The Strength Of B Cell Interaction With Antigen Determines The Degree Of Igm Polymerization, 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
The Strength Of B Cell Interaction With Antigen Determines The Degree Of Igm Polymerization, Jm Ye, Es Bromage, Sl Kaattari
The induction of variable disulfide polymerization of IgM in the trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and its effect on its half-life were examined. An association between greater Ab affinity and increased disulfide polymerization was first indicated by the observation of this increased IgM disulfide polymerization during the process of affinity maturation. A direct association between Ab affinity and disulfide polymerization was then established by the fractionation of individual sera into high- and low-affinity subpopulations, which also resulted in the partitioning of high and low degrees of disulfide polymerization. The ability of high-affinity B cells to produce more highly polymerized Abs upon Ag ...
Nitrogen Uptake By Phytoplankton And Bacteria During An Induced Phaeocystis Pouchetii Bloom, Measured Using Size Fractionation And Flow Cytometric Sorting, 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Nitrogen Uptake By Phytoplankton And Bacteria During An Induced Phaeocystis Pouchetii Bloom, Measured Using Size Fractionation And Flow Cytometric Sorting, Pb Bradley, Mp Sanderson, Jc Nejstgaard, Af Sazhin, Me Frischer, Lm Killberg-Thoreson, Pg Verity, L Campbell, Da Bronk
Uptake of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) by phytoplankton and bacteria was investigated during a mesocosm study conducted in Raunefjord, Norway in April 2005. One mesocosm was fertilized with nitrate and phosphate at a ratio of 16:1 and maintained in the light, while one unamended light mesocosm served as a control. Dissolved nutrients, phytoplankton and bacterial biomass, and phytoplankton community composition were monitored throughout the 26 d experiment. Uptake of (15)N-labeled ammonium and nitrate, and dual-labeled ((15)N and (13)C) urea and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) was measured for phytoplankton and bacteria using 2 methods: size ...
Kin Structure, Ecology And The Evolution Of Social Organization In Shrimp: A Comparative Analysis, 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Kin Structure, Ecology And The Evolution Of Social Organization In Shrimp: A Comparative Analysis, Je Duffy, Ks Macdonald
Eusocial societies present a Darwinian paradox, yet they have evolved independently in insects, mole-rats and symbiotic shrimp. Historically, eusociality has been thought to arise as a response to ecological challenges, mediated by kin selection, but the role of kin selection has recently been questioned. Here we use phylogenetically independent contrasts to test the association of eusociality with ecological performance and genetic structure (via life history) among 20 species of sponge-dwelling shrimp (Synalpheus) in Belize. Consistent with hypotheses that cooperative groups enjoy an advantage in challenging habitats, we show that eusocial species are more abundant, occupy more sponges and have broader ...
Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, Yw Luo, Mam Friedrichs, Sc Doney, Mj Church, Hw Ducklow
Previous studies have focused on the role of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) (defined as turnover time of similar to 1 d) in supporting heterotrophic bacterial production, but have mostly neglected semilabile DOM (defined as turnover time of similar to 100 to 1000 d) as a potential substrate for heterotrophic bacterial growth. To test the hypothesis that semilabile DOM supports substantial amounts of heterotrophic bacterial production in the open ocean, we constructed a 1-dimensional epipelagic ecosystem model and applied it to 3 open ocean sites: the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The ...
The Reflect Statement: Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials In Livestock And Food Safety: Explanation And Elaboration, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, Ian A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, Ian R. Dohoo, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, Kate Snedeker
Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications
Concerns about the completeness and accuracy of reporting of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and the impact of poor reporting on decision-making have been documented in the medical field over the past several decades. Experience from RCTs in human medicine would suggest that failure to report critical trial features can be associated with biased estimated effect measures, and there is evidence to suggest similar biases occur in RCTs conducted in livestock populations. In response to these concerns, standardized guidelines for reporting RCTs were developed and implemented in human medicine. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was first published in ...
Swine Producer Appraisal Of The Community Assessment Model For Odor Dispersion (Cam), 2010 Iowa State University
Swine Producer Appraisal Of The Community Assessment Model For Odor Dispersion (Cam), John C. Tyndall, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications
The community assessment model (CAM) for odor dispersion is a tool to assist in the siting of swine production facilities. CAM considers the size and type of a swine production system, local historical weather conditions, and odor control implementation. It predicts the number of hours of exposure to various levels of odor, by month, for each receptor in a given community. A follow-up survey of all CAM users since 2005 was conducted. The survey was designed to provide: 1) formative feedback for programming adjustments to improve Extension efficiency, usability, and reduce costs; and 2) summative feedback used to provide an ...
Play And Adversity: How The Playful Mammalian Brain Withstands Threats And Anxieties, 2010 Gettysburg College
Play And Adversity: How The Playful Mammalian Brain Withstands Threats And Anxieties, Stephen M. Siviy
Psychology Faculty Publications
Most mammals play, but they do so in a dangerous world. The dynamic relationship between the stresses created by their world and the activity of play helps to explain the evolution of play in mammals, as the author demonstrates in evidence garnered from experiments that introduce elements of fear to rats at play. The author describes the resulting fearful behavior and quantifies the fluctuation in play that results, and then he investigates how these are modified by increased maternal care or the use of benzodiazepines. In conclusion, he discusses how such research can help shed light on the neurobiology underlying ...
Robust Relationships For Simple Plantation Growth Models Based On Sparse Data, 2010 Southern Cross University
Robust Relationships For Simple Plantation Growth Models Based On Sparse Data, Jerome K. Vanclay
School of Environment, Science and Engineering Papers
Three equations predicting height H = β1(t − 0.5)0.5, diameter D = β2(H − 1.3)/ln N, and mortality dN/N = −2(G/Gmax)3dD/D from plantation age (t), stocking (N) and basal area (G) can be calibrated with few data (even a single observation) for plantations in which re-measured data and growth models are unavailable. Despite having only three parameters to be estimated, these equations extrapolate reliably and allow objective forecasts of future plantation growth performance that may serve as useful first approximations until more precise growth models can be developed.
Flying Squirrel Removal Does Not Reduce Their Use Of Simulated Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Nest Cluster, 2010 Utah State University
Flying Squirrel Removal Does Not Reduce Their Use Of Simulated Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Nest Cluster, Jennifer S. Borgo, Michael R. Conover, L. Michael Conner
Wildland Resources Faculty Publications
Reproductive success of the endangered Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is thought to be reduced by the presence of Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrels); hence, these squirrels are often removed when found inside woodpecker cavities. For this management practice to benefit Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, however, squirrel removal must both reduce the future probability of a flying squirrel re-occupying cavities and increase reproductive success for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. In this study, using simulated Red-cockaded Woodpecker clusters (pseudo-clusters), we tested the first assumption regarding squirrels reoccupying nest cavities. We found no differences between removal and control pseudo-clusters in the amount of time that flying squirrels ...
Greater Sage-Grouse Select Nest Sites To Avoid Visual Predators But Not Olfactory Predators, 2010 Utah State University
Greater Sage-Grouse Select Nest Sites To Avoid Visual Predators But Not Olfactory Predators, Michael R. Conover, Jennifer S. Borgo, Rebekah E. Dritz, Jonathan B. Dinkins, David K. Dahlgren
Wildland Resources Faculty Publications
Birds can hide from visual predators by locating nests where there is cover and from olfactory predators where habitat features create updrafts, high winds, and atmospheric turbulence, but sites optimal for hiding from visual and olfactory predators often differ. We examined how Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) balance the dual needs of hiding from both visual and olfactory predators on Parker Mountain, Utah, where the Common Raven (Corvus corax) is the main visual predator and the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and American badger (Taxidea taxus) are the main olfactory predators. By comparing nest sites to random sites during 2005 and 2006 ...
A History Of Moose Management In Utah, 2010 Utah State University
A History Of Moose Management In Utah, Michael L. Wolfe, Kent R. Hersey, David C. Stoner
Wildland Resources Faculty Publications
During the first half of the 20th century a moose (Alces alces) population gradually established itself on the North Slope of Utah’s Uinta Mountains from founders in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Formal management of the species commenced with an aerial survey conducted in 1957, and the first legal hunt in 1958. From this small initial population moose have expanded into other areas of northern Utah and, augmented by transplants, the statewide population has increased to an estimated 3,200 animals as of 2009. In the northern portion of the state moose appear to prosper in riparian willow (Salix sp ...
Study Of Host-Fungus Interactions Between Soybean And Phakopsora Pachyrhizi Using Proteomics, 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
Study Of Host-Fungus Interactions Between Soybean And Phakopsora Pachyrhizi Using Proteomics, Sunjung Park
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
Asian soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is an emerging disease in the continental U. S. and resistant commercial varieties have not been reported. In an effort to understand the interactions during rust infection of soybean, protein profile changes were examined over a 14-day period in soybean leaves of one susceptible commercial line (Pioneer 93M60) with or without soybean rust inoculation using proteomics in this study. Forty protein spots differentially expressed after rust inoculation were identified and fourteen of them were recovered and sequenced. These included proteins involved in plant defense, stress, metabolism, and other biological processes. During the time-course ...
Formation Of The Neural Tube Epithelium Basement Membrane During Secondary Neurulation In The Chick Embryo, 2010 University of Northern Iowa
Formation Of The Neural Tube Epithelium Basement Membrane During Secondary Neurulation In The Chick Embryo, Leslie Ann Mataya
Honors Program Theses
Neurulation, the formation of the neural tube, is an important process in the development of vertebrates. Because this organ ultimately becomes the central nervous system of the organism, the proper development of a fully-functioning neural tube is paramount to its survival. Neural tube defects, like spina bifida and anencephaly, are among the most common congenital malformations present in live human births. The prevalence of these defects is a definite concern to medicine and human health.
