Accounting For Multiple Comparisons In A Genome-Wide Association Study (Gwas), 2010 National Cancer Institute at Frederick; Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers - Paris, France
Accounting For Multiple Comparisons In A Genome-Wide Association Study (Gwas), Randall C. Johnson, George W. Nelson, Jennifer L. Troyer, J. A. Lautenberger, Bailey Kessing, Cheryl Winkler, Stephen J. O'Brien
Biology Faculty Articles
As we enter an era when testing millions of SNPs in a single gene association study will become the standard, consideration of multiple comparisons is an essential part of determining statistical significance. Bonferroni adjustments can be made but are conservative due to the preponderance of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genetic markers, and permutation testing is not always a viable option. Three major classes of corrections have been proposed to correct the dependent nature of genetic data in Bonferroni adjustments: permutation testing and related alternatives, principal components analysis (PCA), and analysis of blocks of LD across the genome. We consider ...
Emissions Savings In The Corn-Ethanol Life Cycle From Feeding Coproducts To Livestock, 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Emissions Savings In The Corn-Ethanol Life Cycle From Feeding Coproducts To Livestock, Virgil R. Bremer, Adam Liska, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Galen E. Erickson, Haishun Yang, Daniel T. Walters, Kenneth G. Cassman
Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications
Environmental regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from corn (Zea mays L.)-ethanol production require accurate assessment methods to determine emissions savings from coproducts that are fed to livestock. We investigated current use of coproducts in livestock diets and estimated the magnitude and variability in the GHG emissions credit for coproducts in the corn-ethanol life cycle. The coproduct GHG emissions credit varied by more than twofold, from 11.5 to 28.3 g CO2e per MJ of ethanol produced, depending on the fraction of coproducts used without drying, the proportion of coproduct used to feed beef cattle (Bos ...
Contrasting Effects Of Cattle And Wildlife On The Vegetation Development Of A Savanna Landscape Mosaic, 2010 Utah State University
Contrasting Effects Of Cattle And Wildlife On The Vegetation Development Of A Savanna Landscape Mosaic, Kari E. Veblen, T. P. Young
Kari E. Veblen
No abstract provided.
Bycatch Reduction Device Conserves Diamondback Terrapin Without Affecting Catch Of Blue Crab, 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Bycatch Reduction Device Conserves Diamondback Terrapin Without Affecting Catch Of Blue Crab, Megan A. Rook, Romuald N. Lipcius, Bret M. Bronner, Randolph M. Chambers
Bycatch mortality of non-target species in fisheries is a major threat to the conservation and restoration of marine and estuarine species. Attempts to reduce bycatch by fitting fishing gear with excluder devices have typically been met with resistance due to reductions in catch of target species. We examined the possibility that conservation and fishery goals could be met simultaneously. In lower Chesapeake Bay, we tested a mechanism for reducing bycatch of diamondback terrapin Malaclemys terrapin in blue-crab traps without affecting crab catch. Over 23 sampling dates during summer 2008, we compared terrapin captures at 2 shallow-water sites typical of recreational ...
Tidal Amplification Of Seabed Light, 2010 Bangor University
Tidal Amplification Of Seabed Light, D. G. Bowers, John M. Brubaker
Because solar irradiance decreases approximately exponentially with depth in the sea, the increase in irradiance at the seabed from mid to low tide is greater than the decrease from mid to high tide. Summed over a day, this can lead to a net amplification of seabed irradiance in tidal waters compared to nontidal waters with the same mean depth and transparency. In this paper, this effect is quantified by numerical and analytical integration of the Lambert-Beer equation to derive the ratio of daily total seabed irradiance with and without a tide. Greatest amplification occurs in turbid water with large tidal ...
Full Issue: Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 Touro College and University System
Full Issue: Volume 4, Number 1
The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences
No abstract provided.
Treefrog (Hyla Squirella) Responses To Rangeland And Management In Semi-Tropical Florida, Usa, 2010 University of Central Florida
Treefrog (Hyla Squirella) Responses To Rangeland And Management In Semi-Tropical Florida, Usa, Kathryn Windes
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
As urban areas expand, agricultural lands become increasingly important habitat for many species. Compared to some types of agricultural land-use, ranchlands provide vast expanses of minimally modified habitat that support many threatened and endangered species. Conservation biologists can promote ecologically sound management approaches by quantifying the effects of agricultural practices on resident species. I examined the effects of pasture management, cattle grazing, and landscape characteristics on both adult and larval treefrogs in a ranchland in south-central Florida. I experimentally determined optimal deployment of artificial treefrog shelters constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe to efficiently sample adult treefrogs (Chapter 1). Seventy-two shelters ...
