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The Role Of The Feral Pig (Sus Scrofa) As A Disturbance Agent And Seed Disperser In Central Florida's Natural Lands, Camille Rose Brescacin 2010 University of Central Florida

The Role Of The Feral Pig (Sus Scrofa) As A Disturbance Agent And Seed Disperser In Central Florida's Natural Lands, Camille Rose Brescacin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are considered to be among the world’s worst invasive species due to their successful invasion and ecological and economic impact to native and agricultural plants and animals around the world. Feral pigs are significant disturbance agents that destroy plant communities, change soil characteristics, alter nutrient cycling, and create open sites for colonization of both native and non-native plant species through their foraging behavior called rooting. In contrast to native animal disturbances, rooting is a striking feature in the landscape that varies in space, seasonal timing, frequency (number of times rooted), and intensity (depth of rooting ...


Ulcerative Disease Outbreak In Crayfish Orconectes Propinquus Linked To Saprolegnia Australis In Big Muskellunge Lake, Wisconsin, L Krugner-Higby, D Haak, PTJ Johnson, JD Shields, WM Jones, KS Reece, Et al. 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Ulcerative Disease Outbreak In Crayfish Orconectes Propinquus Linked To Saprolegnia Australis In Big Muskellunge Lake, Wisconsin, L Krugner-Higby, D Haak, Ptj Johnson, Jd Shields, Wm Jones, Ks Reece, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

Crayfish populations in the area of the North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) project, Wisconsin, USA, have been monitored for >25 yr. In 2005, native crayfish Orconectes propinquus from Big Muskellunge Lake were found with ulcerated lesions in the cuticle In 2006, lesions occurred in 9 5% of sampled crayfish from the lake (n = 3146). Ulcers generally occurred on the appendages of affected individuals but varied in location and severity. The prevalence of ulcers varied widely among sites, sample depths, and sampling dates, ranging from 20% The prevalence of ulcers in crayfish increased from a minimum in early ...


Bacteria Dispersal By Hitchhiking On Zooplankton, HP Grossart, C Dziallas, F Leunert, KW Tang 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Bacteria Dispersal By Hitchhiking On Zooplankton, Hp Grossart, C Dziallas, F Leunert, Kw Tang

VIMS Articles

Microorganisms and zooplankton are both important components of aquatic food webs. Although both inhabit the same environment, they are often regarded as separate functional units that are indirectly connected through nutrient cycling and trophic cascade. However, research on pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria has shown that direct association with zooplankton has significant influences on the bacteria's physiology and ecology. We used stratified migration columns to study vertical dispersal of hitchhiking bacteria through migrating zooplankton across a density gradient that was otherwise impenetrable for bacteria in both upward and downward directions (conveyor-belt hypothesis). The strength of our experiments is to permit ...


Estimating Diet And Food Selectivity Of The Lower Keys Marsh Rabbit Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Matthew James Gordon 2010 University of Central Florida

Estimating Diet And Food Selectivity Of The Lower Keys Marsh Rabbit Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Matthew James Gordon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the effect of food abundance on feeding behavior can benefit conservation efforts in many ways, such as to determine whether impacted environments need food supplementation, whether different locations of threatened species contain different food abundances, or whether reintroduction sites are missing key components of a species’ diet. I studied the relationship between feeding behavior and food abundance in the Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri), an endangered subspecies endemic to the lower Florida Keys. Specifically, my study set out to measure the relative abundance of the primary plants within the natural habitat of the Lower Keys marsh rabbit ...


Environmental Correlates Of Abundances Of Mosquito Species And Stages In Discarded Vehicle Tires, Donald A. Yee, Jamie M. Kneitel, Steven A. Juliano 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Environmental Correlates Of Abundances Of Mosquito Species And Stages In Discarded Vehicle Tires, Donald A. Yee, Jamie M. Kneitel, Steven A. Juliano

Faculty Publications

Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for container mosquito larvae, although the environmental factors that may control their presence or abundance within a tire are largely unknown. We sampled discarded vehicle tires in six sites located within four counties of central Illinois during the spring and summer of 2006 to determine associations between a suite of environmental factors and community composition of container mosquitoes. Our goal was to find patterns of association between environmental factors and abundances of early and late instars. We hypothesized that environmental factors correlated with early instars would be indicative of oviposition cues, whereas environmental ...


