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Quality Prevails Over Identity In The Sexually Selected Vocalisations Of An Ageing Mammal, Elodie F. Briefer, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. McElligott 2010 Queen Mary University of London

Quality Prevails Over Identity In The Sexually Selected Vocalisations Of An Ageing Mammal, Elodie F. Briefer, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. Mcelligott

Ethology Collection

Background: Male sexually selected vocalisations generally contain both individuality and quality cues that are crucial in intra- as well as inter-sexual communication. As individuality is a fixed feature whereas male phenotypic quality changes with age, individuality and quality cues may be subjected to different selection pressures over time. Individuality (for example, morphology of the vocal apparatus) and quality (for example, body size and dominance status) can both affect the vocal production mechanism, inducing the same components of vocalisations to convey both kinds of information. In this case, do quality-related changes to the acoustic structure of calls induce a modification of ...


About Fish, The Humane Society of the United States 2010 Animal Studies Repository

About Fish, The Humane Society Of The United States

Aquaculture Collection

Although a number of fish species have been studied in their freshwater life stages, further research on the behavior and habitat requirements of ocean-going fish is required. While fishes have historically been regarded as more “primitive” than other vertebrate groups, Rodriguez et al concluded that several memory and learning systems of bony fishes are noticeably similar to those of reptiles, birds, and mammals. When animals as small and under appreciated as fish display complex mating systems, parental care, and demonstrate the ability to traverse significant distances using olfactory and celestial cues, it is clear that previously established definitions of intelligence ...


The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch 2010 Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET)

The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch

Experimentation Collection

No abstract provided.


The Combined Influence Of The Local Environment Andregional Enrichment On Bird Species Richness, Ethan P. White, A. H. Hurlbert 2010 Utah State University

The Combined Influence Of The Local Environment Andregional Enrichment On Bird Species Richness, Ethan P. White, A. H. Hurlbert

Biology Faculty Publications

It is generally accepted that local species richness at a site reflects the combined influence of local and regional processes. However, most empirical studies evaluate the influence of either local environmental variables or regional enrichment but not both simultaneously. Here we demonstrate the importance of combining these processes to understand continental scale richness patterns in breeding birds. We show that neither regional enrichment nor the local environment in isolation is sufficient to characterize observed patterns of species richness. Combining both sets of variables into a single model results in improved model fit and the removal of residual spatial autocorrelation. At ...


The Evolution Of Chloroplast Genome Structure In Ferns, Paul G. Wolf, J. M. Roper, A. M. Duffy 2010 Utah State University

The Evolution Of Chloroplast Genome Structure In Ferns, Paul G. Wolf, J. M. Roper, A. M. Duffy

Biology Faculty Publications

The plastid genome (plastome) is a rich source of phylogenetic and other comparative data in plants. Most land plants possess a plastome of similar structure. However, in a major group of plants, the ferns, a unique plastome structure has evolved. The gene order in ferns has been explained by a series of genomic inversions relative to the plastome organization of seed plants. Here, we examine for the first time the structure of the plastome across fern phylogeny. We used a PCR-based strategy to map and partially sequence plastomes. We found that a pair of partially overlapping inversions in the region ...


Complete Plastome Sequences Of Equisetum Arvense And Isoetes Flaccida: Implications For Phylogeny And Plastid Genome Evolution Of Early Land Plant Lineages, K. G. Karol, K. Arumuganthan, J. L. Boore, A. M. Duffy, K. D. E. Everett, J. D. Hall, S. K. Hansen, J. V. Mandoli, D. F. Mandoli, B. D. Mishler, R. G. Olmstead, K. S. Renzaglia, Paul G. Wolf 2010 Utah State University

Complete Plastome Sequences Of Equisetum Arvense And Isoetes Flaccida: Implications For Phylogeny And Plastid Genome Evolution Of Early Land Plant Lineages, K. G. Karol, K. Arumuganthan, J. L. Boore, A. M. Duffy, K. D. E. Everett, J. D. Hall, S. K. Hansen, J. V. Mandoli, D. F. Mandoli, B. D. Mishler, R. G. Olmstead, K. S. Renzaglia, Paul G. Wolf

Biology Faculty Publications

Background Despite considerable progress in our understanding of land plant phylogeny, several nodes in the green tree of life remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the bulk of currently available data come from only a subset of major land plant clades. Here we examine early land plant evolution using complete plastome sequences including two previously unexamined and phylogenetically critical lineages. To better understand the evolution of land plants and their plastomes, we examined aligned nucleotide sequences, indels, gene and nucleotide composition, inversions, and gene order at the boundaries of the inverted repeats. Results We present the plastome sequences of Equisetum arvense, a ...


