Fitness Variation Due To Sexual Antagonism And Linkage Disequilibrium, 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Fitness Variation Due To Sexual Antagonism And Linkage Disequilibrium, Manus Patten, David Haig, Fransisco Úbeda De Torres
Francisco Úbeda de Torres
Extensive fitness variation for sexually antagonistic characters has been detected in nature. However, current population genetic theory suggests that sexual antagonism is unlikely to play a major role in the maintenance of variation. We present a twolocus model of sexual antagonism that is capable of explaining greater fitness variance at equilibrium than previous single-locus models. The second genetic locus provides additional fitness variance in two complementary ways. First, linked loci can maintain gene variants that are lost in single-locus models of evolution, expanding the opportunity for polymorphism. Second, linkage disequilibrium results between any two sexually antagonistic genes, producing an excess ...
Bacteriophage Probe-Based Biosensors, 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Bacteriophage Probe-Based Biosensors, M. Zourob, Steven Ripp
This book presents a significant and up-to-date review of various recognition receptors, their immobilization, and an overview of surface characterization techniques. Distinguished scientists from key institutions worldwide have contributed chapters that provide a deep analysis of their particular subjects; at the same time, each topic is framed within the context of this integrated approach. This work explores comprehensively the field of recognition receptors, presenting a thorough review of the subject and effective integration of these receptors on sensor surfaces in order to appropriately convey state-of the-art fundamentals and applications of the most innovative approaches.
Biosensors As Environmental Monitors, 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Biosensors As Environmental Monitors, S. Ripp, M. Diclaudio, Gary Sayler
Gary S. Sayler
This is the long-awaited and much-anticipated revision of the bestselling text and reference. Based on the latest information and investigative techniques from molecular biology and genetics, this Second Edition offers an in-depth examination of the role of microbiological processes related to environmental deterioration with an emphasis on the detection and control of environmental contaminants. Its goal is to further our understanding of the complex microbial processes underlying environmental degradation, its detection and control, and ultimately, its prevention.
Diagnostic Exercise: Chronic Vomiting In A Dog., 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Diagnostic Exercise: Chronic Vomiting In A Dog., Debra Miller
Debra L Miller
An approximately one-and-a-half-year-old, neutered male, mixed-breed dog was presented for a chronic history of vomiting. Profuse diarrhea was also noted during examination. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, bone chips were removed from the stomach, and a raised, circular area of gastric mucosa was biopsied. Histologically, there was severe gastric cryptosporidiosis as well as numerous spiral bacteria, consistent with Helicobacter spp. Polymerase chain reaction revealed visible bands for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene for Cryptosporidium spp. The polymerase chain reaction product was sequenced and was found to be most similar to Cryptosporidium muris. Both the gastric location and the species of ...
The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, 2009 University of Rhode Island
The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson
David R. Nelson
Background: The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a limited-genome organism that must obtain many of its biochemical building blocks, including N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), from its tick or vertebrate host. GlcNAc can be imported into the cell as a monomer or dimer (chitobiose), and the annotation for several B. burgdorferi genes suggests that this organism may be able to degrade and utilize chitin, a polymer of GlcNAc. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi to utilize chitin in the absence of free GlcNAc, and we attempted to identify genes involved in the process. We also examined the ...
Root Contraction Helps Protect The "Living Rock" Cactus Ariocarpus Fissuratus From Lethal High Temperatures When Growing In Rocky Soil, Gretchen North, T.Y. Garrett, C.V. Huynh
• Premise of the study: We investigated how the “living rock” cactus Ariocarpus fissuratus, like other low-growing desert plants, can endure potentially lethal high temperatures at the soil surface. Specifically, we examined how shoot descent by root contraction in the presence or absence of soil rocks influences shoot temperatures and transpiration. • Methods: Root contraction was identified by measuring shoot descent and anatomical analysis. Temperatures and transpiration were measured for plants at two heights in sandy and rocky soil, and temperature tolerances were determined by vital staining. • Key results: Plants embedded in rocky soil survived an extreme heat episode, unlike plants in ...
