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Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2010 Independent Scientist and Author

Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Laboratory Experiments Collection

This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high degree of sentience and can suffer, (b) laboratory environments cause suffering, (c) rats and mice in the wild have discrete behavioral needs, (d) rats and mice bred for many generations in the laboratory retain these needs, and (e) these needs are not met in laboratory cages.


Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2010 Independent Scientist and Author

Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Laboratory Experiments Collection

I’m grateful to the editors for soliciting critiques of my commentary and for the opportunity to respond. Because one of the respondents (Patterson-Kane, 2010/this issue) does not take issue with the main points of my article, whereas the other (Blanchard, 2010/this issue) does, I focus my remarks here mostly on Blanchard’s critique.


Loss Of Foundation Species Increases Population Growth Of Exotic Forbs In Sagebrush Steppe, J S. Prevey, M J. Germino, Nancy J. Huntly 2010 Utah State University

Loss Of Foundation Species Increases Population Growth Of Exotic Forbs In Sagebrush Steppe, J S. Prevey, M J. Germino, Nancy J. Huntly

Biology Faculty Publications

The invasion and spread of exotic plants following land disturbance threatens semiarid ecosystems. In sagebrush steppe, soil water is scarce and is partitioned between deeprooted perennial shrubs and shallower-rooted native forbs and grasses. Disturbances commonly remove shrubs, leaving grass-dominated communities, and may allow for the exploitation of water resources by the many species of invasive, tap-rooted forbs that are increasingly successful in this habitat. We hypothesized that exotic forb populations would benefit from increased soil water made available by removal of sagebrush, a foundation species capable of deep-rooting, in semiarid shrub-steppe ecosystems. To test this hypothesis, we used periodic matrix ...


An Hsi Report: Food Safety And Cage Egg Production, Humane Society International 2010 Animal Studies Repository

An Hsi Report: Food Safety And Cage Egg Production, Humane Society International

HSI REPORTS

Governments have begun legislating against cage egg production and a growing number of major food retailers, restaurant chains, and foodservice providers worldwide are switching to cage-free eggs. Extensive scientific evidence strongly suggests this trend will improve food safety. All fifteen scientific studies published in the last five years comparing Salmonella contamination between caged and cage-free operations found that those confining hens in cages had higher rates of Salmonella, a leading cause of food poisoning worldwide. This has led prominent consumer advocacy organizations, such as the Center for Food Safety, to oppose the use of cages to confine egg-laying hens.


Molecular Tools For Understanding The Population Genetic Effects Of Habitat Restoration On Butterflies, Joseph R. Marquardt 2010 Western Kentucky University

Molecular Tools For Understanding The Population Genetic Effects Of Habitat Restoration On Butterflies, Joseph R. Marquardt

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Fatigue On Muscle Activation And Shock Attenuation During Barefoot Running, Carl Q. (Carl Quinn) Newton 2010 Western Washington University

Effects Of Fatigue On Muscle Activation And Shock Attenuation During Barefoot Running, Carl Q. (Carl Quinn) Newton

WWU Graduate School Collection

Lately, barefoot running has received attention from many acknowledged researchers and athletes alike. If alterations in running mechanics related to fatigue are found to be different while running barefoot, it may help to identify the practicality and efficacy of barefoot running in terms of injury prevention. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of global fatigue on muscle activation and the rate of shock attenuation during barefoot (BFT) and shod (SHD) running in habitually shod runners. METHODS: Eleven well-trained runners were recruited from the community to complete protocols in two different footwear conditions (BFT and SHD ...


The Relationship Between Native Richness And Exotic Success Depends On The Index Of Exotic Success And Environmental Gradients, Daniel Slakey 2010 Western Washington University

The Relationship Between Native Richness And Exotic Success Depends On The Index Of Exotic Success And Environmental Gradients, Daniel Slakey

WWU Graduate School Collection

The theory of resource use pre-emption suggests that diverse communities may be more resistant to invasion than simple communities due to lack of niche space for invaders. Studies examining the relationship of native species richness to exotic success have provided mixed support for this idea. To test this theory, I measured plant diversity and cover across topographic gradients differing in resource availability in a California serpentine grassland, and measured exotic success as either species richness, absolute cover, or dominance of exotic species. I then evaluated models predicting these different measures of exotic success, using either native richness alone or in ...


Cosmological Beliefs About Origins Related To Science Achievement Among Junior High-School Students In South Bend, Indiana, J David Van Dyke 2010 Andrews University

Cosmological Beliefs About Origins Related To Science Achievement Among Junior High-School Students In South Bend, Indiana, J David Van Dyke

Dissertations

Problem. American high-school students score lower in science achievement tests than their peers in other developed nations. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) ranked the scientific achievement of American high-school students as ―very low‖ in comparison to high-school students in other industrialized nations—only 29th out of 57 developed countries. Research has indicated that achievement declines as U.S. students progress to higher grades and take on more rigorous science courses. A variety of factors have been documented that may account for U.S. students‘ lower science achievement rankings. These include socioeconomic status, race, and gender. One area ...


