of existing schemes is possible by incorporating prior knowledge of spatial patterns within the field. In this study, spatial uncertainty of prior digital elevation model (DEM) estimates was used to locate adaptive re-survey regions in the field. An agricultural vehicle equipped with RTK-DGPS was driven across a 2.3 ha field area to measure the field elevation in a continuous fashion. A geostatistical simulation technique was used to simulate field DEMs ...


Laboratory Scale Evaluation Of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions As Indication Of Swine Carcass Degradation Inside Biosecure Composting Units, Neslihan Akdeniz, Jacek A. Koziel, Hee-Kwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Benjamin P. Crawford, D. Raj Raman 2010 Iowa State University

Laboratory Scale Evaluation Of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions As Indication Of Swine Carcass Degradation Inside Biosecure Composting Units, Neslihan Akdeniz, Jacek A. Koziel, Hee-Kwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Benjamin P. Crawford, D. Raj Raman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biosecure livestock mortality composting systems have been used to dispose of diseased livestock mortalities. In those types of system, visual inspection of carcass degradation is not possible and monitoring VOCs (volatile organic compounds) released by carcasses is a new approach to assess progress of the composting process. In this study, field-scale livestock mortality composting systems were simulated and a laboratory scale composting system with aerobic and anaerobic test units was designed to collect VOC samples from the headspace of decaying plant materials (70 g dry weight) and swine tissues (70 g dry weight) at controlled operating temperatures. Headspace samples were ...


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