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178,681 full-text articles. Page 5 of 4310.

Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen 2018 Purdue University

Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are proteins in the cell responsible for regulating GPCRs located on the cell membrane. GRKs regulate active GPCRs by phosphorylating them at certain sites which causes them to stop normal signaling on the membrane. This ultimately affects how the cell responds to its environment. GRK5 is a kinase of particular interest due to its involvement in the pathology of diseases such as cardiac failure, cancers, and diabetes. Understanding the structure and function of GRK5 is essential for discovering ways to manipulate its behavior with these diseases, but not much is known about how GRK5 ...


Water Temperature And Harmful Algal Bloom Rate, Geoff Bright, Greg Michalski, Benjamin P. Wilkins 2018 Purdue University

Water Temperature And Harmful Algal Bloom Rate, Geoff Bright, Greg Michalski, Benjamin P. Wilkins

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Harmful algal blooms, made up of cyanobacteria, is an increasing problem in Midwestern lakes. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers used in crops such as corn and soybeans run off into streams and eventually lakes. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of nitrate and phosphate respectively is then used by cyanobacteria as a food source, allowing them to bloom at an alarming rate. Massive bloom events can be hazardous to both human health and the natural environment because of the release of neurotoxins, hepatotoxins and others into the air and drinking water. We set out to find if different water temperature can ...


Structural Analysis Of The Bama-B Complex In Acinetobacter Baumannii, Abigael Gichaba, Nicholas Noinaj, Robert E. Stephenson 2018 Purdue University

Structural Analysis Of The Bama-B Complex In Acinetobacter Baumannii, Abigael Gichaba, Nicholas Noinaj, Robert E. Stephenson

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There are 2 types of bacteria, gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria have both a plasma membrane and an outer membrane, while gram-positive only have a plasma membrane. The outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria have outer membrane proteins which are essential for the bacteria’s survival. Also located within the outer membrane is a multicomponent protein complex named the beta-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex. BAM is responsible for folding and inserting outer membrane proteins into the outer membrane. This protein complex serves an essential role but not much is understood about its function. In this study, two subunits of the ...


Expression Of Carbohydrates Biosynthetic Genes In Developing Soybean Seeds, Jayden Rosen, Karen A. Hudson 2018 Purdue

Expression Of Carbohydrates Biosynthetic Genes In Developing Soybean Seeds, Jayden Rosen, Karen A. Hudson

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

An essential part of livestock diets is soybean meal, which is a major source of protein, but which also consists of antinutritional carbohydrates. Antinutritional carbohydrates such as raffinose and stachyose lead to irritation to the gut for monogastric livestock as well as unhealthy weight gain. A major objective of soybean genetics is to reduce these antinutritional carbohydrates within the seed and increase the levels of good carbohydrates. This will lead to healthier livestock and better meat quality. To select genes potentially responsible for variation in carbohydrate levels in seeds, the expression of genes encoding several biosynthetic enzymes was measured during ...


High-Throughput Nanoliter Dispensing Device For Biological Applications, Cole Reynolds, Euiwon Bae Dr., J Paul Robinson Dr. 2018 Purdue University

High-Throughput Nanoliter Dispensing Device For Biological Applications, Cole Reynolds, Euiwon Bae Dr., J Paul Robinson Dr.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Pathogen identification is a field that can contribute largely to the prevention of the spreading of illness and disease. In the past, pathogen identification has been a long and arduous process due to the time-consuming processes and steps that requires technician’s time and effort. With new technologies emerging however, screening of bacteria colonies can be done in a quick and high-throughput way. The problem is that using the current methods, bacteria cannot be transferred to petri dishes fast enough to keep up with the new screening methods. The current study focuses on exploring different methods to create an ergonomic ...


Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra 2018 Purdue University

Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Microglia are the brain’s resident immune cells that are responsible for maintaining homeostasis in healthy conditions. During injury or infection, resting microglia get activated and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-1a, IL-6, etc. along with reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide (NO) to combat neuroinflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Inflammation is characterized by the activation of resident-immune cells in the brain called microglia that respond to the eat-me signals released by the toxic amyloid beta peptides as well as the dying neurons in the microenvironment. Recent studies have shown that activated microglia induce neuronal death ...


Structural Characterization Of The Dep Domains Of P-Rex1, Samantha R. Allgood, John J.G. Tesmer, Sandeep K. Ravala 2018 Purdue University

Structural Characterization Of The Dep Domains Of P-Rex1, Samantha R. Allgood, John J.G. Tesmer, Sandeep K. Ravala

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

P-Rex1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho-GTPases, which is indirectly involved in the regulation of cell migration and proliferation. It contains a tandem DH/PH domain archetypal of the Dbl family of GEFs, two DEP and two PDZ domains, and a C-terminal end with weak homology to inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase. P-Rex1 is regulated by both intra-domain interactions and interactions with other proteins such as G-protein beta gamma, PKA and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Upregulation of P-Rex1 has been found in multiple human cancers, making it a potential target for anti-cancer drug therapies. Therefore, structural characterization of P-Rex1 ...


Engineering Bioluminescent Sensors Of Cyclic Amp To Study Opioid Signaling, Alexander L. Tesmer, Alexander R. French, Mathew Tantama 2018 Purdue University

Engineering Bioluminescent Sensors Of Cyclic Amp To Study Opioid Signaling, Alexander L. Tesmer, Alexander R. French, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Opioids are small signaling molecules which bind to opioid receptors on the surface of cells. The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is one of three major types of opioid receptors found in human neurons. When an opioid binds to a KOR, a variety of biochemical signaling pathways are activated inside the cell. Each of these pathways are associated with different physiological effects of KOR activation. The production of a small signaling molecule, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), is known to be inhibited during KOR activation of the analgesic (pain-killing) signaling pathway. The ability to interrogate the individual responses of KOR signaling pathways ...


Targeting Neuropeptides To Bone Fractures For Accelerated Healing, Nicholas A. Young, Jeffery J. Nielsen, Philip S. Low 2018 Purdue University

Targeting Neuropeptides To Bone Fractures For Accelerated Healing, Nicholas A. Young, Jeffery J. Nielsen, Philip S. Low

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In patients over the age of 65 especially, bone fractures represent a significant disease burden. Non-invasive drug therapies are not available for bone fractures which represents a problem for this population. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP), two neuromodulator peptides in the glucagon superfamily, have demonstrated positive regulation of osteoblast proliferation and activity. Using acidic oligopeptides, we have developed ligands that target to and accumulate at fracture sites. These targeting ligands can be synthesized in sequence with bone anabolic peptides to minimize off target effects and increase potency at the fracture site to create safer and ...


Effect Of Carbohydrates On The Gut Microbiome, Maciej Filar, Mohit S. Verma 2018 Purdue University

Effect Of Carbohydrates On The Gut Microbiome, Maciej Filar, Mohit S. Verma

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The microbiome within the gut is directly linked to biological processes within a person, influencing factors such as metabolism, signaling pathways, and available nutrients. Long term dieting is known to alter ecological conditions within the gut, allowing certain types of microbes to flourish. Therefore, the overall health of an individual is ultimately influenced by shifts in the microbial community state caused by persistent dieting. This study investigates the connection between diet and the microbiome and draws an understanding of how common carbohydrates in food can affect bacterial composition. Using KBase software, anaerobic bacterial growth was investigated for bacteria subject to ...


Does Stat5a Have An Effect On Bmal1 Levels In Mammary Epithelial Cells?, Clare E. Aduwari, Aridany Suarez-Trujillo, Karen I. Plaut, Theresa M. Casey 2018 Purdue University

Does Stat5a Have An Effect On Bmal1 Levels In Mammary Epithelial Cells?, Clare E. Aduwari, Aridany Suarez-Trujillo, Karen I. Plaut, Theresa M. Casey

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The mammary gland is a very important organ for reproduction in mammals because it produces milk which serves as the primary source of nutrients for newly-born offspring. Previous studies suggest that its development is regulated by circadian clocks, biochemical oscillators that generate circadian rhythms (the body’s internal clock). The circadian system plays a major role in homeostasis, coordinating the body’s internal physiology and synchronizing it with the external environment. Our lab showed that levels of the BMAL1 protein, a core clock component, increased in the mammary gland at the onset of lactation. Treatment of mammary epithelial cells (HC11 ...