The Role Of The Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase, Camk-Ii, In Heart And Kidney Development In The Zebrafish, Danio Rerio, Sarah Rothschild 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of The Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase, Camk-Ii, In Heart And Kidney Development In The Zebrafish, Danio Rerio, Sarah Rothschild

Theses and Dissertations

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMK-II) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed throughout the lifespan of metazoans. Mammals encode four genes (α, β, γ, δ) that generate over forty splice-variants. CaMK-II is important in a myriad of functions, including ion channel regulation, cell-cycle progression, and long term potentiation. In adults, alterations in activation of CaMK-II induce cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. Developmental roles for CaMK-II are not as well understood since mouse knockouts are embryonic lethal. Therefore the identification of other vertebrate CaMK-II genes will add to our understanding of development. Zebrafish encode seven catalytically ...


Periodontal Bacterial-Dna Initiated Immuno-Inflammatory Responses In Human Osteoblastic Cells, Chebel Najib Bou 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

Periodontal Bacterial-Dna Initiated Immuno-Inflammatory Responses In Human Osteoblastic Cells, Chebel Najib Bou

Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease initiated by gram negative anaerobic bacteria. These bacteria possess pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that interact with various receptors including Toll like receptors (TLRs). Bacterial DNA (bDNA) is one of the PAMPs mainly recognized by TLR9. Interaction of bDNA and its receptors leads to activation of inflammatory signaling pathways potentially resulting in periodontal bone destruction. The aim of this study was to determine the production of IL- 6 and IL-8 in response to periodontal bDNA from human osteoblastic cells (MG-63). MG- 63 cells were stimulated in duplicate for 20 hours with 100ng/μl of bDNA ...


Expression Levels Of Non-Autonomous Retrotransposons In Germ-Line Rodent Tissues, Catherine Elaine Wiesner 2010 Eastern Michigan University

Expression Levels Of Non-Autonomous Retrotransposons In Germ-Line Rodent Tissues, Catherine Elaine Wiesner

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

SINEs (short interspersed DNA elements) are families of non-coding regions of DNA that amplify within genomes via an RNA intermediate and are referred to as retrotransposons. These elements mobilize using machinery from other retrotransposons and therefore are non-autonomous. It has been demonstrated that both nucleotide sequence and the 3’ A-tail are important contributors for successful amplification. We propose that the level of germ-line transcription of SINE “master genes” is a primary factor in their successful mobility and vertical transmission. RT-PCR and qPCR results suggested higher expression of both SINE and LINE elements in germ-line tissues over somatic. Additionally, the qPCR ...


Receptor-Dependent Phagocytosis Of Clostridium Sordellii By Human Decidual Macrophages, Tennille D. Thelen 2010 Eastern Michigan University

Receptor-Dependent Phagocytosis Of Clostridium Sordellii By Human Decidual Macrophages, Tennille D. Thelen

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Clostridium sordellii is an emerging pathogen associated with highly-lethal female reproductive tract (FRT) infections following childbirth, abortion, or cervical instrumentation. Gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of C. sordellii infections present major challenges to the development of better preventive and therapeutic strategies against this problem. We sought to determine the mechanisms whereby uterine DMs phagocytose this bacterium and tested the hypothesis that human DMs utilize class A scavenger receptors (CASRs) to internalize unopsonized C. sordellii. In vitro phagocytosis assays with human DMs incubated with pharmacological inhibitors of CASRs (fucoidan, polyinosinic acid, and dextran sulfate) revealed a role for ...


Effect Of Temperature And Nutrient Concentration On The Growth Of Six Species Of Sooty Blotch And Flyspeck Fungi, Jean C. Batzer, Sandra Hernandez Rincon, Daren S. Mueller, Benjamin J. Petersen, Fabien Le Corronc, Patricia S. McManus, Philip M. Dixon, Mark Gleason 2010 Iowa State University

Effect Of Temperature And Nutrient Concentration On The Growth Of Six Species Of Sooty Blotch And Flyspeck Fungi, Jean C. Batzer, Sandra Hernandez Rincon, Daren S. Mueller, Benjamin J. Petersen, Fabien Le Corronc, Patricia S. Mcmanus, Philip M. Dixon, Mark Gleason

Statistics Publications

We assessed the effects of temperature and nutrient concentration on the growth of commonly occurring members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex in the Midwest United States. Radial growth in vitro of two isolates of each of six SBFS species (Dissoconium aciculare, Colletogloeum sp. FG2, Peltaster sp. P2, Sybren sp. CS1, Pseudocercosporella sp. RH1, and Peltaster fructicola) was measured at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C for 7 weeks. Optimal growth for all six species occurred at 20 to 25°C, with slower growth at 10 and 15°C and little to no growth at 30 ...


