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Seed Treatments Enhance Photosynthesis In Maize Seedlings By Reducing Infection With Fusarium Spp. And Consequent Disease Development In Maize, Carlos Rodriguez-Brljevich, Charles Kanobe, J. F. Shanahan, Alison E. Robertson 2010 Iowa State University

Seed Treatments Enhance Photosynthesis In Maize Seedlings By Reducing Infection With Fusarium Spp. And Consequent Disease Development In Maize, Carlos Rodriguez-Brljevich, Charles Kanobe, J. F. Shanahan, Alison E. Robertson

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Maize seed that was either treated with the fungicide Cruiser Extreme 250 ® (fludioxonil + azoxystrobin + mefenoxam + thiamethoxam) or not treated was planted at two Iowa locations in 2007. Root, mesocotyl and crown rot severity, incidence of Fusarium spp. colonisation and chlorophyll florescence (CF) were assessed at growth stages V2, V4 and V6, and stalk rot severity at R6. At both locations, seed treatment reduced disease severity and incidence of Fusarium spp. infection at all growth stages assessed. Measurements of CF decreased significantly with increased disease severity and incidence of Fusarium spp. at V2 and V4 at both locations, indicating that seedling ...


Science Based Authentication Of Dietary Supplements: Studies On The Chemical Constituents, Analytical Method And Biological Activities Of Scutellaria Spp And Pfaffia Paniculata, Jing Li 2010 University of Mississippi

Science Based Authentication Of Dietary Supplements: Studies On The Chemical Constituents, Analytical Method And Biological Activities Of Scutellaria Spp And Pfaffia Paniculata, Jing Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

for dissertation defense Jing Li Iklas A. Khan, major professor professor of pharmacognosy research professor in the research institute of pharmaceutical sciences assistant director of the national center for natural products research program director of FDA programs two projects are included in the dissertation. The first one is the "Studies of Scutellaria species on the chemical constituents, analytical method, and biological activities". The second one is the "Chemical investigation of Pfaffia paniculata". S. lateriflora was listed in the FDA poisonous plant database and has been classified as an "herb of undefined safety" due to the reports of hepatotoxic reactions. Also ...


Discovery Of New Ohbayashinema Spp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) In Ochotona Princeps And Ochotona Cansus (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) From Western North America And Central Asia, With Considerations Of Historical Biogeography, M.-C. Durrette-Desset, Kurt E. Galbreath, Eric P. Hoberg 2010 Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France

Discovery Of New Ohbayashinema Spp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) In Ochotona Princeps And Ochotona Cansus (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) From Western North America And Central Asia, With Considerations Of Historical Biogeography, M.-C. Durrette-Desset, Kurt E. Galbreath, Eric P. Hoberg

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp. and Ohbayashinema aspeira n. sp., are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiated from the 5 known species of the genus parasitic in Ochotonidae from the Old World by very long spicules and an oblique axis of orientation for the ridges composing the synlophe. Ohbayashinema aspeira, described only from females, is similar to Oh. nearctica based on the number of cuticular ridges at the midbody. It is mainly differentiated by an ...


How Specialists Can Be Generalists: Resolving The "Parasite Paradox" And Implications For Emerging Infectious Disease, Salvatore J. Agosta, Niklas Janz, Daniel R. Brooks 2010 University of Toronto

How Specialists Can Be Generalists: Resolving The "Parasite Paradox" And Implications For Emerging Infectious Disease, Salvatore J. Agosta, Niklas Janz, Daniel R. Brooks

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

The parasite paradox arises from the dual observations that parasites (broadly construed, including phytophagous insects) are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, and yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common in the phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in ecological time. We synthesize the emerging solution to this paradox: phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, grouped under the term ecological fitting, provide substantial opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, in the absence of the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. We discuss mechanisms behind ecological fitting, its implications for defining specialists ...


