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Structures, Biological Activities And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Terpenoids From Marine Ciliates Of The Genus Euplotes, Graziano Guella, Danielle Skropeta, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Fernando Dini 2010 University of Wollongong

Structures, Biological Activities And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Terpenoids From Marine Ciliates Of The Genus Euplotes, Graziano Guella, Danielle Skropeta, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Fernando Dini

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C-30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having ...


Hydration Dependent Studies Of Highly Aligned Multilayer Lipid Membranes By Neutron Scattering , Marcus Trapp, Thomas Gutberlet, Fanni Juranyi, T Unruh, Bruno Demé, Moeava Tehei, Judith Peters 2010 University of Wollongong

Hydration Dependent Studies Of Highly Aligned Multilayer Lipid Membranes By Neutron Scattering , Marcus Trapp, Thomas Gutberlet, Fanni Juranyi, T Unruh, Bruno Demé, Moeava Tehei, Judith Peters

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

We investigated molecular motions on a picoseconds timescale of 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn- Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DMPC) model membranes as a function of hydration by using elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering. Two different hydrations corresponding to approximately nine and twelve water molecules per lipid were studied, the latter being the fully hydrated state. In our study we focused on head group motions by using chain deuterated lipids. Information on in-plane and out-of-plane motions could be extracted by using solid supported DMPC multilayers. Our studies confirm and complete former investigations by K¨onig et al. and Rheinst¨adter et al. who describe the dynamics of ...


Population And Breeding Trends Of An Urban Coloniser: The Australian White Ibis, John Martin, Kris French, Richard Major 2010 University of Wollongong

Population And Breeding Trends Of An Urban Coloniser: The Australian White Ibis, John Martin, Kris French, Richard Major

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Context. In the Sydney region, the population of Australian white ibis has dramatically increased from rare observations in the 1950s to a breeding season peak of 8900 in 2008, resulting with human -wildlife conflicts. Within natural habitats across the eastern states, the ibis population has declined, yet within urban environments ibis have been lethally managed for over 30 years. However, limited ecological and no regional population data are available for the Sydney region. Aims. The present study of ibis in the Sydney region aims to (1) establish the abundance of the population during the breeding and non-breeding seasons, (2) determine ...


Laboratory Measurements Of Trace Gas Emissions From Biomass Burning Of Fuel Types From The Southeastern And Southwestern United States, I R. Burling, R J. Yokelson, David W. Griffith, T J. Johnson, P Veres, J.M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, S P. Urbanski, J Reardon, D R. Weise, W M Hao, Joost A. De Gouw 2010 University of Montana

Laboratory Measurements Of Trace Gas Emissions From Biomass Burning Of Fuel Types From The Southeastern And Southwestern United States, I R. Burling, R J. Yokelson, David W. Griffith, T J. Johnson, P Veres, J.M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, S P. Urbanski, J Reardon, D R. Weise, W M Hao, Joost A. De Gouw

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned ...


The First Syntheses Of Enantiopure 2,2 '-Biindoline, Steven M. Wales, Anthony C. Willis, Paul A. Keller 2010 University of Wollongong

The First Syntheses Of Enantiopure 2,2 '-Biindoline, Steven M. Wales, Anthony C. Willis, Paul A. Keller

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The first two syntheses of chiral 2,2'-biindoline are reported either in five steps from 2,2'-bioxirane, or three steps from 2,2'-biaziridine, both with exceptional enantiopurity


Gel-Carbon Nanotube Materials: The Relationship Between Nanotube Network Connectivity And Conductivity, Naratip Songmee, Pisith Singjai, Marc in het Panhuis 2010 University of Wollongong

Gel-Carbon Nanotube Materials: The Relationship Between Nanotube Network Connectivity And Conductivity, Naratip Songmee, Pisith Singjai, Marc In Het Panhuis

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The electrical resistance of carbon nanotube networks (NNs) prepared from combinations of gellan gum, xanthan gum, Triton X-100, SWNT and MWNT is reported. It is demonstrated that the NN conductivity can be obtained by analysing the resistance of two overlapping NN as a function of their overlap distance. Unexpectedly, the connectivity between two overlapping NN was found to scale with the electrical conductivity over 4 orders of magnitude. Insights into the dependence of inter-NN contact on applied pressure were obtained.