A Meta-Analysis Of Context-Dependency In Plant Response To Inoculation With Mycorrhizal Fungi, 2009 Loyola University Chicago
A Meta-Analysis Of Context-Dependency In Plant Response To Inoculation With Mycorrhizal Fungi, Veer Chaudhary
V. Bala Chaudhary
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 394-407 Abstract Mycorrhizal fungi influence plant growth, local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Effects of the symbiosis on plants span the continuum from mutualism to parasitism. We sought to understand this variation in symbiotic function using meta-analysis with information theory-based model selection to assess the relative importance of factors in five categories: (1) identity of the host plant and its functional characteristics, (2) identity and type of mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal vs. ectomycorrhizal), (3) soil fertility, (4) biotic complexity of the soil and (5) experimental location (laboratory vs. field). Across most subsets of the data, host plant ...
Amphibian Decline And Mass Mortality: The Value Of Visualizing Ranavirus In Tissue Sections., 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Amphibian Decline And Mass Mortality: The Value Of Visualizing Ranavirus In Tissue Sections., Debra Miller, Matthew Gray
Debra L Miller
No abstract provided.
Circadian Wheel-Running Activity During Withdrawal From Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure In Mice, 2009 Bridgewater State College
Circadian Wheel-Running Activity During Withdrawal From Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure In Mice, Joseph Seggio
Joseph A. Seggio
Alcohol withdrawal is associated with affective–behavioral disturbances in both human alcoholics and in animal models. In general, these phenomena are potentiated by increased alcohol exposure duration and by prior withdrawal episodes. Previous studies have also reported locomotor hypoactivity during ethanol withdrawal in rats and mice, but only in novel test environments and not in the home cage. In the present study, we examined the effects of withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure on the level and circadian periodicity of wheel-running activity in C57BL/6J mice. CIE treatment resulted in reductions in wheel-running activity compared with plain-air controls ...
Using A Free Online Citizen-Science Project To Teach Observation & Quantification Of Animal Behavior, 2009 No institutional affiliation
Using A Free Online Citizen-Science Project To Teach Observation & Quantification Of Animal Behavior, Margaret Voss, Caren Cooper
Margaret A Voss
Students of animal behavior must learn to accurately define and quantify observations and to be aware of observational bias. We designed an introductory, college-level animal behavior laboratory that uses a free, online citizen-science project (CamClickr) to help students identify and overcome biases when interpreting observations. The exercise encourages proficiency in making structural descriptions of animal behavior while teaching students to use ethograms to generate and test discrete hypotheses.
Composition Of Ceanothus Gregii Oil As Determined By Steam Distillation And Solid-Phase Microextraction, 2009 Eastern Kentucky University
Composition Of Ceanothus Gregii Oil As Determined By Steam Distillation And Solid-Phase Microextraction, Ed Frederickson, R. Estell, M. Lucero
Ed L. Frederickson
Ceanothus gregii Gray was collected from the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico. Current year’s growth was collected from ten plants found within an approximate 50 m radius of the GPS coordinates N32°40.605’ and W106°33.486’at an altitude of 1,741 m during July 2001. Composite samples of the plants were steam distilled in triplicate, and the composite oil was analyzed using both GC-FID and GC/MS. The volatile composition of the same plants was also examined using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a 100?m polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Mass spectra and retention indices were ...
Bees In America: How The Honey Bee Shaped A Nation, 2009 Eastern Kentucky University
Bees In America: How The Honey Bee Shaped A Nation, Tammy Horn
" Honey bees--and the qualities associated with them--have quietly influenced American values for four centuries. During every major period in the country's history, bees and beekeepers have represented order and stability in a country without a national religion, political party, or language. Bees in America is an enlightening cultural history of bees and beekeeping in the United States. Tammy Horn, herself a beekeeper, offers a varied social and technological history from the colonial period, when the British first introduced bees to the New World, to the present, when bees are being used by the American military to detect bombs. Early ...
Characterizing Weed Populations In Different Turfgrass Sites Throughout The Klang Valley Of Western Peninsular Malaysia, 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Characterizing Weed Populations In Different Turfgrass Sites Throughout The Klang Valley Of Western Peninsular Malaysia, Md Kamal Uddin, Abdul Juraimi, Mohd Ismail, Jim Brosnan
A field survey was conducted in 2007 to characterize weed populations in different turfgrass sites throughout the Klang Valley of western Peninsular Malaysia. Sites included golf course putting greens, athletic fields, sod farms, and residential lawns. Weeds present in each site were identified and the data were used to calculate frequency, distribution uniformity, density, relative abundance, and community coefficient values for each species. Seventy-nine weed species, belonging to 16 families, were found. The most species were found on residential lawns, and the fewest were found on golf course putting greens; athletic fields and sod farms ranked intermediately. A total of ...
