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Short Communication: Antiretroviral Therapy Resistance Mutations Present In The Hiv Type 1 Subtype C Pol And Env Regions From Therapy-Naive Patients In Zambia, Sandra Gonzalez, Clement Gondwe, Damien C. Tully, Veenu Minhas, Danielle Shea, Chipepo Kankasa, Tendai M'soka, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Short Communication: Antiretroviral Therapy Resistance Mutations Present In The Hiv Type 1 Subtype C Pol And Env Regions From Therapy-Naive Patients In Zambia, Sandra Gonzalez, Clement Gondwe, Damien C. Tully, Veenu Minhas, Danielle Shea, Chipepo Kankasa, Tendai M'Soka, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

The prevalence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) resistance mutations present in HIV-1 subtype C pol and env regions of the proviral DNA was analyzed and compared from therapy-naive individuals before (Cohort A) and after (Cohort B) the availability of free ART in Zambia. Mutations present in sequences published in a previous study from Zambian ART-naive individuals infected with subtype C were analyzed using current parameters for the classification of ART drug resistance and compared with Cohorts A and B. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing mutations present in the pol and env of these cohorts. However, an increase in ...


Primary Gamma-Herpesviral Infection In Zambian Children, Veenu Minhas, Brad P. Brayfield, Kay L. Crabtree, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles D. Mitchell, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Primary Gamma-Herpesviral Infection In Zambian Children, Veenu Minhas, Brad P. Brayfield, Kay L. Crabtree, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles D. Mitchell, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background: HHV-8 is closely related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but the clinical presentations of these two infections in early childhood are not well understood. Also, it is not known whether infection by one virus correlates with another. Here, we compare the natural history of infection by these two viruses along with the clinical manifestations and risk factors that are associated with early childhood infection in Zambia, which is an endemic area for HHV-8.

Methods: This study was conducted in a cohort of 12 month old Zambian children (N = 677). Data on socio-economic status and a wide range of clinical manifestations ...


Restricted Genetic Diversity Of Hiv-1 Subtype C Envelope Glycoprotein From Perinatally Infected Zambian Infants, Hong Zhang, Damien C. Tully, Federico G. Hoffmann, Jun He, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles Wood 2010 Univesity of Nebraska - Lincoln

Restricted Genetic Diversity Of Hiv-1 Subtype C Envelope Glycoprotein From Perinatally Infected Zambian Infants, Hong Zhang, Damien C. Tully, Federico G. Hoffmann, Jun He, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 remains a significant problem in the resource-constrained settings where anti-retroviral therapy is still not widely available. Understanding the earliest events during HIV-1 transmission and characterizing the newly transmitted or founder virus is central to intervention efforts. In this study, we analyzed the viral env quasispecies of six mother-infant transmission pairs (MIPs) and characterized the genetic features of envelope glycoprotein that could influence HIV-1 subtype C perinatal transmission.

Methodology and Findings: The V1-V5 region of env was amplified from 6 MIPs baseline samples and 334 DNA sequences in total were analyzed. A comparison of the viral ...


Topological Layers In The Hiv-1 Gp120 Inner Domain Regulate Gp41 Interaction And Cd4-Triggered Conformational Transitions, Andrés Finzi, Shi-Hua Xiang, Beatriz Pacheco, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Wang, Jessica Haight, Aemro Kassa, Brenda Danek, Marie Pancera, Peter D. Kwong, Joseph Sodroski 2010 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Topological Layers In The Hiv-1 Gp120 Inner Domain Regulate Gp41 Interaction And Cd4-Triggered Conformational Transitions, Andrés Finzi, Shi-Hua Xiang, Beatriz Pacheco, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Wang, Jessica Haight, Aemro Kassa, Brenda Danek, Marie Pancera, Peter D. Kwong, Joseph Sodroski

Virology Papers

The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into cells is initiated by binding of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein to the receptor, CD4. How does CD4 binding trigger conformational changes in gp120 that allow the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate viral-cell membrane fusion? The transition from the unliganded to the CD4-bound state is regulated by two potentially flexible topological layers (layers 1 and 2) in the gp120 inner domain. Both layers apparently contribute to the noncovalent association of unliganded gp120 with gp41. After CD4 makes initial contact with the gp120 outer domain, layer 1-layer 2 interactions strengthen gp120-CD4 binding ...


Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal III, Jeymohan Joseph 2010 University of North Carolina

Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal Iii, Jeymohan Joseph

Virology Papers

In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda ...


Chlorella Viruses Encode Most, If Not All, Of The Machinery To Glycosylate Their Glycoproteins Independent Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi, James L. Van Etten, James Gurnon, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, David Dunigan, Michael V. Graves 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chlorella Viruses Encode Most, If Not All, Of The Machinery To Glycosylate Their Glycoproteins Independent Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi, James L. Van Etten, James Gurnon, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, David Dunigan, Michael V. Graves

Virology Papers

In contrast to all other viruses that use the host machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi to glycosylate their glycoproteins, the large dsDNA-containing chlorella viruses encode most, if not all, of the components to glycosylate their major capsid proteins. Furthermore, all experimental results indicate that glycosylation occurs independent of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. (Review article)


Comparative Toxicity Of Diphacinone To Northern Bobwhite (Colinus Virginianus) And American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, Daniel D. Day, John J. Johnston 2010 U.S. Geological Survey

Comparative Toxicity Of Diphacinone To Northern Bobwhite (Colinus Virginianus) And American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Sarah E. Warner, Daniel D. Day, John J. Johnston

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be about 20 times greater to American kestrels (LD50=97 mg/kg) than to northern bobwhite (LD50=2,014 mg/kg). Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell’s Viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in these species, and this combination of assays is recommended to detect effects of diphacinone and other rodenticides on coagulation. Oral administration of diphacinone over a range of doses (sublethal to the extrapolated LD15) prolonged prothrombin time and Russell’s Viper venom time within ...


Assessment Of Abilities Of White-Tailed Deer To Jump Fences, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Timothy R. Vandeelen, Michael J. Lavelle, Wayne Hall 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Assessment Of Abilities Of White-Tailed Deer To Jump Fences, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Timothy R. Vandeelen, Michael J. Lavelle, Wayne Hall

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

There is a need for insight into fence heights required for impeding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We evaluated the ability of wild-caught deer to jump progressively taller fences and documented deterrence rates of 0% for fences ≤1.5 m followed by increasing deterrence rates of 14% at 1.8 m, 85% at 2.1 m, and 100% at 2.4 m. We documented 100% deterrence rates during 5 additional experiments with different deer and the test fence at 2.4 m, a common height of fences at captive deer facilities. Our results will be valuable to those managing spread of ...


Influence Of Diet On Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia Illucens Linnaeus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Life History Traits, Trinh Nguyen 2010 University of Windsor

Influence Of Diet On Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia Illucens Linnaeus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Life History Traits, Trinh Nguyen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is a large 2cm long fly that is native to North America. Larvae are naturally found consuming a wide range of decomposing organic material and therefore has a potential to be used as an agent for waste management. Larvae reared from waste are high in fat and protein, making them valuable as animal feed. Included in the natural diet of black soldier fly larvae are carrion, making this fly species of value in estimating time of death and therefore, of interest to forensic entomologists. The current study tested the ability of ...


Interleukin 6 And 8 Gene Expression Responses To Resistance Exercise And The Correlation To Muscle Mass, Vivien Massie 2010 Edith Cowan University

Interleukin 6 And 8 Gene Expression Responses To Resistance Exercise And The Correlation To Muscle Mass, Vivien Massie

Theses : Honours

The post exercise inflammatory response is a key signalling mechanism regulating muscle protein synthesis. The purpose of this research was firstly to determine whether muscle mass in non-strength trained individuals was associated with the inflammatory muscle gene response after a single bout of eccentric muscle loading. Secondly, to determine whether changes in muscle cross-sectional area after a chronic increase in muscle loading (resistance training) is related to the inflammatory gene response to a single bout of muscle loading. Eleven male participants (21.6 ± 4.1 years) volunteered for this study. Each participant completed a preliminary testing session that consisted of ...