Spatial Variability Of Cadmium, Copper, Manganese, Nickel And Zinc In The Port Curtis Estuary, Queensland, Australia, Brad M. Angel, Leigh T. Hales, Stuart L. Simpson, Simon C. Apte, Anthony A. Chariton, Damon A. Shearer, Dianne F. Jolley 2010 University of Wollongong

Spatial Variability Of Cadmium, Copper, Manganese, Nickel And Zinc In The Port Curtis Estuary, Queensland, Australia, Brad M. Angel, Leigh T. Hales, Stuart L. Simpson, Simon C. Apte, Anthony A. Chariton, Damon A. Shearer, Dianne F. Jolley

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Port Curtis is a rapidly growing industrialised and urbanised harbour in Central Queensland, Australia. Water sampling surveys were undertaken in late 2003 and 2004, accompanied by additional sediment sampling to investigate the sources and behaviour of trace metals, and the effects of pH on metal partitioning between dissolved and particulate forms. Sampling and analyses of trace metals in waters and suspended particulates were undertaken along axial transects extending away from possible point-sources within the harbour. Additional sampling was undertaken in selected inlets and major freshwater sources to Port Curtis, including the Fitzroy River. Most dissolved metal concentrations were significantly elevated ...


Citrate Synthase Activity Does Not Account For Age-Related Differences In Maximum Aerobic Performance In House Sparrows (Passer Domesticus), William A. Buttemer, C Bech, Mark A. Chappell 2010 University of Wollongong

Citrate Synthase Activity Does Not Account For Age-Related Differences In Maximum Aerobic Performance In House Sparrows (Passer Domesticus), William A. Buttemer, C Bech, Mark A. Chappell

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

We measured basal (BMR) and peak metabolic rates (PMR) in juvenile and adult House Sparrows. Juvenile birds had significantly higher BMR, but lower PMR than adult birds, despite having statistically indistinguishable body masses. We then evaluated the relation between PMR and masses of central and peripheral organs and found that pectoral muscle mass best correlated with PMR in both groups, accounting for about 35% of the variation in PMR. Because citrate synthase (CS) has such major importance in affecting the first committed step in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, we characterized CS activity levels In extracted muscles to see if this ...


Effects Of Soil Temperature Regimes After Fire On Seed Dormancy And Germination In Six Australian Fabaceae Species, Victor Santana, Ross A. Bradstock, Mark Ooi, Andrew J. Denham, Tony D. Auld, M Baeza 2010 Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Medit

Effects Of Soil Temperature Regimes After Fire On Seed Dormancy And Germination In Six Australian Fabaceae Species, Victor Santana, Ross A. Bradstock, Mark Ooi, Andrew J. Denham, Tony D. Auld, M Baeza

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

In addition to direct fire cues such as heat, smoke and charred wood, the passage of fire leads indirectly to changes in environmental conditions which may be able to break physical dormancy in hard-coated seeds. After a fire, the open canopy and the burnt material lying on the surface alter the thermal properties of the soil, resulting in elevated soil temperatures for long periods of time. We simulated daily temperature regimes experienced at different depths of soil profile after a summer fire. Our aim was to determine whether these temperature regimes and the duration of exposure (5, 15 and 30 ...


Importance Of Secondary Sources In The Atmospheric Budgets Of Formic And Acetic Acids, Fabien Paulot, Debra Wunch, John D. Crounse, G C Toon, Dylan B. Millet, Peter F. DeCarlo, C Vigouroux, Nicholas M. Deutscher, G Gonzalez Abad, J Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, J Hannigan, Carsten Warneke, Joost A. De Gouw, Edward Dunlea, M. De Maziere, David W. Griffith, P Bernath, J L. Jimenez, Paul O. Wennberg 2010 California Institute of Technology

Importance Of Secondary Sources In The Atmospheric Budgets Of Formic And Acetic Acids, Fabien Paulot, Debra Wunch, John D. Crounse, G C Toon, Dylan B. Millet, Peter F. Decarlo, C Vigouroux, Nicholas M. Deutscher, G Gonzalez Abad, J Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, J Hannigan, Carsten Warneke, Joost A. De Gouw, Edward Dunlea, M. De Maziere, David W. Griffith, P Bernath, J L. Jimenez, Paul O. Wennberg

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

We present a detailed budget of formic and acetic acids, two of the most abundant trace gases in the atmosphere. Our bottom-up estimate of the global source of formic and acetic acids are ∼1200 and ∼1400 Gmol/yr, dominated by photochemical oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, in particular isoprene. Their sinks are dominated by wet and dry deposition. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate this budget against an extensive suite of measurements from ground, ship and satellite-based Fourier transform spectrometers, as well as from several aircraft campaigns over North America. The model captures the seasonality of ...