Examination Of Homalometron Elongatum Manter, 1947 And Description Of A New Congener From Eucinostomus Currani Zahuranec, 1980 In The Pacific Ocean Off Costa Rica, Jessica H. Parker, Stephen S. Curran, Robin M. Overstreet, Vasyl V. Tkach 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Examination Of Homalometron Elongatum Manter, 1947 And Description Of A New Congener From Eucinostomus Currani Zahuranec, 1980 In The Pacific Ocean Off Costa Rica, Jessica H. Parker, Stephen S. Curran, Robin M. Overstreet, Vasyl V. Tkach

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Homalometron elongatum is reexamined using heat-killed material that was not subjected to pressure during fixation from Gerres cinereus collected from San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico, U.S.A. The new material is compared with some paratype specimens and differs by having a much less variable forebody length, and a median rather than submedian genital pore. Tegumental spines reportedly cover the anterior end of the body but we observed tegumental spines covering the entire body surface in both the paratype and new material. Homalometron lesliorum n. sp. is described from Eucinostomus currani from the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Nicaragua ...


Laser-Assisted Zona Pellucida Hatching Of Frozen-Thawed In Vivo-Produced Bovine Embryos, Mindy Kaye Chiasson 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Laser-Assisted Zona Pellucida Hatching Of Frozen-Thawed In Vivo-Produced Bovine Embryos, Mindy Kaye Chiasson

LSU Master's Theses

Incomplete zona hatching or failure of the zona to rupture compromises post-transfer embryo viability and conceptus development. Assisted hatching prior to the transfer of frozen-thawed bovine embryos has been proposed as a means to increase recipient pregnancy rates. The objective of this study was to determine if laser-assisted hatching would improve in vivo-produced frozen-thawed bovine embryo hatching and pregnancy rates. In Experiment I,II and III frozen direct-transfer embryos received either two a or three symmetrical rents at either 40% or 80% through the outer zona surface using the Hamilton Thorne XYClone® (Hamilton Thorne Biosciences) diode laser at 90% power ...


Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Genotypic Characterization, And Molecular Detection Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus And Vibrio Vulnificus From Louisiana Oysters, Feifei Han 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Genotypic Characterization, And Molecular Detection Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus And Vibrio Vulnificus From Louisiana Oysters, Feifei Han

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Members of the genus Vibrio are Gram-negative, halophilic bacteria that inhabit warm coastal and estuarine waters worldwide. Among pathogenic vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related illnesses and Vibrio vulnificus causes the highest number of seafood-related deaths in the United States. Moreover, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the incidence of infections of the two vibrios due to the consumption of oysters has shown a sustained increase since 2001, indicating further measures are needed to prevent human Vibrio illness. In this dissertation research, a total of 622 Vibrio isolates, consisting of 252 V ...


Structural Restoration Of Nematodes And Acanthocephalans Fixed In High Percentage Alcohol Using Dess Solution And Rehydration, Soraya Naem, Christopher Pagan, Steven A. Nadler 2010 Urmia University

Structural Restoration Of Nematodes And Acanthocephalans Fixed In High Percentage Alcohol Using Dess Solution And Rehydration, Soraya Naem, Christopher Pagan, Steven A. Nadler

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Ninety-five percent ethanol is the most widely used field and laboratory preservative for nematodes and other helminth specimens intended for use in molecular systematics. Preservation of nematodes in high-concentration alcohols results in structural dehydration artifacts, including shrinkage and body surface distortions sufficient to obscure features required for morphological identification and analysis, thereby compromising precise morphometrics. However, treating dehydrated nematodes using a solution of DMSO, disodium EDTA, and NaCl, followed by rehydration in water produces marked improvements in specimen shape and surface features, resulting from diffusion of water into the tissues and pseudocoelom as the internal salt concentration is reduced. Following ...


Critical Comment: What We Don’T Recognize Can Hurt Us: A Plea For Awareness About Cryptic Species, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León, Steven A. Nadler 2010 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Critical Comment: What We Don’T Recognize Can Hurt Us: A Plea For Awareness About Cryptic Species, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce De León, Steven A. Nadler

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

We conducted an extensive literature review on studies that have used DNA sequences to detect cryptic species of parasites during the last decade. Each literature citation that included the term ‘‘cryptic’’ or ‘‘sibling’’ species was analyzed to determine the approach used by the author(s). Reports were carefully filtered to retain only those that recognized the existence of cryptic species centered on the use of DNA sequences. Based on analysis of these papers, we comment on the different ways that parasite cryptic species are discovered in studies focusing on different aspects of the host–parasite relationship, or disciplines, within parasitology ...


Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases: Implications Of Climate Change And Human Behavior, Haylee J. Weaver, John M. Hawdon, Eric P. Hoberg 2010 Australian National University

Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases: Implications Of Climate Change And Human Behavior, Haylee J. Weaver, John M. Hawdon, Eric P. Hoberg

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) collectively cause the highest global burden of parasitic disease after malaria and are most prevalent in the poorest communities, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change is predicted to alter the physical environment through cumulative impacts of warming and extreme fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, with cascading effects on human health and wellbeing, food security and socioeconomic infrastructure. Understanding how the spectrum of climate change effects will influence STHs is therefore of critical importance to the control of the global burden of human parasitic disease. Realistic progress in the global control of STH in a changing climate requires ...


Muellerius Capillaris Dominates The Lungworm Community Of Bighorn Sheep At The National Bison Range, Montana, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Alicia M. Hines, Elizabeth A. Archie, Eric P. Hoberg, Ingrid M. Asmundsson, John T. Hogg 2010 University of Montana - Missoula

Muellerius Capillaris Dominates The Lungworm Community Of Bighorn Sheep At The National Bison Range, Montana, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Alicia M. Hines, Elizabeth A. Archie, Eric P. Hoberg, Ingrid M. Asmundsson, John T. Hogg

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Lungworm infections are common among bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America, and the predominant species reported are Protostrongylus stilesi and P. rushi. The only records of another lungworm species, Muellerius capillaris, infecting bighorns come from South Dakota, USA. At the National Bison Range (NBR), Montana, USA we found that across six sampling periods, 100% of wild bighorn sheep surveyed were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) which appeared to be consistent with M. capillaris. By contrast, only 39%or fewer sheep were passing Protostrongylus larvae. Using molecular techniques, we positively identified the DSL from the NBR bighorns as M. capillaris ...


Effect Of Resistant Starch On Microbial Content Of The Intestinal Tract, Reshani Nisansala Senevirathne 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Effect Of Resistant Starch On Microbial Content Of The Intestinal Tract, Reshani Nisansala Senevirathne

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Resistant starch (RS) increases beneficial gastro-intestinal bacterial populations simultaneously increasing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate. Butyrate acts as energy source for epithelial cells of colonic mucosa which stimulates intestinal cell proliferation and has been implicated as important in reducing obesity, diabetes and cancer. The Lactobacillus spp, Bifidobacterium spp, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Clostridium cluster IV and Clostridium cluster XIV are mainly involved in the production of butyrate by fermenting RS in the large intestine. With age there is a decline in these gut bacteria, but in the present study RS and diet restriction both enhanced the bacteria involved in butyrate ...


Stochastic Trends In Crop Yield Density Estimation, David I. Maradiaga 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Stochastic Trends In Crop Yield Density Estimation, David I. Maradiaga

LSU Master's Theses

The search for improved methods of estimating crop yield density functions has been a theme of recurrent research interest in agricultural economics. Crop yield density functions are the statistical instrument that generates probability estimates of yield risk, and risk is an important decision variable in production agriculture. Recent research in crop yield density estimation suggests that yield probability estimates can be sensitive to the way yield data are filtered, and if true, then the search for an “adequate filter” is warranted. Such a quest is pursued in this study. It is proposed that unit-root tests can be used to identify ...


A Comparison Of Soil And Corn Kernel Aspergillus Flavus Populations: Evidence For Niche Specialization, Rebecca Ruth Sweany 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

A Comparison Of Soil And Corn Kernel Aspergillus Flavus Populations: Evidence For Niche Specialization, Rebecca Ruth Sweany

LSU Master's Theses

Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that infects peanuts, cotton, corn and tree nuts. Aspergillus flavus is a major problem globally due to the production of acutely toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins. Louisiana climatic conditions lead to annual threats of corn aflatoxin contamination. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific ability of different strains of A. flavus to infect corn. Five soil samples and 10 corn ears were collected from each of seven corn fields throughout Louisiana. In addition, Francis Deville of Monsanto Company collected 7, 6, 2, and 4 soil samples and corn ears from four ...


New Binary Ti Vectors With Co-Directional Replicons For Agrobacterium Tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation Of Higher Plants, Seokhyun Lee 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

New Binary Ti Vectors With Co-Directional Replicons For Agrobacterium Tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation Of Higher Plants, Seokhyun Lee

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Small, high-yielding binary Ti vectors of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were constructed. All four basic components of the vector, ColE1 replicon (715 bp) for Escherichia coli, VS1 replicon (2,659 bp) for A. tumefaciens, a bacterial kanamycin resistance gene (999 bp), and the T-DNA region (170 bp), were modified to reduce the vector size to 4,566 bp and to introduce a number of mutations to increase the copy number and other functionality. The transcriptional direction of VS1 replicon can be the same as that of ColE1 replicon (co-directional transcription), or opposite (head-on transcription) as in the case of widely used vectors ...


Study Of Host-Fungus Interactions Between Soybean And Phakopsora Pachyrhizi Using Proteomics, Sunjung Park 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Study Of Host-Fungus Interactions Between Soybean And Phakopsora Pachyrhizi Using Proteomics, Sunjung Park

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Asian soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is an emerging disease in the continental U. S. and resistant commercial varieties have not been reported. In an effort to understand the interactions during rust infection of soybean, protein profile changes were examined over a 14-day period in soybean leaves of one susceptible commercial line (Pioneer 93M60) with or without soybean rust inoculation using proteomics in this study. Forty protein spots differentially expressed after rust inoculation were identified and fourteen of them were recovered and sequenced. These included proteins involved in plant defense, stress, metabolism, and other biological processes. During the time-course ...


Leopold Center For Sustainable Agriculture, 2009–2010 Annual Report, Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture 2010 Iowa State University

Leopold Center For Sustainable Agriculture, 2009–2010 Annual Report, Leopold Center For Sustainable Agriculture

Leopold Center Annual Reports

No abstract provided.


Development Of A New Tacaribe Arenavirus Infection Model And Its Use To Explore Antiviral Activity Of A Novel Aristeromycin Analog, B B. Gowen, M H. Wong, D Larson, W Ye, K H. Jung, E J. Sefing, R Skirpstunas, D F. Smee, John D. Morrey, S W. Schneller 2010 Utah State University

Development Of A New Tacaribe Arenavirus Infection Model And Its Use To Explore Antiviral Activity Of A Novel Aristeromycin Analog, B B. Gowen, M H. Wong, D Larson, W Ye, K H. Jung, E J. Sefing, R Skirpstunas, D F. Smee, John D. Morrey, S W. Schneller

John D. Morrey

A growing number of arenaviruses can cause a devastating viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome. They pose a public health threat as emerging viruses and because of their potential use as bioterror agents. All of the highly pathogenic New World arenaviruses (NWA) phylogenetically segregate into clade B and require maximum biosafety containment facilities for their study. Tacaribe virus (TCRV) is a nonpathogenic member of clade B that is closely related to the VHF arenaviruses at the amino acid level. Despite this relatedness, TCRV lacks the ability to antagonize the host interferon (IFN) response, which likely contributes to its inability to cause ...


The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills 2010 Iowa State University

The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health, and foodsafety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to reflect the unique aspects of reporting these livestock trials. A two-day consensus meeting was held on November 18–19, 2008 in Chicago, IL, United States of America, to achieve the objective. Prior to the meeting, a Web-based survey was conducted to identify issues for discussion. The 24 attendees were biostatisticians, epidemiologists, food-safety researchers, livestock-production specialists, journal editors ...


Current Perceptions Regarding The Importance And Safety Of Fish Consumption And Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Among Pregnant Women, Jessica L. Ess 2010 Eastern Michigan University

Current Perceptions Regarding The Importance And Safety Of Fish Consumption And Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Among Pregnant Women, Jessica L. Ess

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Background: Previous studies suggest many pregnant women are under-consuming fatty fish and are deficient in omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids.

Background: Previous studies suggest many pregnant women are under-consuming fatty fish and are deficient in omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids.

Methods: A 10-question survey distributed to expectant mothers via an online survey and via paper form through 3 obstetric clinics over a 2-month period.

Results: Of the 104 participants, 82% consumed less than 2-3 servings of fish per week, and at least 30% were confused about mercury content. Over 60% of doctors did not provide recommendations regarding ω-3 intake. One-third of participants ...


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