Chloroplast Genome Sequence Of The Moss Torula Ruralis: Gene Content, Polymorphism, And Structural Arrangement Relative To Other Green Plant Chloroplast Genomes, M. J. Oliver, A. G. Murdock, B. D. Mishler, J. V. Kuehl, J. L. Boore, D. F. Mandoli, K. D. E. Everett, Paul G. Wolf, A. M. Duffy, K. G. Karol 2010 Utah State University

Chloroplast Genome Sequence Of The Moss Torula Ruralis: Gene Content, Polymorphism, And Structural Arrangement Relative To Other Green Plant Chloroplast Genomes, M. J. Oliver, A. G. Murdock, B. D. Mishler, J. V. Kuehl, J. L. Boore, D. F. Mandoli, K. D. E. Everett, Paul G. Wolf, A. M. Duffy, K. G. Karol

Biology Faculty Publications

Background Tortula ruralis, a widely distributed species in the moss family Pottiaceae, is increasingly used as a model organism for the study of desiccation tolerance and mechanisms of cellular repair. In this paper, we present the chloroplast genome sequence of T. ruralis, only the second published chloroplast genome for a moss, and the first for a vegetatively desiccation-tolerant plant. Results The Tortula chloroplast genome is ~123,500 bp, and differs in a number of ways from that of Physcomitrella patens, the first published moss chloroplast genome. For example, Tortula lacks the ~71 kb inversion found in the large single copy ...


The Construction And Analysis Of Marker Gene Libraries, S.M. Short, F. Chen, Steven Wilhelm 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Construction And Analysis Of Marker Gene Libraries, S.M. Short, F. Chen, Steven Wilhelm

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

Marker genes for viruses are typically amplified from aquatic samples to determine whether specific viruses are present in the sample, or to examine the diversity of a group of related viruses. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of common methods used to amplify, clone, sequence, and analyze virus marker genes, and will focus our discussion on viruses infecting algae, bacteria, and heterotrophic flagellates. Within this chapter, we endeavor to highlight critical aspects and components of these methods. To this end, instead of providing a detailed experimental protocol for each of the steps involved in examining virus marker gene ...


Determining Rates Of Virus Production In Aquatic Systems By The Virus Reduction Approach,, M.G. Weinbauer, J.M. Rowe, Steven Wilhelm 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Determining Rates Of Virus Production In Aquatic Systems By The Virus Reduction Approach,, M.G. Weinbauer, J.M. Rowe, Steven Wilhelm

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

The reduction approach to assess virus production and the prokaryotic mortality by viral lysis stops new infection by reducing total virus abundance (and thus virus–host contacts). This allows for easy enumeration of viruses that originate from lysis of already infected cells due to the decreased abundance of free virus particles. This reoccurrence can be quantified and used to assess production and cell lysis rates. Several modifications of the method are presented and compared. The approaches have great potential for elucidating trends in virus production rates as well as for making generalized estimates of the quantitative effects of viruses on ...


Spatial Structure And Activity Of Sedimentary Microbial Communities Underlying A Beggiatoa Spp. Mat In A Gulf Of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep, Karen Lloyd, Daniel B. Albert, Jennifer F. Biddle, Jeffrey P. Chanton, Oscar Pizarro, Andreas Teske 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Spatial Structure And Activity Of Sedimentary Microbial Communities Underlying A Beggiatoa Spp. Mat In A Gulf Of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep, Karen Lloyd, Daniel B. Albert, Jennifer F. Biddle, Jeffrey P. Chanton, Oscar Pizarro, Andreas Teske

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

Background

Subsurface fluids from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps undergo methane- and sulfur-cycling microbial transformations near the sediment surface. Hydrocarbon seep habitats are naturally patchy, with a mosaic of active seep sediments and non-seep sediments. Microbial community shifts and changing activity patterns on small spatial scales from seep to non-seep sediment remain to be examined in a comprehensive habitat study.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We conducted a transect of biogeochemical measurements and gene expression related to methane- and sulfur-cycling at different sediment depths across a broad Beggiatoa spp. mat at Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in the Gulf of Mexico. High process rates within ...