Genetic Structure And Dispersal Patterns Of The Invasive Psocid Liposcelis Decolor (Pearman) In Australian Grain Storage Systems, Katarina Maryann Mikac, N N. Fitzsimmons 2010 University of Wollongong

Genetic Structure And Dispersal Patterns Of The Invasive Psocid Liposcelis Decolor (Pearman) In Australian Grain Storage Systems, Katarina Maryann Mikac, N N. Fitzsimmons

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic structure among invasive L. decolor populations from Australia and a single international population from Kansas, USA to determine patterns of dispersal. Six variable microsatellites displayed an average of 2.5-4.2 alleles per locus per population. Observed (H-O) heterozygosity ranged from 0.12-0.65 per locus within populations; but, in 13 of 36 tests, H-O was less than expected. Despite low levels of allelic diversity, genetic structure estimated as theta was significant for all pairwise comparisons between populations (theta = 0.05-0.23). Due to suspected null alleles at four loci, ENA (excluding ...


Functional Relationships Between Vegetation, Channel Morphology, And Flow Efficiency In An Alluvial (Anabranching) River, John D. Jansen, Gerald C. Nanson 2010 Stockholm University

Functional Relationships Between Vegetation, Channel Morphology, And Flow Efficiency In An Alluvial (Anabranching) River, John D. Jansen, Gerald C. Nanson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Water and sediment flux interactions are examined in Magela Creek, an alluvial (anabranching) sand bed river in the northern Australian tropics. Dense riparian vegetation stabilizes the channels and floodplains thereby preventing erosional instability at flow depths up to 6.2 times bankfull and discharges up to 15 times bankfull. Narrow anabranching channels characterize > 92% of the alluvial reach and transport bed load more efficiently than short reaches of wide single-channels, yet overall 29 +/- 12% of the bed load is sequestered and the average vertical accretion rate is 0.41 +/- 0.17 mm yr (1) along the 12 km study reach ...


Evidence Of Solar And Tropical-Ocean Forcing Of Hydroclimate Cycles In Southeastern Australia For The Past 6500 Years, Hamish A. McGowan, Samuel K. Marx, Joshua Soderholm, John Denholm 2010 The University of Queensland

Evidence Of Solar And Tropical-Ocean Forcing Of Hydroclimate Cycles In Southeastern Australia For The Past 6500 Years, Hamish A. Mcgowan, Samuel K. Marx, Joshua Soderholm, John Denholm

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Evidence of solar and tropical‐ocean forcing of climate cycles has been found in numerous palaeoclimate records. Numerical modelling studies show physical mechanisms by which direct and indirect solar forcing may affect climate, while there is mounting evidence of solar forcing of tropical ocean‐atmosphere teleconnections. This study has developed a 6500 year record of dust deposition, a proxy for regional hydroclimate variability for the Snowy Mountains region of Australia. Spectral analysis of the record provides evidence of statistically significant cycles in dust deposition of 35–43 years, 62–73 years, 161 years and 2200 years. These correlate with variability ...


The Effect Of Concurrent Activation Potentiation On The Knee Extensor And Flexor Performance Of Men And Women, Luke Garceau, Erich Petushek, McKenzie Fauth, William Ebben 2010 Marquette University

The Effect Of Concurrent Activation Potentiation On The Knee Extensor And Flexor Performance Of Men And Women, Luke Garceau, Erich Petushek, Mckenzie Fauth, William Ebben

Exercise Science Faculty Research and Publications

This study evaluated the effect of remote voluntary contractions (RVC) during isometric and isokinetic knee flexion and extension tests and evaluated gender differences therein. Subject peak torque, rate of torque development, and power were assessed with a dynamometer in RVC and no RVC’s conditions. A two way mixed ANOVA with repeated measures for condition was used to evaluate the interaction between conditions and gender, and to assess the main effects. Main effects were evaluated with a paired samples t-test. Results revealed a significant interaction between all but one test condition and gender as well as significant main effects for ...