Review Of Pregnancy Diagnosis Techniques In Cattle And Small Ruminants, 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Review Of Pregnancy Diagnosis Techniques In Cattle And Small Ruminants, Brian Whitlock, Elizabeth Coffman
Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT
Pregnancy diagnosis is a common management practice for ruminants and there are a number of methods available, with each having advantage(s) and/or disadvantage(s). A brief review of pregnancy diagnosis techniques in cattle, goats, and sheep is provided.
Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Caused By Aphanomyces Invadans In Captive Bullseye Snakehead Channa Marulius Collected From South Florida, Usa., 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Caused By Aphanomyces Invadans In Captive Bullseye Snakehead Channa Marulius Collected From South Florida, Usa., R. Saylor, Debra Miller, M. Vandersea, M. Bevelhimer, P. Schofield, W. Bennett
Debra L Miller
Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is an invasive, opportunistic disease of both freshwater and estuarine fishes. Originally documented as the cause of mycotic granulomatosis of ornamental fishes in Japan and as the cause of EUS of fishes in southeast Asia and Australia, this pathogen is also present in estuaries and freshwater bodies of the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the USA. We describe a mass mortality event of 343 captive juvenile bullseye snakehead Channa marulius collected from freshwater canals in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Clinical signs appeared within the first 2 d of captivity and included ...
Functional Anatomy Of Penaeid Shrimp, 2009 Occidental College
Functional Anatomy Of Penaeid Shrimp, Gary Martin, Jo Hose
A comprehensive source of information on all aspects of shrimp production, this reference covers not only the global status of shrimp farming, but also examines shrimp anatomy and physiology. From nutrition to health management and harvesting issues to biosecurity, this well-researched volume evaluates existing knowledge, proposes new concepts, and questions common practices. With an extensive review on worldwide production systems, this compilation will be highly relevant to research scientists, students, and shrimp producers.
Pharmacology Supplement, 2009 Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne
Pharmacology Supplement, Ahmed Mustafa, Ellioott Blumenthal
Ahmed Mustafa Dr.
No abstract provided.
Response To Vaccination With A Commercial Inactivated Rabies Vaccine In A Captive Colony Of Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats (Tadarida Brasiliensis), 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Response To Vaccination With A Commercial Inactivated Rabies Vaccine In A Captive Colony Of Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats (Tadarida Brasiliensis), Amy Turmelle, Louise Allen, Barbara Schmidt-French, Felix Jackson, Thomas Kunz, Charles Rupprecht, Gary Mccracken
Gary F. McCracken
A captive colony of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) was vaccinated with a commercial monovalent inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccine (RABVAC 1). Baseline rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) and the response to vaccination were measured in 50 bats. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 64% (27/42) of bats that had been vaccinated 1 yr prior, but only 19% (8/42) had levels considered adequate. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 63% (5/8) of bats with no record of previous vaccination, suggesting natural RABV exposure before captivity. All bats demonstrated a VNA response by 10 ...
Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis And The Collapse Of Anuran Species Richness And Abundance In The Upper Manu National Park, Southeastern Peru, 2009 Illinois Wesleyan University
Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis And The Collapse Of Anuran Species Richness And Abundance In The Upper Manu National Park, Southeastern Peru, Edgar Lehr, Allessandro Catenazzi, Lily Rodriguez, Vance Vrendeburg
Amphibians are declining worldwide, but these declines have been particularly dramatic in tropical mountains, where high endemism and vulnerability to an introduced fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is associated with amphibian extinctions. We surveyed frogs in the Peruvian Andes in montane forests along a steep elevational gradient (1200-3700 m). We used visual encounter surveys to sample stream-dwelling and arboreal species and leaf-litter plots to sample terrestrial-breeding species. We compared species richness and abundance among the wet seasons of 1999, 2008, and 2009. Despite similar sampling effort among years, the number of species (46 in 1999) declined by 47% between 1999 ...
Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting, 2009 University of Iowa
Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting, David Depew
David J Depew
This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific ...