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Legume Cover Crops Reduce Overall Weed Incidence And Increase Fruit Production Of Organically Grown Raspberries, Dennis N. Portz, Gail R. Nonnecke, Angela Tedesco, Ben Saunders 2010 Iowa State University

Legume Cover Crops Reduce Overall Weed Incidence And Increase Fruit Production Of Organically Grown Raspberries, Dennis N. Portz, Gail R. Nonnecke, Angela Tedesco, Ben Saunders

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Weed accumulation in raspberry plantings is a primary concern of all producers in Iowa, especially in organic production. Tillage may be used to reduce weed growth as an alternative to herbicides in raspberry plantings. However, tillage leaves soil vulnerable to erosion and potentially depletes the nutrients and organic matter from the topsoil. Growing a living mulch on the soil surface reduces weed seed germination and growth, and it reduces the need for tilling after planting between the rows of raspberry plants. Legume living mulches also can provide nitrogen and fit within organic certification requirements. The overall objective was to determine ...


Wine Grape Cultivar Trial Performance In 2009, Paul A. Domoto, Gail R. Nonnecke, Joseph M. Hannan, Dennis N. Portz, Leah B. Riesselman, Bernard J. Havlovic, Nicholas P. Howell, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky, Kevin Van Dee 2010 Iowa State University

Wine Grape Cultivar Trial Performance In 2009, Paul A. Domoto, Gail R. Nonnecke, Joseph M. Hannan, Dennis N. Portz, Leah B. Riesselman, Bernard J. Havlovic, Nicholas P. Howell, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky, Kevin Van Dee

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

To assess the regional adaptation of wine grape cultivars in Iowa, a trial was established in 2003 through an Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship (IDALS) specialty crops grant awarded to the Iowa Wine Growers Association (IWGA). The trial was designed to evaluate up to 20 cultivars or advanced selections at four Iowa State University (ISU) farms representing different geographic, climatic, and soil conditions: Horticulture Research Station (HRS), Ames; the Armstrong Research Farm (ARF), Lewis; the Southeast Research Farm (SERF), Crawfordsville; and the Northeast Research Farm (NERF), Nashua. The SERF and NERF plantings also included the 15 cultivars being ...


Apple Imprinting, Brandon H. Carpenter, Gail R. Nonnecke, Lynn R. Schroeder, Dennis N. Portz 2010 Iowa State University

Apple Imprinting, Brandon H. Carpenter, Gail R. Nonnecke, Lynn R. Schroeder, Dennis N. Portz

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Anthocyanin is the pigment that develops in the skin of apples and produces the red color associated with some apple cultivars. Apples are dependent on light to develop anthocyanins. This is the reason why some apples develop leaf-like shapes in their pigment on the skin; the leaf excludes the light in its shape and the red color pigment doesn’t develop. Apple imprinting is a lightmanipulation technique used to produce an intentional design on the skin of apples. This technique is used in Japan where fruit can be a prized gift, and apples imprinted with special logos can bring a ...


Corn Plant Populations, 2007 Through 2009, Mark A. Licht 2010 Iowa State University

Corn Plant Populations, 2007 Through 2009, Mark A. Licht

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Corn hybrid genetics change yearly to increase productivity. The newer hybrids appear to possess plant characteristics that allow for higher plant populations. Over the past several years, several field trials across the state have found support for higher plant populations in corn. This trial was designed to collect information to aid in local recommendations. Additionally, this data will be combined into a larger data set of similar trials for statewide recommendations.


Soybean Plant Density Effect On Oil Composition In Low-Linolenic Soybean Cultivars, Palle Pedersen, Jason De Bruin, Jeff Butler 2010 Iowa State University

Soybean Plant Density Effect On Oil Composition In Low-Linolenic Soybean Cultivars, Palle Pedersen, Jason De Bruin, Jeff Butler

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Increased demand for soybean with modified oil composition has led to the development of new soybean cultivars with reduced levels of linolenic fatty acids. Plant density effects on soybean oil and protein content have been documented. However, little information is available for producers regarding management for growing low-linolenic soybean. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant density on linolenic acid of soybean bred to have reduced linolenic acid content (≤ 3%, low-linolenic) and of traditional soybean cultivars (≈ 7%, high-linolenic).


Pottawattamie County Farm To Fork, Barry Deuel, Shirley Fredriksen 2010 Golden Hills Resource Conservation and Development

Pottawattamie County Farm To Fork, Barry Deuel, Shirley Fredriksen

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Using a modest amount of seed money, the Pottawattamie County Local Food Council was able to support the development of local farmers markets, hire a local food coordinator, create the Grow Growers program, and make progress on local food system development.


Building A Direct-To-Consumer Distribution System In Iowa, Gary Huber 2010 Practical Famers of Iowa

Building A Direct-To-Consumer Distribution System In Iowa, Gary Huber

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Farmers interested in direct market distribution of their products were able to use information from the experiences in other states to help start a cooperative that sells products in a Des Moines shopping mall.


Drainage Water Quality Impacts Of Agricultural Management Practices, Matthew J. Helmers, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino 2010 Iowa State University

Drainage Water Quality Impacts Of Agricultural Management Practices, Matthew J. Helmers, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Antonio P. Mallarino

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Investigators analyzed the impacts of liquid swine manure application, tillage, rotation and cover crops on dissolved nutrient loss in subsurface drainage. The project took place at the ISU Northeast Research Farm near Nashua. Tile drainage water samples were collected weekly for nitrate and dissolved-reactive P analysis during 2009 and 2010. Nitrate-N concentrations were highest under continuous corn receiving swine manure every year compared to other treatments. Corn-soybean rotations that received manure only before corn had lower nitrate-N concentrations compared to corn-soybean rotations that received manure before both crops. During these three years, which were not ideal for cover crop growth ...


Shaping A Functional And Sustainable Biofuels Industry Through Bridging Industrial Needs With Farmer Production Capabilities, Richard M. Cruse, James Richardson, Carl Herndl, Mack C. Shelley II, Elena Yu Polush, Brent H. Shanks, Carl Roberts 2010 Iowa State University

Shaping A Functional And Sustainable Biofuels Industry Through Bridging Industrial Needs With Farmer Production Capabilities, Richard M. Cruse, James Richardson, Carl Herndl, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Elena Yu Polush, Brent H. Shanks, Carl Roberts

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

In order for the biofuels industry to survive and succeed, it will need the cooperation of Iowa farmers to supply biomass. Farmers have concerns about production that need to be addressed in order to create a sustainable industry.


Strategies To Stabilize Locally Grown Produce For Year-Round Sales: A Feasibility Study, Sam Beattie, Lester Wilson, Aubrey Mendonca, Stéphanie Jung 2010 Iowa State University

Strategies To Stabilize Locally Grown Produce For Year-Round Sales: A Feasibility Study, Sam Beattie, Lester Wilson, Aubrey Mendonca, Stéphanie Jung

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Local markets are dependent on fresh-grown products that are available only on a seasonal basis. This project looked at possible ways to preserve fruits and vegetables for profitable sales in the offseason.


A Sketch-Based Language For Representing Uncertainty In The Locations Of Origin Of Herbarium Specimens, Barry J. Kronenfeld, Andrew Weeks 2010 Eastern Illinois University

A Sketch-Based Language For Representing Uncertainty In The Locations Of Origin Of Herbarium Specimens, Barry J. Kronenfeld, Andrew Weeks

Faculty Research and Creative Activity

Uncertainty fields have been suggested as an appropriate model for retrospective georeferencing of herbarium specimens. Previous work has focused only on automated data capture methods, but techniques for manual data specification may be able to harness human spatial cognition skills to quickly interpret complex spatial propositions. This paper develops a formal modeling language by which location uncertainty fields can be derived from manually sketched features. The language consists of low-level specification of critical probability isolines from which a surface can be uniquely derived, and high-level specification of features and predicates from which low-level isolines can be derived. In a case ...


Relative Allelopathic Potential Of Invasive Plant Species In A Young Disturbed Woodland, Nikki Pisula, Scott J. Meiners 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Relative Allelopathic Potential Of Invasive Plant Species In A Young Disturbed Woodland, Nikki Pisula, Scott J. Meiners

Scott J. Meiners

Invasive plant species are often more successful within introduced areas when compared to their natural ranges. Allelopathy has been suggested as a potential mechanism for this success because invasive plants frequently establish monocultures and may produce allelochemicals evolutionarily novel to the recipient community. However, species are typically tested in isolation making the relative strength of allelopathy difficult to assess. We conducted laboratory bioassays for 10 co-occurring non-native species to determine the relative strength of their allelopathic potential. These species represented a suite of successful invaders within a young forest and were from a variety of plant life forms: trees, lianas ...


Feathers As Bioindicators Of Pcb Exposure In Clapper Rails, Jay W. Summers, Karen F. Gaines, N. Garvin, Warren L. Stephens Jr., James C. Cumbee Jr., Gary L. Mills 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Feathers As Bioindicators Of Pcb Exposure In Clapper Rails, Jay W. Summers, Karen F. Gaines, N. Garvin, Warren L. Stephens Jr., James C. Cumbee Jr., Gary L. Mills

Karen F. Gaines

In this study we used feathers to biomonitor exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1268 congener mixture in clapper rails (Rallus longirostris). This species has been used as an indicator species of environmental damage for the LCP superfund site located in Brunswick, GA, USA which is contaminated with Aroclor 1268, a congener mixture that has been used in limited amounts elsewhere and therefore can be used as a contaminant marker. The Aroclor 1268 congener mixture, including congener profiles, were quantified in feathers using gas chromatography (GC). Concurrently, each sample was quantified for the total Aroclor 1268 congener mixture using ...


Responses Of Bats To Forest Fragmentation In The Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Arkansas, Usa, Rex E. Medlin Jr., Matthew B. Connior, Karen F. Gaines, Thomas S. Risch 2010 Northwest Shoals Community College

Responses Of Bats To Forest Fragmentation In The Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Arkansas, Usa, Rex E. Medlin Jr., Matthew B. Connior, Karen F. Gaines, Thomas S. Risch

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Intense conversion of bottomland hardwood forests to rice and soybeans in the Mississippi River Valley of Arkansas has restricted the remaining forest to isolated fragments. Habitat fragmentation has proven to be detrimental to population sustainability of several species, and is the subject of intense study with often species and latitude specific responses. We compared both coarse land area classes and landscape fragmentation metrics from six 30 km × 30 km subsets centered on publicly owned management areas to bat captures obtained from a 2005 population study. Patch density was the strongest predictor of total captures (R 2 = 0.801, p = 0 ...


Reconstitution Of The Olfactory Epithelium Following Injury In Apoe-Deficient Mice, Britto P. Nathan, Salina Gairhe, Ikemefuna Nwosu, Stephen Clark, Robert G. Struble 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Reconstitution Of The Olfactory Epithelium Following Injury In Apoe-Deficient Mice, Britto P. Nathan, Salina Gairhe, Ikemefuna Nwosu, Stephen Clark, Robert G. Struble

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

ApoE, a protein component of lipoproteins, is extensively expressed in the primary olfactory pathway. Because apoE has been shown to play a vital role in nerve repair and remodeling, we hypothesized that apoE expression will increase in the injured olfactory epithelium (OE), and that apoE deficiency in apoE knockout (KO) mice will lead to delayed/incomplete reconstitution of the OE following injury. To directly test this hypothesis, we compared OE regeneration in wild-type (WT) and KO mice following injury induced by intranasal irrigation of Triton X-100. OE was collected at 0, 3, 7, 21, 42, and 56 days post lesion ...


Evaluating The Illinois Stream Valley Segment Model As An Effective Management Tool, Stephen S. Warrner, Robert U. Fischer, Ann M. Holtrop, Leon C. Hinz Jr., James M. Novak 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Evaluating The Illinois Stream Valley Segment Model As An Effective Management Tool, Stephen S. Warrner, Robert U. Fischer, Ann M. Holtrop, Leon C. Hinz Jr., James M. Novak

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Stream habitat assessments are conducted to evaluate biological potential, determine anthropogenic impacts, and guide restoration projects. Utilizing these procedures, managers must first select a representative stream reach, which is typically selected based on several criteria. To develop a consistent and unbiased procedure for choosing sampling locations, the Illinois Department of Natural Resources and the Illinois Natural History Survey have proposed a technique by which watersheds are divided into homogeneous stream segments called valley segments. Valley segments are determined by GIS parameters including surficial geology, predicted flow, slope, and drainage area. To date, no research has been conducted to determine if ...


Liana Host Preference And Implications For Deciduous Forest Regeneration, Laura M. Ladwig, Scott J. Meiners 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Liana Host Preference And Implications For Deciduous Forest Regeneration, Laura M. Ladwig, Scott J. Meiners

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Lianas have the potential to shape forest communities and alter forest regeneration. However, impacts of lianas on forest regeneration, particularly in temperate forests, are largely unstudied. To understand potential liana impacts on the community we need to first know the location and intensity of liana burdens on host trees. We examined liana-tree host references within a series of young regenerating deciduous forests in the Piedmont region of New Jersey, USA. Established trees ($ 5 cm dbh) and the lianas associated with each tree were surveyed in 2008. The five most abundant liana species were Celastrus orbiculatus, Lonicera japonica, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Toxicodendron ...


Relative Allelopathic Potential Of Invasive Plant Species In A Young Disturbed Woodland, Nikki Pisula, Scott J. Meiners 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Relative Allelopathic Potential Of Invasive Plant Species In A Young Disturbed Woodland, Nikki Pisula, Scott J. Meiners

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Invasive plant species are often more successful within introduced areas when compared to their natural ranges. Allelopathy has been suggested as a potential mechanism for this success because invasive plants frequently establish monocultures and may produce allelochemicals evolutionarily novel to the recipient community. However, species are typically tested in isolation making the relative strength of allelopathy difficult to assess. We conducted laboratory bioassays for 10 co-occurring non-native species to determine the relative strength of their allelopathic potential. These species represented a suite of successful invaders within a young forest and were from a variety of plant life forms: trees, lianas ...


Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Lianas During 50 Years Of Succession To Temperate Forest, Laura Ladwig, Scott J. Meiners 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Lianas During 50 Years Of Succession To Temperate Forest, Laura Ladwig, Scott J. Meiners

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Although they are important components of forest communities, the general ecology and spatiotemporal patterns of temperate lianas during forest regeneration are largely unknown. The dependence of lianas on other plants for physical support makes them a potentially important driver of community dynamics. We examined 50 years of vegetation data from an old-field succession study to determine the dynamics and community controls on liana expansion within the Piedmont region of New Jersey, USA. Four lianas, Lonicera japonica, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Toxicodendron radicans, and Vitis spp., occurred in enough abundance for detailed analyses. In general, liana cover peaked during mid-succession (20–30 years ...


Allelopathic Effects Of Goldenrod Species On Turnover In Successional Communities, Nikki Pisula, Scott J. Meiners 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Allelopathic Effects Of Goldenrod Species On Turnover In Successional Communities, Nikki Pisula, Scott J. Meiners

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

While goldenrod species are often found to be allelopathic in laboratory settings, its importance in controlling plant community dynamics has been much more difficult to assess. We designed a study to determine whether allelopathy is related to the success of goldenrods in abandoned agricultural land. To accomplish this, we conducted laboratory bioassays for six co-occurring goldenrod species and compared these results to the cover and impacts of these species in the field. We determined the germination responses of two target species to a gradient of leaf extract concentrations to assess the allelopathic potential of these goldenrods. We also used long-term ...


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