An Assessment Of Sea Turtle Nesting Behavior In Relation To Hurricane- And Restoration-Induced Beach Morphodynamics, Tonya Michele Long 2010 University of Central Florida

An Assessment Of Sea Turtle Nesting Behavior In Relation To Hurricane- And Restoration-Induced Beach Morphodynamics, Tonya Michele Long

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Coastal habitats are highly dynamic and vulnerable to landscape-level disturbances such as storms and restoration projects. Along the east coast of Florida these areas are particularly valuable as they provide significant nesting habitat for two sea turtle species, the threatened loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and the endangered green turtle (Chelonia mydas). This coast was heavily impacted by three major hurricanes in 2004 and in some areas by large restoration projects in 2005. Recent remote sensing methods allow for broad evaluation of the shoreline and thus the ability to assess sea turtle nesting habitat at a landscape scale. I collected nesting data ...


Species Composition And Spatiotemporal Pattern Of The Seed Bank And Vegetation In Native And Degraded Florida Rosemary Scrub, Jennifer J. Navarra 2010 University of Central Florida

Species Composition And Spatiotemporal Pattern Of The Seed Bank And Vegetation In Native And Degraded Florida Rosemary Scrub, Jennifer J. Navarra

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The soil seed bank plays a dynamic role in the regeneration of plant communities after natural and anthropogenic disturbance. In this thesis, I addressed how disturbances influence the vegetation and seed bank of Florida rosemary scrub. In Chapter One I evaluated changes in species composition and spatiotemporal pattern of the vegetation and seed bank along a gradient of disturbance. During the summers and winters of 2007-2009 percent ground cover and seed bank species composition were assessed among replicates of three vegetation types subjected to minimal, moderate, and extreme anthropogenic disturbance (native rosemary scrub, degraded scrub, and agriculturally improved pasture, respectively ...


Geographic Variation In Post-Mating Immune Gene Expression In Drosophila Melanogaster, Cheryl Ann Pinzone 2010 University of Central Florida

Geographic Variation In Post-Mating Immune Gene Expression In Drosophila Melanogaster, Cheryl Ann Pinzone

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An organism's immune response may vary due to pathogen pressure in its environment, as well as due to interactions with other organisms. These factors, along with geographic rules (i.e. Gloger's rule) may influence the geographic distribution of the immune response within populations of a species. Here we use real-time quantitative PCR to measure the immune gene expression in six populations collected along the eastern U.S. of Drosophila melanogaster after mating. Antimicrobial genes did not show significant differences in expression due to location, whereas we did observe differences in anti-fungal and pro-phenoloxidase (anti-macromolecule) related genes. These differences ...


Characterizing The Vertical Structure And Structural Diversity Of Florida Oak Scrub Vegetation Using Discrete-Return Lidar, James J. Angelo 2010 University of Central Florida

Characterizing The Vertical Structure And Structural Diversity Of Florida Oak Scrub Vegetation Using Discrete-Return Lidar, James J. Angelo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Vertical structure, the top-to-bottom arrangement of aboveground vegetation, is an important component of forest and shrubland ecosystems. For many decades, ecologists have used foliage height profiles and other measures of vertical structure to identify discrete stages in post-disturbance succession and to quantify the heterogeneity of vegetation. Such studies have, however, required resource-intensive field surveys and have been limited to relatively small spatial extents (e.g.,


Taxonomy Versus Phylogeny Phylogeography Of Marsh Rabbits Without Hopping To Conclusions, Rosanna M. Tursi 2010 University of Central Florida

Taxonomy Versus Phylogeny Phylogeography Of Marsh Rabbits Without Hopping To Conclusions, Rosanna M. Tursi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Subspecific taxonomic designations solely based on morphological characters can often lead to erroneous assumptions about the evolutionary history of populations. This study sought to investigate evolutionary questions and conservation implications associated with morphological subspecific designations of island populations. To this end, I focused my attention on the Lower Keys of Florida, a unique chain of islands with well-known geologic history and rich in endemic, endangered subspecies. I employed genetic analyses to evaluate historical variation and contemporary restriction of gene flow between the endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) and its sister mainland taxa. A Bayesian phylogeny using 1063 ...


The Dynamics Of Chronically Bioaccumulated Cd In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) During Both Moderately Hard And Soft Waterborne Exposures, Jessica Milne 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Dynamics Of Chronically Bioaccumulated Cd In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) During Both Moderately Hard And Soft Waterborne Exposures, Jessica Milne

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Aquatic organisms respond to metal exposures by modulating uptake, elimination and detoxification capacity and, therefore, it is difficult to link accumulation within fish to adverse chronic effects. When fish are exposed to sublethal concentrations of metal, physiological responses follow a damage-repair scenario with rapid uptake into the gills followed by transfer via the circulatory system and accumulation into key organs such as the liver and kidney. Anthropogenic sources of cadmium (Cd) arise mainly from mining, smelting, and refining sulphide ores of Zn, Pb and Cu (Norton et al., 1990). The free divalent ion (Cd2+) is the toxic form of ...


Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, YW Luo, MAM Friedrichs, SC Doney, MJ Church, HW Ducklow 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, Yw Luo, Mam Friedrichs, Sc Doney, Mj Church, Hw Ducklow

VIMS Articles

Previous studies have focused on the role of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) (defined as turnover time of similar to 1 d) in supporting heterotrophic bacterial production, but have mostly neglected semilabile DOM (defined as turnover time of similar to 100 to 1000 d) as a potential substrate for heterotrophic bacterial growth. To test the hypothesis that semilabile DOM supports substantial amounts of heterotrophic bacterial production in the open ocean, we constructed a 1-dimensional epipelagic ecosystem model and applied it to 3 open ocean sites: the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The ...


Biodiversity Assessment Of The Fishes Of Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, Jeffrey T. Williams, Kent E. Carpenter, James L. Van Tassell, Paul Hoetjes, Wes Toller, Peter Etnoyer, Michael Smith 2010 Old Dominion University

Biodiversity Assessment Of The Fishes Of Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, Jeffrey T. Williams, Kent E. Carpenter, James L. Van Tassell, Paul Hoetjes, Wes Toller, Peter Etnoyer, Michael Smith

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna. Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness ...


Quantitative Pcr Assay For Mycobacterium Pseudoshottsii And Mycobacterium Shottsii And Application To Environmental Samples And Fishes From The Chesapeake Bay, D. T. Gauthier, K. S. Reece, J. Xiao, M. W. Rhodes, H. I. Kator, R. J. Latour, C. F. Bonzek, J. M. Hoenig, W. K. Vogelbein 2010 Old Dominion University

Quantitative Pcr Assay For Mycobacterium Pseudoshottsii And Mycobacterium Shottsii And Application To Environmental Samples And Fishes From The Chesapeake Bay, D. T. Gauthier, K. S. Reece, J. Xiao, M. W. Rhodes, H. I. Kator, R. J. Latour, C. F. Bonzek, J. M. Hoenig, W. K. Vogelbein

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay are currently experiencing a very high prevalence of mycobacteriosis associated with newly described Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii. The ecology of these mycobacteria outside the striped bass host is currently unknown. In this work, we developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii and applied these assays to DNA extracts from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment samples, as well as to tissues from two dominant prey of striped bass, Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) and bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii was found to be ubiquitous in water ...


Chloroquine Susceptibility And Reversibility In A Plasmodium Falciparum Genetic Cross, Jigar J. Patel, Drew Thacker, John C. Tan, Perri Pleeter, Lisa Checkley, Joseph M. Gonzales, Bingbing Deng, Paul D. Roepe, Roland A. Cooper, Michael T. Ferdig 2010 Old Dominion University

Chloroquine Susceptibility And Reversibility In A Plasmodium Falciparum Genetic Cross, Jigar J. Patel, Drew Thacker, John C. Tan, Perri Pleeter, Lisa Checkley, Joseph M. Gonzales, Bingbing Deng, Paul D. Roepe, Roland A. Cooper, Michael T. Ferdig

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter (PfCRT) are major determinants of verapamil (VP)-reversible CQ resistance (CQR). In the presence of mutant PfCRT, additional genes contribute to the wide range of CQ susceptibilities observed. It is not known if these genes influence mechanisms of chemosensitization by CQR reversal agents. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of progeny clones from the HB3 x Dd2 cross, we show that the P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) interacts with the South-East Asia-derived mutant pfcrt haplotype to modulate CQR levels. A novel chromosome 7 locus is predicted to contribute with ...


Ancient Dna Analyses Exclude Humans As The Driving Force Behind Late Pleistocene Musk Ox (Ovibos Moschatus) Population Dynamics, Paula F. Campos, Eske Willerslev, Andrei Sher, Ludovic Orlando, Erik Axelsson, Alexei Tikhonov, Kim Aaris-Sorensen, Alex D. Greenwood, Ralf-Dietrich Kahlke, Pavel Kosintsev 2010 Old Dominion University

Ancient Dna Analyses Exclude Humans As The Driving Force Behind Late Pleistocene Musk Ox (Ovibos Moschatus) Population Dynamics, Paula F. Campos, Eske Willerslev, Andrei Sher, Ludovic Orlando, Erik Axelsson, Alexei Tikhonov, Kim Aaris-Sorensen, Alex D. Greenwood, Ralf-Dietrich Kahlke, Pavel Kosintsev

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions are poorly understood. Different lines of evidence point to climate change, the arrival of humans, or a combination of these events as the trigger. Although many species went extinct, others, such as caribou and bison, survived to the present. The musk ox has an intermediate story: relatively abundant during the Pleistocene, it is now restricted to Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago. In this study, we use ancient DNA sequences, temporally unbiased summary statistics, and Bayesian analytical techniques to infer musk ox population dynamics throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Our results reveal ...