Autonomous Bioluminescent Expression Of The Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (Lux) In A Mammalian Cell Line, Dan M. Close, Stacey S. Patterson, Steven Ripp, Seung J. Baek, John Sanseverino, Gary S. Sayler 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Autonomous Bioluminescent Expression Of The Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (Lux) In A Mammalian Cell Line, Dan M. Close, Stacey S. Patterson, Steven Ripp, Seung J. Baek, John Sanseverino, Gary S. Sayler

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

Background

The bacterial luciferase (lux) gene cassette consists of five genes (luxCDABE) whose protein products synergistically generate bioluminescent light signals exclusive of supplementary substrate additions or exogenous manipulations. Historically expressible only in prokaryotes, the lux operon was re-synthesized through a process of multi-bicistronic, codon-optimization to demonstrate for the first time self-directed bioluminescence emission in a mammalian HEK293 cell line in vitro and in vivo.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Autonomous in vitro light production was shown to be 12-fold greater than the observable background associated with untransfected control cells. The availability of reduced riboflavin phosphate (FMNH2) was identified as the limiting bioluminescence ...


Individuality In Gut Microbiota Composition Is A Complex Polygenic Trait Shaped By Multiple Environmental And Host Genetic Factors, Andrew K. Benson, Scott A. Kelly, Ryan Legge, Fangrui Ma, Soo Jen Low, Jaehyoung Kim, Min Zhang, Phaik Lyn Oh, Derrick Nehrenberg, Kunjie Huab, Stephen D. Kachman, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Jens Walter, Daniel A. Peterson, Daniel Pomp 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Individuality In Gut Microbiota Composition Is A Complex Polygenic Trait Shaped By Multiple Environmental And Host Genetic Factors, Andrew K. Benson, Scott A. Kelly, Ryan Legge, Fangrui Ma, Soo Jen Low, Jaehyoung Kim, Min Zhang, Phaik Lyn Oh, Derrick Nehrenberg, Kunjie Huab, Stephen D. Kachman, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Jens Walter, Daniel A. Peterson, Daniel Pomp

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

In vertebrates, including humans, individuals harbor gut microbial communities whose species composition and relative proportions of dominant microbial groups are tremendously varied. Although external and stochastic factors clearly contribute to the individuality of the microbiota, the fundamental principles dictating how environmental factors and host genetic factors combine to shape this complex ecosystem are largely unknown and require systematic study. Here we examined factors that affect microbiota composition in a large (n = 645) mouse advanced intercross line originating from a cross between C57BL/6J and an ICR-derived outbred line (HR). Quantitative pyrosequencing of the microbiota defined a core measurable microbiota (CMM ...


Translational Inhibition By Micrornas In Plants, Bin Yu, Hai Wang 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Translational Inhibition By Micrornas In Plants, Bin Yu, Hai Wang

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21–24 nucleotide riboregulators, which selectively repress gene expression through transcript cleavage and/or translational inhibition. It was thought that most plant miRNAs act through target transcript cleavage due to the high degree of complementarity between miRNAs and their targets. However, recent studies have suggested widespread translational inhibition by miRNAs in plants. The mechanisms underlining translational inhibition by plant miRNAs are largely unknown, but existing evidence has indicated that plants and animals share some mechanistic similarity of translational inhibition. Translational inhibition by miRNAs has been shown to regulate floral patterning, floral timing, and stress responses. This chapter ...


Development Of New Functional Food Applications Of Edible Irish Seaweed, Sabrina Cox 2010 Technological University Dublin

Development Of New Functional Food Applications Of Edible Irish Seaweed, Sabrina Cox

Conference papers

No abstract provided.


Development Of A Fluorescent Anti-Factor Xa Assay To Monitor Unfractionated And Low Molecular Weight Heparins, Leanne Harris, Vanessa Castro-Lopez, Nissrin Hammadi, James S. O'Donnell, Tony Killard 2010 Technological University Dublin

Development Of A Fluorescent Anti-Factor Xa Assay To Monitor Unfractionated And Low Molecular Weight Heparins, Leanne Harris, Vanessa Castro-Lopez, Nissrin Hammadi, James S. O'Donnell, Tony Killard

Articles

Fluorogenic assays have many potential advantages over traditional clot-based and chromogenic assays such as the absence of interference from a range of factor deficiencies as well as offering the possibility of assays in platelet rich plasma or whole blood. A fluorogenic anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa) assay has been developed for the determination of heparin-like anticoagulants including unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), namely enoxaparin and tinzaparin, and the synthetic heparinoid danaparoid, in commercial human pooled plasma. The assay was based on the complexation of heparin-spiked plasmas with exogenous FXa at a concentration of 4 nM in the presence of 0 ...