Engineering Dub-Deficient Viral Proteases From Fipv And Pedv Coronaviruses, Daniel T. Wesenberg, Jozlyn R. Clasman, Andrew D. Mesecar 2018 Purdue University

Engineering Dub-Deficient Viral Proteases From Fipv And Pedv Coronaviruses, Daniel T. Wesenberg, Jozlyn R. Clasman, Andrew D. Mesecar

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Coronaviruses form a class of viral pathogens lethal to humans and livestock. This issue is compounded by a lack of commercially available treatments or vaccines. In 2014, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) emerged in the United States and accounted for an estimated 7 million porcine deaths. Deaths of humans, companion animals, and livestock caused by coronaviruses highlight the need for therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. One strategy involves engineering papain-like protease 2 (PLP2), an enzyme conserved among coronavirus species that is critical for virus replication and pathogenesis. PLP2’s de-ubiquitinating (DUB) activity aids in the suppression of the ...


Spatial Response Of Near-Surface Soil Water Contents To Newly Imposed Soil Management, Aaron L. M. Daigh, Upasana Ghosh, Jodi DeJong-Hughes, Robert Horton 2018 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Spatial Response Of Near-Surface Soil Water Contents To Newly Imposed Soil Management, Aaron L. M. Daigh, Upasana Ghosh, Jodi Dejong-Hughes, Robert Horton

Agronomy Publications

Near-surface soil water content (SWC) and its spatial patterns are important for landscape hydrological responses to precipitation as well as our ability to remotely sense and model such responses. Our objective was to measure and evaluate near-surface SWC semivariograms of agricultural fields with newly imposed (i.e., <2 yr) side-by-side soil and residue management practices (i.e., reduced tillage systems and cover crops) in the midwestern United States. Range parameters were consistently smaller when cover crops were planted (20–25 m less) and tillage area and/or intensity was reduced (12–27 m less) compared with no cover crop and chisel plowing, respectively, except in a clayey Vertisol. Nugget and sill parameters did not have consistent trends across soil management practices or sites. These data, although brief and preliminary in scope, provide clear proof of concept that spatial pattern shifts can be clearly detected in newly imposed soil-management systems even though differences in SWC means are not always evident.


Targeted Epigenetic Editing Using Optogenetic Tools, Joshua Hahn, Chongli Yuan 2018 Purdue University

Targeted Epigenetic Editing Using Optogenetic Tools, Joshua Hahn, Chongli Yuan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Epigenetics markers, such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, are modifications to the structure of DNA that impact gene expression without altering the genetic code. Among them, DNA methylation plays a critical role in various biological processes including the differentiation of stem cells, regulation of gene expression, and adaptation to environmental signals. The ability to modify DNA methylation at particular genes in various cell types is thus desirable for engineering specific cell phenotypes. Although technologies exist that can alter DNA methylation at target genes, these techniques lack spatial and temporal resolution and are not able to selectively edit individual ...


Genome Analysis Of Multiple Mycobacteriophage, Emily Kerstiens, Kari Clase, Yi Li, Gillian Smith, Sarah Bell 2018 Purdue University

Genome Analysis Of Multiple Mycobacteriophage, Emily Kerstiens, Kari Clase, Yi Li, Gillian Smith, Sarah Bell

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Bacteriophage are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. They can be used as treatments for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, but more knowledge is needed about phage and how they interact with bacteria in order to develop safe and effective phage therapy treatments. This study examines the genomes of eighteen mycobacteriophage that were isolated from the environment on and surrounding Purdue University. Phage genomes were annotated using several bioinformatics software, including DNA Master, GeneMark, and PECAAN. Evidence was examined to determine the correct location within the genome and the potential function. Approximately two thousand genes were annotated in this study. A ...