Soydb: A Knowledge Database Of Soybean Transcription Factors, 2010 University of Missouri
Soydb: A Knowledge Database Of Soybean Transcription Factors, Zheng Wang, Marc Libault, Trupti Joshi, Babu Valliyodan, Henry T. Nguyen, Dong Xu, Gary Stacey, Jianlin Cheng
Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications
Background: Transcription factors play the crucial rule of regulating gene expression and influence almost all biological processes. Systematically identifying and annotating transcription factors can greatly aid further understanding their functions and mechanisms. In this article, we present SoyDB, a user friendly database containing comprehensive knowledge of soybean transcription factors.
Description: The soybean genome was recently sequenced by the Department of Energy-Joint Genome Institute (DOE-JGI) and is publicly available. Mining of this sequence identified 5,671 soybean genes as putative transcription factors. These genes were comprehensively annotated as an aid to the soybean research community. We developed SoyDB - a knowledge database ...
Does Evolutionary Exposure Mediate Allelopathic Effects?, 2010 Eastern Illinois University
Does Evolutionary Exposure Mediate Allelopathic Effects?, Nikki Leigh Pisula
No abstract provided.
Trapping Mammals In A Cautious World: The Effect Of Disinfectants On Trap Success, 2010 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Trapping Mammals In A Cautious World: The Effect Of Disinfectants On Trap Success, James Wilson, K. E. Mabry
Biology Faculty Publications
Disinfecting traps that have captured small mammals is one recommendation for preventing occurrence of hantavirus infection; however, the potential effects of disinfection on small mammal trappability have not been investigated thoroughly. We conducted an experiment to compare the effects of 2 disinfectants (Lysol® and household bleach) on the trappability of 4 small mammal species (Peromyscus maniculatus, Neotamias spp., and Spermophilus lateralis). We established triplicate trap grids in 2 forest types (red fir and mixed conifer), each consisting of a 6 × 6 array of Sherman live-traps placed at 10-m intervals. Traps were given 1 of 3 treatments: control (water), Lysol, or ...
The Impact Of Conservation On The Status Of The World's Vertebrates, 2010 Old Dominion University
The Impact Of Conservation On The Status Of The World's Vertebrates, Michael Hoffmann, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Ariadne Angulo, Monika Böhm, Thomas M. Brooks, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent E. Carpenter, Janice Chanson, Beth A. Polidoro, Jonnell C. Sanciangco
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to extinction each year. However, this overall pattern conceals the impact of conservation successes, and we show that the rate of deterioration would have been at least one-fifth again as much in the absence of these. Nonetheless, current conservation efforts remain insufficient to ...
Expression And Characterization Of Antimicrobial Peptides Retrocyclin-101 And Protegrin-1 In Chloroplasts To Control Viral And Bacterial Infections, Baichuan Li
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Retrocyclin-101 (RC101) and Protegrin-1 (PG1) are two important antimicrobial peptides that can be used as therapeutic agents against bacterial and/or viral infections, especially those caused by the HIV-1 or sexually-transmitted bacteria. Because of their antimicrobial activity and complex secondary structures, they have not yet been produced in microbial systems and their chemical synthesis is prohibitively expensive. Therefore, we created chloroplast transformation vectors with the RC101 or PG1 coding sequence, fused with GFP to confer stability, furin or Factor Xa cleavage site to liberate the mature peptide from their fusion proteins and a His-tag to aid in their purification. Stable ...
Identification Of Novel Antimalarials From Marine Natural Products For Lead Discovery, 2010 University of Central Florida
Identification Of Novel Antimalarials From Marine Natural Products For Lead Discovery, Stephenie M. Alvarado
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
An estimated 500 million cases of malaria occur each year. The increasing prevalence of drug resistant strains of Plasmodium in most malaria endemic areas has significantly reduced the efficacy of current antimalarial drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of this disease. Therefore, discovery of new, inexpensive, and effective drugs are urgently needed to combat this disease. Marine biodiversity is an enormous source of novel chemical entities and has been barely investigated for antimalarial drug discovery. In an effort to discover novel therapeutics for malaria, we studied the antimalarial activities of a unique marine-derived peak fraction library provided by Harbor Branch Oceanographic ...
Acetazolamide-Induced Decrease Of Apical Fluid Flow In Choroid Plexus Is Independent Of The Concomitant Changes In Aquaporin-1 Expression, 2010 University of Central Florida
Acetazolamide-Induced Decrease Of Apical Fluid Flow In Choroid Plexus Is Independent Of The Concomitant Changes In Aquaporin-1 Expression, Pouya Alexander Ameli
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Acetazolamide (AZA), the only drug approved for treatment of hydrocephalus, is effective in only 25-30% of patients while its effect on fluid flow in the choroid plexus (CP) is unknown. The drug reversibly inhibits Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the most highly expressed „water pore‟ in the brain, and it is postulated that it reduces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production by modulating AQP1 (mostly found in the apical membrane of the CP). In this study, we sought to elucidate the effect of AZA on AQP1 and fluid flow in CP. Primary CP culture from p10 Sprague-Dawley rats and TRCSF-B cell line were grown ...