Sustainability Of Glyphosate-Based Weed Management: The Benchmark Study, Michael D. Owen, Philip M. Dixon, David R. Shaw, Stephen C. Weller, Bryan G. Young, Robert G. Wilson, David L. Jordan 2010 Iowa State University

Sustainability Of Glyphosate-Based Weed Management: The Benchmark Study, Michael D. Owen, Philip M. Dixon, David R. Shaw, Stephen C. Weller, Bryan G. Young, Robert G. Wilson, David L. Jordan

Statistics Publications

One key to improved global crop production efficiency is the effective management of weeds, which are ranked as the number one crop pest by a majority of farmers1. This is no great surprise, as weeds are constantly evolving within the man-caused agroecosystems by adapting to high selection pressures imposed by crop production practices and, importantly, developing resistance to herbicides. Genetically engineered (GE) herbicide resistant (HR) crops facilitate better weed management and thus improved yields and more efficient use of resources, while minimizing risks to the environment (e.g., soil erosion). Since the commercial introduction of glyphosate resistant (GR) crops in ...


How Our Health Depends On Biodiversity, Eric Chivian M.D., Aaron Bernstein M.D., M.P.H. 2010 Center for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School

How Our Health Depends On Biodiversity, Eric Chivian M.D., Aaron Bernstein M.D., M.P.H.

Ecosystem Disruption & Climate Change

The eminent Harvard biology Professor Edward O.Wilson once said about ants, “We need them to survive, but they don’t need us at all.” The same, in fact, could be said about countless other insects, bacteria, fungi, plankton, plants, and other organisms. This fundamental truth, however, is largely lost to many of us. Rather, we humans often act as if we are totally independent of Nature, as if our driving thousands of other species to extinction and disrupting the life-giving services they provide will have no effect on us whatsoever.

This summary, using concrete examples from our award-winning Oxford ...


The Relationship Between Bat Velocity, Upper And Lower Extremity Power And The Rotational Kinetic Chain In Ncaa Division Ii Softball Players, Liza S. Teichler 2010 Western Washington University

The Relationship Between Bat Velocity, Upper And Lower Extremity Power And The Rotational Kinetic Chain In Ncaa Division Ii Softball Players, Liza S. Teichler

WWU Graduate School Collection

Fastpitch softball has undergone a relative resurgence in popularity in the NCAA in recent years as marked by a greater than two fold increase in participating teams and athletes. This trend has coincided with rises in NCAA employment of strength and conditioning professionals as well as attention paid to the generation of maximal bat velocity. The development of bat velocity positively affects the hitter's decision-making time, ability to make solid contact with the ball, increase hit distance and velocity. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if there were significant correlations between lower extremity power, upper extremity ...


Grazing Interactions Between Oxyrrhis Marina And Synechococcus Strains Grown In Single Nitrogen Sources, Virginia. Selz 2010 Western Washington University

Grazing Interactions Between Oxyrrhis Marina And Synechococcus Strains Grown In Single Nitrogen Sources, Virginia. Selz

WWU Graduate School Collection

The goal of this study was to assess the interaction between abiotic and biotic factors on diverse Synechococcus strains isolated from the coastal California Current (CC9311, CC9605, CC9902) and the oceanic Sargasso Sea (WH8102 and mutants: JMS40 and SIO7B). Previous research has demonstrated that abiotic factors, such as nutrient source or concentration, can alter cellular structure and chemistry. These cell characteristics in turn influence biotic factors such as predation by protozoan grazers. Synechococcus strains isolated from coastal and open ocean waters were grown to nitrogen (N) depletion in N-reduced medium. After reaching stationary phase, strains were transferred to media containing ...


Effect Of Resistance Training On Body Composition Of Persons With Type Ii Diabetes, Eric R. Spickler 2010 Western Washington University

Effect Of Resistance Training On Body Composition Of Persons With Type Ii Diabetes, Eric R. Spickler

WWU Graduate School Collection

The current study was designed to measure the effect of an eight week resistance training program on the body composition of persons with type II diabetes. To assess the effectiveness of the program, body composition was measured before and immediately following the training period. Forty-one subjects (female = 25, male = 16) participated in the study. Seventeen were randomly assigned to the resistance training group and eighteen were assigned to the control group. Resistance training was performed under supervision three days a week for eight weeks on eleven different exercises (triceps press, bicep curl, lat row, bench press, hip flexion, hip extension ...


Geocoding Rural Addresses In A Community Contaminated By Pfoa: A Comparison Of Methods, Verónica M. Vieira, Gregory J. Howard, Lisa G. Gallagher, Tony Fletcher 2010 Dickinson College

Geocoding Rural Addresses In A Community Contaminated By Pfoa: A Comparison Of Methods, Verónica M. Vieira, Gregory J. Howard, Lisa G. Gallagher, Tony Fletcher

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Background: Location is often an important component of exposure assessment, and positional errors in geocoding may result in exposure misclassification. In rural areas, successful geocoding to a street address is limited by rural route boxes. Communities have assigned physical street addresses to rural route boxes as part of E911 readdressing projects for improved emergency response. Our study compared automated and E911 methods for recovering and geocoding valid street addresses and assessed the impact of positional errors on exposure classification.

Methods: The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data that included 135 addresses self-reported by participants of a rural ...


Training Livestock To Leave Streams And Use Uplands, USU Extension 2010 Utah State University

Training Livestock To Leave Streams And Use Uplands, Usu Extension

All Current Publications

Cattle can damage streams and surrounding vegetation—riparian areas—by breaking down banks decreasing water quality, and reducing wildlife living in the stream and on the land.


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