Improving Biomanufacturing Production With Novel Elp-Based Transcriptional Regulators, Juya Jeon, Logan R. Readnour, Kevin V. Solomon 2018 Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University

Improving Biomanufacturing Production With Novel Elp-Based Transcriptional Regulators, Juya Jeon, Logan R. Readnour, Kevin V. Solomon

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Microbes can be used to produce valuable drugs, chemicals, and biofuels, but their potential has not been fully realized due to low production yields. To improve biomanufacturing processes and yield, we are developing novel, transcriptional regulators using biosynthesis technology in order to improve cellular health and overall production. Our regulator contains elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs), which make ideal sensors since they exhibit a sharp, inverse phase transition to indicators of cell health such as intracellular pH and ionic strength, and external stimuli such as temperature. We hypothesize that ELP can be fused to transcription factors to control expression of target genes ...


Characterization Of Receptor Expression And Aberrant Gli2 Signaling In Osteosarcoma Cells, Chanelle Hunter, Erik Beadle M.S., Julie Sterling 2018 University of Central Florida

Characterization Of Receptor Expression And Aberrant Gli2 Signaling In Osteosarcoma Cells, Chanelle Hunter, Erik Beadle M.S., Julie Sterling

Chanelle Hunter

Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary bone tumor diagnosed in adolescents and young adults and is known for poor prognosis in late stages of detection. Although, there have been many advances in the development of chemotherapy, inhibitors, and combination therapy, there are few existing targeted therapies against the onset of osteosarcoma. Given the complex nature of the bone microenvironment in relation to tumor formation, it is necessary to gain insight into the molecular variations in activation, function, and regulation in order to identify and develop new methods of targeting and drug design. Our objective is to characterize the oncogenic pathway ...


Lessons; Our Dream, Chelsie B. Wilson 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Lessons; Our Dream, Chelsie B. Wilson

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

Lessons: This poem highlights the critical social realities African American's face daily. I wanted to be the voice for many people who feel like they are not and will never he heard.

Our Dream: This poem signifies the stereotypes labeled to African Americans. I wanted to embrace that aspect by creating a relevant and relatable component which is why I decided to use the phrase "I have a dream" from the late, the great Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.


Characterizing The Role Of The Mir156-Spl Network In Heat Stress Response In Medicago Sativa, Craig Matthews 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Role Of The Mir156-Spl Network In Heat Stress Response In Medicago Sativa, Craig Matthews

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Heat stress negatively impacts plant development by disrupting regular plant functions, including molecular, physiological and anatomical processes, reducing crop production. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop and developing abiotic stress resistant cultivars would help mitigate crop losses. Members of the miR156 family regulate SPL genes, impacting plant growth and development and are involved in stress response. Here, alfalfa with miR156 overexpression (miR156OE) and SPL13 RNAi knockdown (SPL13i) showed increased tolerance to heat stress (40°C) while SPL9 RNAi alfalfa did not. Heat-stressed miR156OE and SPL13i plants had increased antioxidant levels, including anthocyanins. Additionally, genes associated with miR156 involved ...


The Effect Of Different Training Loads On The Lung Health Of Competitive Youth Swimmers, Rachelle D. Davies, Eric C. Parent, Craig D. Steinback, Michael D. Kennedy 2018 University of Alberta

The Effect Of Different Training Loads On The Lung Health Of Competitive Youth Swimmers, Rachelle D. Davies, Eric C. Parent, Craig D. Steinback, Michael D. Kennedy

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(6): 999-1018, 2018. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, and respiratory symptoms are common in competitive swimmers, however it is unclear how volume and intensity of training exacerbate these problems. Thus, our purpose was to measure AHR, inflammation, and respiratory symptoms after low, moderate, and high training loads in swimmers. Competitive youth swimmers (n=8) completed nine weeks of training split into three blocks (Low, Moderate, and High intensity). Spirometry at rest and post-bronchial provocation [Eucapnic Voluntary Hyperpnea (EVH)] and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) were completed at the end of each training block. A ...


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