Do Different Levels Of Fishing Pressure, Through Spatial Management, Influence Communities And Ecological Interactions In Seagrass Meadows In South Western Australia?, Karina Inostroza 2010 Edith Cowan University

Do Different Levels Of Fishing Pressure, Through Spatial Management, Influence Communities And Ecological Interactions In Seagrass Meadows In South Western Australia?, Karina Inostroza

Theses : Honours

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are internationally recognised as a significant spatial management and cost-effective strategy to restore and conserve the marine ecosystems structure and function from human impact. MPAs have been declared with the aim to address a single or a set of management objectives in response to anthropogenic threats, such as fishing, which can have repercussions on biodiversity through indirect interactions or top-down control within an ecosystem or across ecosystems where consumers migrate to forage. However, this indirect impact of fishing remains poorly understood, and as a consequence, the effectiveness of MP As in conserving those ecological processes and ...


Promiscuous Mating In Feral Pigs (Sus Scrofa) From Texas, Usa, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, David B. Long 2010 Texas A&M University-Kingsville

Promiscuous Mating In Feral Pigs (Sus Scrofa) From Texas, Usa, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. Deyoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, David B. Long

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Feral pigs represent a significant threat to agriculture and ecosystems and are disease reservoirs for pathogens affecting humans, livestock and other wildlife. Information on the behavioural ecology of feral pigs might increase the efficiency and effectiveness of management strategies.

Aims. We assessed the frequency of promiscuous mating in relation to oestrous synchrony in feral pigs from southern Texas, USA, an agroecosystem with a widespread and well established population of feral pigs. An association between multiple paternity of single litters and synchrony of oestrous may indicate alternative mating strategies, such as mateguarding.

Methods. We collected gravid sows at nine sites ...


Constructing A Fish Metabolic Network Model, Shuzhao Li, Alexander Pozhitkov, Rachel A. Ryan, Charles Steve Manning, Nancy J. Brown-Peterson, Marius Brouwer 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Constructing A Fish Metabolic Network Model, Shuzhao Li, Alexander Pozhitkov, Rachel A. Ryan, Charles Steve Manning, Nancy J. Brown-Peterson, Marius Brouwer

Faculty Publications

We report the construction of a genome-wide fish metabolic network model, MetaFishNet, and its application to analyzing high throughput gene expression data. This model is a stepping stone to broader applications of fish systems biology, for example by guiding study design through comparison with human metabolism and the integration of multiple data types. MetaFishNet resources, including a pathway enrichment analysis tool, are accessible at http://metafishnet.appspot.com.


First Report Of Viral Pathogens Wssv And Ihhnv In Argentine Crustaceans, Sergio R. Martorelli, Robin M. Overstreet, Jean A. Jovonovich 2010 Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y Vectores

First Report Of Viral Pathogens Wssv And Ihhnv In Argentine Crustaceans, Sergio R. Martorelli, Robin M. Overstreet, Jean A. Jovonovich

Faculty Publications

The pathogenic penaeid shrimp viruses white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are reported for the first time from Argentina. They both occurred in wild crustaceans in Bahia Blanca Estuary, with WSSV detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods as infecting samples as high as 56% of the penaeid Artemesia longinaris Bate, 1888, 67% of the grapsoid Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851, and 40% of the introduced palaemonid Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902. The highest detected copy number was 39,600 copies/mu g DNA. IHHNV was tested for using ...


Unfurling Fern Biology In The Genomics Age, M. S. Barker, Paul G. Wolf 2010 Utah State University

Unfurling Fern Biology In The Genomics Age, M. S. Barker, Paul G. Wolf

Biology Faculty Publications

Twenty-first century technology is addressing many of the questions posed by 20th-century biology. Although the new approaches, especially those involving genomic data and bioinformatic tools, were first applied to model organisms, they are now stretching across the tree of life. Here, we review some recent revelations in the ferns. We first examine how DNA sequence data have contributed to our understanding of fern phylogeny. We then address evolution of the fern plastid genome, including reports of high levels of RNA editing. Recent studies are also shedding light on the evolution of fern nuclear genomes. Initial analyses of genomic data suggest ...


Male Territoriality In A Social Sciurid, Cynomys Gunnisoni: What Do Patterns Of Paternity Tell Us?, J. L. Verdolin, C. N. Slobodchikoff 2010 Stony Brook University

Male Territoriality In A Social Sciurid, Cynomys Gunnisoni: What Do Patterns Of Paternity Tell Us?, J. L. Verdolin, C. N. Slobodchikoff

Veterinary Science and Medicine Collection

In many social sciurids, male territoriality confers significant mating advantages. We evaluated resident male paternity in Gunnison’s prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni), a colonial ground-dwelling sciurid, where males and females cooperatively defend territories. Contrary to findings reported for other social sciurids, our results show that territorial resident males do not gain significant reproductive advantages. Resident males sired the majority of offspring from their respective territories only 10.5% of the time. A single non-resident male sired equal or greater number of offspring than any single resident male 71.2% of the time. While adult males were more likely to sire ...


Teaching Species, Mark W. Ellis, Paul G. Wolf 2010 Utah State University

Teaching Species, Mark W. Ellis, Paul G. Wolf

Biology Faculty Publications

A clear understanding of the term "species" is fundamental to the subject of evolution. However, introductory textbooks often fail to address this topic until one of the later chapters, after having used the term species in all preceding chapters. Furthermore, definitions of terms critical to a clear understanding of this subject are often vague or absent in chapters on species concepts. We feel the popular notion of a "species problem" has been unnecessarily inflated by this less-than-effective educational approach. Clearly addressing this essential subject at the beginning of a course on evolution will prepare students to learn the details and ...


Vigilance And Antipredator Responses Of Caribbean Reef Squid, Jennifer A. Mather 2010 University of Lethbridge

Vigilance And Antipredator Responses Of Caribbean Reef Squid, Jennifer A. Mather

Sentience Collection

Antipredator responses, especially those of open-ocean squid, have been seldom studied in the natural environment. Sepioteuthis sepioidea, observed by snorkellers near the shore in early morning/late afternoon, produced an average of eight moves of over 1m per hour, apparently mostly antipredator behaviours. Close approaches by herbivorous parrotfish elicited no response in 74% of encounters; otherwise, squid produced agonistic zebra stripes or startle-mantle-dots skin patterns. Predatory bar jack fish caused flight but not zebra displays, and squid usually paled and fled quickly (66%) from snapper. The speed of approach was the best predictor for flight and display responses to snapper ...


Octopuses (Enteroctopus Dofleini) Recognize Individual Humans, Roland C. Anderson, Jennifer A. Mather, Mathieu Q. Monette, Stephanie R.M. Zimsen 2010 The Seattle Aquarium

Octopuses (Enteroctopus Dofleini) Recognize Individual Humans, Roland C. Anderson, Jennifer A. Mather, Mathieu Q. Monette, Stephanie R.M. Zimsen

Sentience Collection

This study exposed 8 Enteroctopus dofleini separately to 2 unfamiliar individual humans over a 2-week period under differing circumstances. One person consistently fed the octopuses and the other touched them with a bristly stick. Each human recorded octopus body patterns, behaviors, and respiration rates directly after each treatment. At the end of 2 weeks, a body pattern (a dark Eyebar) and 2 behaviors (reaching arms toward or away from the tester and funnel direction) were significantly different in response to the 2 humans. The respiration rate of the 4 larger octopuses changed significantly in response to the 2 treatments ...


Behavior Of A Solitary Sociable Female Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Off The Coast Of Kent, Southeast England, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds, Laura R. Stansfield 2010 Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

Behavior Of A Solitary Sociable Female Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Off The Coast Of Kent, Southeast England, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds, Laura R. Stansfield

Ethology Collection

This article provides a report of the behavior of a solitary sociable dolphin studied on the southeast coast of England in 2007. This is the first study of its kind in which behavior of such a nonhuman animal was systematically studied. By the time of this study, this young female was highly interactive with people in the water. People accompanied the dolphin for 18.4% of the 100 hr of observation, and their presence changed her behavior. The study recorded 39 different behaviors; feeding and resting behaviors declined in frequency in the presence of people. In addition, the dolphin exhibited ...


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