Dynamic Stabilization During The Landing Phase Of Plyometric Exercises, Erich Petushek, Luke Garceau, Tyler VanderZanden, Brad Wurm, Christina Feldmann, William Ebben 2010 Northern Michigan University

Dynamic Stabilization During The Landing Phase Of Plyometric Exercises, Erich Petushek, Luke Garceau, Tyler Vanderzanden, Brad Wurm, Christina Feldmann, William Ebben

Exercise Science Faculty Research and Publications

This study examined the differences in and the reliability of time to stabilization (TTS) of several plyometric exercises. Twenty six men performed a variety of plyometric exercises representing a continuum of intensities of landing instability, including line hops, cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps, dumbbell countermovement jumps, and single leg countermovement jumps on a force platform. A repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc corrections was used to evaluate the differences in TTS between plyometric exercises. Practitioners who use plyometrics to train dynamic stability and balance should create programs that progress the intensity of the exercises based on ...


Kinetic Quantification Of Plyometric Take Off, Flight, And Landing Characteristics, William Ebben, Tyler VanderZanden, Brad Wurm, Luke Garceau, Christina Feldmann, Erich Petushek 2010 Marquette University

Kinetic Quantification Of Plyometric Take Off, Flight, And Landing Characteristics, William Ebben, Tyler Vanderzanden, Brad Wurm, Luke Garceau, Christina Feldmann, Erich Petushek

Exercise Science Faculty Research and Publications

This study assessed the kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises and assessed gender differences therein. Twenty-six men and 23 women performed a variety of plyometric exercises including line hops, 15.24 cm cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps, loaded countermovement jumps equal to 30% of 1 RM squat, depth jumps normalized to the subjects jump height, and single leg jumps. All plyometric exercises were performed on a force platform. Outcome variables associated with the takeoff, airborne, and landing phase of each plyometric were assessed including the peak ground reaction force during takeoff, time to takeoff, jump ...


Antagonist Conditioning Contractions Impair Agonist Functioning, Luke Garceau, Aaron Gray, McKenzie Fauth, Phillip Hanson, Brittni Hsu, Tejin Yoon, Chris Szalkowski, Brittney Lutsch, William Ebben 2010 Marquette University

Antagonist Conditioning Contractions Impair Agonist Functioning, Luke Garceau, Aaron Gray, Mckenzie Fauth, Phillip Hanson, Brittni Hsu, Tejin Yoon, Chris Szalkowski, Brittney Lutsch, William Ebben

Exercise Science Faculty Research and Publications

This study assessed the effect of antagonist conditioning contractions (ACC) on the subsequent force and electromyography of an agonist. Twelve subjects performed isokinetic elbow flexion on a dynamometer in 4 test conditions including a baseline condition without, and 1, 3 and 6 seconds after, isometric triceps extension. Average peak torque (T), peak torque/body weight (T:BW), average power (P), and rate of torque development (RTD) were assessed. Electromyographic data were obtained from elbow extensors and flexors. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analysis demonstrated that T, T:BW, P, and RTD were higher in the baseline, compared to ...


The Acute Time Course Of Concurrent Activation Potentiation, Luke Garceau, Erich Petushek, McKenzie Fauth, William Ebben 2010 Marquette University

The Acute Time Course Of Concurrent Activation Potentiation, Luke Garceau, Erich Petushek, Mckenzie Fauth, William Ebben

Exercise Science Faculty Research and Publications

This study evaluated the acute time course of the ergogenic effect of concurrent activation potentiation (CAP). Forty-two men and women, including CAP non-responders and responders, performed a 5 second isometric knee extension on a dynamometer with the use of remote voluntary contractions (RVC). Mean torque was assessed in seven 500 millisecond (ms) time periods. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects for time period (p ≤ 0.001), but no significant interaction between time period and CAP non-responders and responders (p > 0.05). The ergogenic effects of CAP are accrued during the first 1000ms. Concurrent activation potentiation responders produce ...


Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal III, Jeymohan Joseph 2010 University of North Carolina

Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal Iii, Jeymohan Joseph

Virology Papers

In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda ...


Subtype-Associated Differences In Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription Affect The Viral Replication, Sergey Iordanskiy, Mackenzie Waltke, Yanjun Feng, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Subtype-Associated Differences In Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription Affect The Viral Replication, Sergey Iordanskiy, Mackenzie Waltke, Yanjun Feng, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background: The impact of the products of the pol gene, specifically, reverse transcriptase (RT) on HIV-1 replication, evolution, and acquisition of drug resistance has been thoroughly characterized for subtype B. For subtype C, which accounts of almost 60% of HIV cases worldwide, much less is known. It has been reported that subtype C HIV-1 isolates have a lower replication capacity than B; however, the basis of these differences remains unclear.

Results: We analyzed the impact of the pol gene products from HIV-1 B and C subtypes on the maturation of HIV virions, accumulation of reverse transcription products, integration of viral ...


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