Microarray Analysis Of A Salamander Hopeful Monster Reveals Transcriptional Signatures Of Paedomorphic Brain Development, Robert B. Page, M. A. Borley, J. J. Smith, S. Putta, S. R. Voss 2010 Texas A&M University-San Antonio

Microarray Analysis Of A Salamander Hopeful Monster Reveals Transcriptional Signatures Of Paedomorphic Brain Development, Robert B. Page, M. A. Borley, J. J. Smith, S. Putta, S. R. Voss

Biology Faculty Publications

Abstract. Background. The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is considered a hopeful monster because it exhibits an adaptive and derived mode of development - paedomorphosis - that has evolved rapidly and independently among tiger salamanders. Unlike related tiger salamanders that undergo metamorphosis, axolotls retain larval morphological traits into adulthood and thus present an adult body plan that differs dramatically from the ancestral (metamorphic) form. The basis of paedomorphic development was investigated by comparing temporal patterns of gene transcription between axolotl and tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) that typically undergo a metamorphosis. Results. Transcript abundances from whole brain and pituitary were estimated via ...


Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica, Gmelin 1791) Population Dynamics On Public Reefs In The Great Wicomico River, Virginia, Usa, Melissa Southworth, Juliana M. Harding, James A. Wesson, Roger L. Mann 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica, Gmelin 1791) Population Dynamics On Public Reefs In The Great Wicomico River, Virginia, Usa, Melissa Southworth, Juliana M. Harding, James A. Wesson, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

We describe oyster population trends in the Great Wicomico River, VA, from 2000 through 2009 using quantitative fishery independent survey data collected using a stratified random design. The seven public reefs examined cover a total of 2.8 X 10(5) m(2) and vary in individual size from 1.36 X 10(4) to 7.16 X 10(4) m(2). The river is functionally divided by a sand spit into upriver and downriver regions. Oyster densities on the upriver reefs were typically an order of magnitude higher than densities on the downriver reefs within the same time period ...


Rna-Seq Atlas Of Glycine Max: A Guide To The Soybean Transcriptome, Andrew J. Severin, Jenna L. Woody, Yung-Tsi Bolon, Bindu Joseph, Brian W. Diers, Andrew D. Farmer, Gary J. Muehlbauer, Rex T. Nelson, David Grant, James E. Specht, Michelle A. Graham, Steven B. Cannon, Gregory D. May, Carroll P. Vance, Randy C. Shoemaker 2010 Iowa State University

Rna-Seq Atlas Of Glycine Max: A Guide To The Soybean Transcriptome, Andrew J. Severin, Jenna L. Woody, Yung-Tsi Bolon, Bindu Joseph, Brian W. Diers, Andrew D. Farmer, Gary J. Muehlbauer, Rex T. Nelson, David Grant, James E. Specht, Michelle A. Graham, Steven B. Cannon, Gregory D. May, Carroll P. Vance, Randy C. Shoemaker

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Next generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of transcriptomes. It can determine the expression level of transcripts with a dynamic range of over six orders of magnitude from multiple tissues, developmental stages or conditions. Patterns of gene expression provide insight into functions of genes with unknown annotation.

Results: The RNA Seq-Atlas presented here provides a record of high-resolution gene expression in a set of fourteen diverse tissues. Hierarchical clustering of transcriptional profiles for these tissues suggests three clades with similar profiles: aerial, underground and seed tissues. We also investigate the relationship between gene structure and gene expression and find ...


Distribution And Ecotypic Variation Of The Invasive Annual Barb Goatgrass (Aegiolops Triuncialis) On Serpentine Soil, Kelly G. Lyons, A M. Shapiro, M. W. Schwartz 2010 Trinity University

Distribution And Ecotypic Variation Of The Invasive Annual Barb Goatgrass (Aegiolops Triuncialis) On Serpentine Soil, Kelly G. Lyons, A M. Shapiro, M. W. Schwartz

Biology Faculty Research

Successful colonization of newly introduced species is driven by a multitude of factors and is highly dependent on the species. It has long been hypothesized that preadaptation and postestablishment natural selection of introduced species can facilitate their invasion; however, to date, limited research has been dedicated to these theories. In addition, although the correlation between establishment of invasive species and disturbance has been noted and widely studied, the susceptibility of undisturbed habitats to invasion remains unclear. In California, serpentine habitats are severe edaphic environments that have been relatively free of anthropogenic disturbance and nonindigenous species invasions. In this study, we ...


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