Biogeography And Diversification In The Neotropics: Testing Macroevolutionary Hypotheses Using Molecular Phylogenetic Data, 2010 University of Central Florida
Biogeography And Diversification In The Neotropics: Testing Macroevolutionary Hypotheses Using Molecular Phylogenetic Data, Juan Manuel Daza Rojas
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Lineage diversification in the Neotropics is an interesting topic in evolutionary biology and one of the least understood. The complexity of the region precludes generalizations regarding the historical and evolutionary processes responsible for the observed high diversity. Here, I use molecular data to infer evolutionary relationships and test hypotheses of current taxonomy, species boundaries, speciation and biogeographic history in several lineages of Neotropical snakes. I comprehensively sampled a widely distributed Neotropical colubrid snake and Middle American pitvipers and combined my data with published sequences. Within the colubrid genus Leptodeira, mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed a phylogeograhic structure that disagrees with ...
Impaired M3 And Enhanced M2 Muscarinic Receptor Contractile Function In A Streptozotocin Model Of Mouse Diabetic Urinary Bladder, 2010 University of California, Irvine
Impaired M3 And Enhanced M2 Muscarinic Receptor Contractile Function In A Streptozotocin Model Of Mouse Diabetic Urinary Bladder, K. J. Pak, Rennolds S. Ostrom, M. Matsui, F. J. Ehlert
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
We investigated the contractile roles of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in urinary bladder from streptozotocin-treated mice. Wild-type and M2 muscarinic receptor knockout (M2 KO) mice were given a single injection of vehicle or streptozotocin (125 mg kg−1) 2–24 weeks prior to bladder assays. The effect of forskolin on contractions elicited to the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, was measured in isolated urinary bladder (intact or denuded of urothelium). Denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated wild-type and M2 KO mice exhibited similar contractile responses to oxotremorine-M, when contraction was normalized relative to that elicited by KCl (50 mM). Eight to 9 ...
Prospects And Pits On The Path Of Biomimetics: The Case Of Tooth Enamel, 2010 Chapman University
Prospects And Pits On The Path Of Biomimetics: The Case Of Tooth Enamel, Vuk Uskoković
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
This review presents a discourse on challenges in understanding and imitating the process of amelogenesis in vitro on the molecular scale. In light of the analysis of imitation of the growth of dental enamel, it also impends on the prospects and potential drawbacks of the biomimetic approach in general. As the formation of enamel proceeds with the protein matrix guiding the crystal growth, while at the same time conducting its own degradation and removal, it is argued that three aspects of amelogenesis need to be induced in parallel: a) crystal growth; b) protein assembly; c) proteolytic degradation. A particular emphasis ...
Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, 2010 University of Missouri-Columbia
Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, Rajiv R. Mohan, Ajay Sharma, Tyler C. Cebulko, Ashish Tandon
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Purpose: This study tested whether controlled drying of the cornea increases vector absorption in mouse and rabbit corneas in vivo and human cornea ex vivo, and studied the effects of corneal drying on gene transfer, structure and inflammatory reaction in the mouse cornea in vivo.
Methods: Female C57 black mice and New Zealand White rabbits were used for in vivo studies. Donor human corneas were used for ex vivo experiments. A hair dryer was used for drying the corneas after removing corneal epithelium by gentle scraping. The corneas received no, once, twice, thrice, or five times warm air for 10 ...
Fate Of Macroalgae In Benthic Systems: Carbon And Nitrogen Cycling Within The Microbial Community, 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Fate Of Macroalgae In Benthic Systems: Carbon And Nitrogen Cycling Within The Microbial Community, Amber K. Hardison, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Iris C. Anderson, Bart Veuger
High nutrient loading to coastal bays is often accompanied by the presence of bloom-forming macroalgae, which take up and sequester large amounts of C and N while growing. This pool is temporary, however, as nuisance macroalgae exhibit a bloom and die-off cycle, influencing the biogeochemical functioning of these systems in unknown ways. The objective of this study was to trace the C and N from senescing macroalgae into relevant sediment pools. A macroalgal die-off event was simulated by the addition of freeze-dried macroalgae (Gracilaria spp.), pre-labeled with stable isotopes (C-13 and N-15), to sediment mesocosms. The isotopes were traced into ...
Increased Ocean Carbon Export In The Sargasso Sea Linked To Climate Variability Is Countered By Its Enhanced Mesopelagic Attenuation, 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Increased Ocean Carbon Export In The Sargasso Sea Linked To Climate Variability Is Countered By Its Enhanced Mesopelagic Attenuation, M. W. Lomas, Deborah K. Steinberg, T. Dickey, C.A. Carlson, N.B. Nelson, R.H. Condon, N.R. Bates
Photosynthetic CO(2) uptake by oceanic phytoplankton and subsequent export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean interior comprises a globally significant biological carbon pump, controlled in part by the composition of the planktonic community. The strength and efficiency of this pump depends upon the balance of particle production in the euphotic zone and remineralization of those particles in the mesopelagic (defined here as depths between 150 and 300 m), but how these processes respond to climate-driven changes in the physical environment is not completely understood. In the Sargasso Sea, from similar to 1996-2007, we have observed a decade-long ...
Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece
Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuca (Para state) to Santos (Sao Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceara state) to Florianopolis ...
Regional Management Units For Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework For Prioritizing Conservation And Research Across Multiple Scales, Bryan P. Wallace, John A. Musick
Background: Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques - including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry - can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings: To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all ...
Attenuated Response Of Aged Mice To Respiratory Francisella Novicida Is Characterized By Reduced Cell Death And Absence Of Subsequent Hypercytokinemia, 2010 Texas A&M University-San Antonio
Attenuated Response Of Aged Mice To Respiratory Francisella Novicida Is Characterized By Reduced Cell Death And Absence Of Subsequent Hypercytokinemia, Chris A. Mares, J. Sharma, S. S. Ojeda, Q. Li, J. A. Campos, E. G. Morris, J. J. Coalson, J. M. Teale
Biology Faculty Publications
Background: Pneumonia and pulmonary infections are major causes of mortality among the growing elderly population. Age associated attenuations of various immune parameters, involved with both innate and adaptive responses are collectively known as immune senescence. These changes are likely to be involved with differences in host susceptibility to disease between young and aged individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings: The objective of this study was to assess potential age related differences in the pulmonary host response in mice to the Gram-negative respiratory pathogen, Francisella novicida. We intranasally infected mice with F. novicida and compared various immune and pathological parameters of the pulmonary ...
Management Of The Piankatank River, Virginia, In Support Of Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica, Gmelin 1791) Fishery Repletion, 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Management Of The Piankatank River, Virginia, In Support Of Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica, Gmelin 1791) Fishery Repletion, Juliana M. Harding, Roger L. Mann, Melissa Southworth, James A. Wesson
The Piankatank River is a trap-type estuary on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay that has been managed for seed oyster production since 1963. Market oyster production in the river is minimal. Repletion efforts include shell planting and seed removal. We describe sequential changes in population demographics and habitat in relation to repletion activities on eight Piankatank River public oyster reefs from 1998 through 2009. Two reef groups (northern and southern) may be distinguished by density (oysters/m(2)), biomass (e dry tissue weight), and shell volume (L/m(2)) data. Age-at-length relationships were estimated from demographic data using a ...
Net Removal Of Nitrogen Through Ingestion Of Phytoplankton By Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia Tyrannus In Chesapeake Bay, 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Net Removal Of Nitrogen Through Ingestion Of Phytoplankton By Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia Tyrannus In Chesapeake Bay, Pd Lynch, Mj Brush, Ed Condon, Rj Latour
As filter-feeding planktivores, Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus have the potential to influence water quality through ingestion of phytoplankton and assimilation of resultant nutrients. To evaluate the influence of young-of-the-year (YOY) and age-1+ menhaden in Chesapeake Bay, rates of phytoplankton (chl a) ingestion and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) excretion were measured experimentally across varying phytoplankton concentrations. Ingestion rates of YOY menhaden increased (0.03 to 3.85 µg chl a fish–1 min–1) in response to increasing phytoplankton concentration (4.98 to 198.22 µg chl a l–1), while age-1+ menhaden exhibited virtually no ingestion of the phytoplankton offered ...
Morphological Features Of Wheat Grain And Genotype Affecting Flour Yield, 2010 Southern Cross University
Morphological Features Of Wheat Grain And Genotype Affecting Flour Yield, Mark Andrew Edwards
Although the wheat grain comprises 82 - 86% starchy endosperm, only approximately 76 - 78% is able to be separated using current milling technology. Suitability for primary processing depends on three main characteristics that are in turn influenced to varying degrees by the genetic origin of wheat and agro-climatic conditions during plant development: the endosperm to bran ratio, kernel hardness and ease of separation of bran and endosperm. Among these, hardness appears to be an essential factor in wheat milling behavior also important to the food processing industries. Accumulated evidence supports the prominent influence of the puroindoline (pin) proteins on grain hardness ...
The Effects Of Planting Methods And Granivory On Seedling Emergence In A Tallgrass Prairie Reconstruction, 2010 University of Northern Iowa
The Effects Of Planting Methods And Granivory On Seedling Emergence In A Tallgrass Prairie Reconstruction, Justin Vernon Huisman
Theses and Dissertations @ UNI
This study investigates effects of various seed incorporation methods (none, cultipack, rake, rake and culti-pack) and seed predation on prairie species emergence and establishment over two growing seasons. To assess seed incorporation, seed was coated with a fluorescent orange powder and sampled with a black light the night of seeding. Powder coated seed was broadcast seeded in early November 2007. Seed was incorporated into the soil by culti-packing, raking, or a combination of raking followed by culti-packing. Seed was not incorporated into the soil in control plots. Granivore exclosures in the research plots were used to determine the effect of ...