High-Density Screening Reveals A Different Spectrum Of Genomic Aberrations In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients With ‘Stereotyped’ Ighv3-21 And Ighv4-34 B-Cell Receptors, Millaray Marincevic, Nicola Cahill, Rebeqa Gunnarsson, Anders Isaksson, Mahmoud Mansouri, Hanna Göransson, Markus Rasmussen, Mattias Jansson, Fergus Ryan, Karin Karlsson, Hans-Olov Adami, Fred Davi, Jesper Jurlander, Gunnar Juliusson, Kostas Stamatopoulos, Richard Rosenquist 2010 Uppsala Universitet

High-Density Screening Reveals A Different Spectrum Of Genomic Aberrations In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients With ‘Stereotyped’ Ighv3-21 And Ighv4-34 B-Cell Receptors, Millaray Marincevic, Nicola Cahill, Rebeqa Gunnarsson, Anders Isaksson, Mahmoud Mansouri, Hanna Göransson, Markus Rasmussen, Mattias Jansson, Fergus Ryan, Karin Karlsson, Hans-Olov Adami, Fred Davi, Jesper Jurlander, Gunnar Juliusson, Kostas Stamatopoulos, Richard Rosenquist

Articles

Background The existence of multiple subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia expressing ‘stereotyped’ Bcell receptors implies the involvement of antigen(s) in leukemogenesis. Studies also indicate that ‘stereotypy’ may influence the clinical course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for example, in subsets with stereotyped IGHV3-21 and IGHV4-34 B-cell receptors; however, little is known regarding the genomic profile of patients in these subsets. Design and Methods We applied 250K single nucleotide polymorphism-arrays to study copy-number aberrations and copy-number neutral loss-of-heterozygosity in patients with stereotyped IGHV3-21 (subset #2, n=29), stereotyped IGHV4-34 (subset #4, n=17; subset #16, n=8) and non-subset ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Vegf-A By The Unfolded Protein Response Pathway, Rajarshi Ghosh, Kathryn L. Lipson, Karen E. Sargent, Arthur M. Mercurio, Joan S. Hunt, David Ron, Fumihiko Urano 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transcriptional Regulation Of Vegf-A By The Unfolded Protein Response Pathway, Rajarshi Ghosh, Kathryn L. Lipson, Karen E. Sargent, Arthur M. Mercurio, Joan S. Hunt, David Ron, Fumihiko Urano

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is crucial to many physiological and pathological processes including development and cancer cell survival. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) is the predominant mediator of angiogenesis in the VEGF family. During development, adverse environmental conditions like nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and increased protein secretion occur. IRE1alpha, PERK, and ATF6alpha, master regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR), are activated under these conditions and are proposed to have a role in mediating angiogenesis.

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that IRE1alpha, PERK, and ATF6alpha powerfully regulate VEGFA mRNA expression under various stress conditions. In Ire1alpha(-/-) and Perk(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and ATF6alpha-knockdown ...


Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert J. Kerriss III, Wuyi Wang, Brad M. Binder, G. Eric Schaller 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert J. Kerriss Iii, Wuyi Wang, Brad M. Binder, G. Eric Schaller

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived in Arabidopsis thaliana by a five-member receptor family composed of ETR1, ERS1, ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4. Methodology/Principal Findings

Gel-filtration analysis of ethylene receptors solubilized from Arabidopsis membranes demonstrates that the receptors exist as components of high-molecular-mass protein complexes. The ERS1 protein complex exhibits an ethylene-induced change in size consistent with ligand-mediated nucleation of protein-protein interactions. Deletion analysis supports the participation of multiple domains from ETR1 in formation of the protein complex, and also demonstrates that targeting to and retention of ETR1 at the endoplasmic reticulum only requires the first 147 amino acids ...


About Turkeys, The Humane Society of the United States 2010 Animal Studies Repository

About Turkeys, The Humane Society Of The United States

Agribusiness Collection

John James Audubon, a well-known bird expert and nature enthusiast, described wild turkeys as birds of great beauty. The history and origin of wild turkeys is uncertain, yet many share Audubon’s sentiment that the wild turkey is “one of the most interesting of the birds indigenous to the United States of America.” Today, wild turkeys can be found throughout the nation. Following the selection of the bald eagle as the American symbol, Benjamin Franklin remarked that the turkey was more “respectable”, and a “true original native”.


About Chickens, The Humane Society of the United States 2010 Animal Studies Repository

About Chickens, The Humane Society Of The United States

Agribusiness Collection

The chicken is the world’s most numerous domesticated bird, with over 52 billion farmed worldwide in 2008, rivaling the dog as the most ubiquitous domestic animal globally. These birds have fascinated scholars and researchers since the dawn of Western civilization, and recent studies are beginning to reveal the depths of their complexity and cognitive ability. According to Andrew F. Fraser, professor of veterinary surgery at Memorial University of Newfoundland, and Donald M. Broom, professor of animal welfare at University of Cambridge: “Those who have studied the behaviour of the domestic fowl in detail…, especially those who have looked at ...


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