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Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis And The Collapse Of Anuran Species Richness And Abundance In The Upper Manu National Park, Southeastern Peru, Edgar Lehr, Allessandro Catenazzi, Lily Rodriguez, Vance Vrendeburg 2009 Illinois Wesleyan University

Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis And The Collapse Of Anuran Species Richness And Abundance In The Upper Manu National Park, Southeastern Peru, Edgar Lehr, Allessandro Catenazzi, Lily Rodriguez, Vance Vrendeburg

Edgar Lehr

Amphibians are declining worldwide, but these declines have been particularly dramatic in tropical mountains, where high endemism and vulnerability to an introduced fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is associated with amphibian extinctions. We surveyed frogs in the Peruvian Andes in montane forests along a steep elevational gradient (1200-3700 m). We used visual encounter surveys to sample stream-dwelling and arboreal species and leaf-litter plots to sample terrestrial-breeding species. We compared species richness and abundance among the wet seasons of 1999, 2008, and 2009. Despite similar sampling effort among years, the number of species (46 in 1999) declined by 47% between 1999 ...


Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting, David Depew 2009 University of Iowa

Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting, David Depew

David J Depew

This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific ...


Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Dendritic cells (DC) are known to develop from macrophage dendritic progenitors (MDP) in bone marrow (BM), which give rise to conventional (c)DC and monocytes, both dominant antigen presenting cell (APC) subsets in spleen. This laboratory has however defined a distinct dendritic-like cell subset in spleen (L-DC), which can also be derived in long-term cultures of spleen. In line with the restricted in vitro development of only L-DC in these stromal cultures, we questioned whether self-renewing HSC or progenitors exist in spleen with restricted differentiative capacity for only L-DC. Neonatal spleen and BM were compared for their ability to reconstitute ...


“Inheritance, Race And The Four Major Factors For The Unity Between African Americans And European Americans: Land/Territory, Blood/Genes, Religion And Language,”, Amadu Kaba 2009 Seton Hall University

“Inheritance, Race And The Four Major Factors For The Unity Between African Americans And European Americans: Land/Territory, Blood/Genes, Religion And Language,”, Amadu Kaba

Amadu Jacky Kaba

There is no American or human being in the United States or the world today alive 150 years ago. This means that American citizens today have inherited one of the richest territories in the world from their ancestors who inhabited the land before them. No other people have inherited such a wealthy and geographically diverse territory. In 1990, for example, the buying power of all Americans was $4.27 trillion. By 2009, that figure increased to $10.72 trillion. Apart from Native Americans, people of Black African descent and people of European descent are the oldest inhabitants of the United ...


Gingival Osteogenic Melanoma In Two Dogs., A. Ellis, B. Harmon, Debra Miller, N. Northup, K. Latimer, E. Uhl 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Gingival Osteogenic Melanoma In Two Dogs., A. Ellis, B. Harmon, Debra Miller, N. Northup, K. Latimer, E. Uhl

Debra L Miller

Osteogenic melanoma is a rare variant of metaplastic malignant melanoma in human medicine and appears to be a similarly rare variant in dogs. Two dogs with oral malignant melanoma with neoplastic bone formation are reported in this study. Both tumors were characterized by malignant melanocytes that transitioned into neoplastic bone at the deep margins of the neoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed S100- and Melan-A-positive neoplastic cells adjacent to, and occasionally embedded within, an osteoid and chondroblastic matrix. Scattered clusters of neoplastic cells were also positive for osteocalcin. The findings indicate that in dogs, as in humans, neoplastic melanocytes have metaplastic potential ...


Expression Profiling Of Crambe Abyssinica Under Arsenate Stress Identifies Genes And Gene Networks Involved In Arsenic Metabolism And Detoxification, Om Parkash, Suganthi Kandasamy, Bibin Paulose 2009 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Expression Profiling Of Crambe Abyssinica Under Arsenate Stress Identifies Genes And Gene Networks Involved In Arsenic Metabolism And Detoxification, Om Parkash, Suganthi Kandasamy, Bibin Paulose

Om Parkash

Background Arsenic contamination is widespread throughout the world and this toxic metalloid is known to cause cancers of organs such as liver, kidney, skin, and lung in human. In spite of a recent surge in arsenic related studies, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of arsenic uptake, detoxification, and sequestration in plants. Crambe abyssinica, commonly known as 'abyssinian mustard', is a non-food, high biomass oil seed crop that is naturally tolerant to heavy metals. Moreover, it accumulates significantly higher levels of arsenic as compared to other species of the Brassicaceae family. Thus, C. abyssinica has great potential to ...


Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction Of Interleukin 6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via Lpa1 Regulated, Pkc Dependent And P38alpha Mediated Pathway, F. Hao, M. Tan, D. Wu, X. Xu, Mei Cui 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction Of Interleukin 6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via Lpa1 Regulated, Pkc Dependent And P38alpha Mediated Pathway, F. Hao, M. Tan, D. Wu, X. Xu, Mei Cui

Mei-Zhen Cui

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lysophospholipid. Accumulated evidence supports a role for LPA in inflammation. To profile LPA-induced cytokine production in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we used a cytokine antibody array system and found that LPA prominently induces the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from human aortic SMCs (HASMCs). The mechanism by which LPA induces MCP-1 expression in SMCs has been previously reported. However, LPA induction of IL-6 secretion from vascular SMCs and its regulatory mechanism are unknown. The present study reveals that LPA induces the expression of IL-6 mRNA and protein in ...


Nsaid-Activated Gene-1 As A Molecular Target For Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis Through A Novel Molecular Mechanism Involving Gsk3beta, C/Ebpbeta And Atf3, Seung Baek, Seong-Ho Lee, Chutwadee Krisanapun 2009 The University of Tennessee

Nsaid-Activated Gene-1 As A Molecular Target For Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis Through A Novel Molecular Mechanism Involving Gsk3beta, C/Ebpbeta And Atf3, Seung Baek, Seong-Ho Lee, Chutwadee Krisanapun

Seung J Baek

Capsaicin, a natural product of the Capsicum species of red peppers, is known to induce apoptosis and suppress growth. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a cytokine associated with pro-apoptotic and antitumorigenic property in colorectal and lung cancer. Our data demonstrate that capsaicin leads to induction of apoptosis and up-regulates NAG-1 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) caused a significant increase of basal and capsaicin-induced NAG-1 promoter activity. We subsequently identified C/EBPbeta binding sites in the NAG-1 promoter responsible for capsaicin-induced NAG-1 transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation ...


Host Immunity To Repeated Rabies Virus Infection In Big Brown Bats, Gary McCracken 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Host Immunity To Repeated Rabies Virus Infection In Big Brown Bats, Gary Mccracken

Gary F. McCracken

Bats are natural reservoirs for the majority of lyssaviruses globally, and are unique among mammals in having exceptional sociality and longevity. Given these facets, and the recognized status of bats as reservoirs for rabies viruses (RABVs) in the Americas, individual bats may experience repeated exposure to RABV during their lifetime. Nevertheless, little information exists with regard to within-host infection dynamics and the role of immunological memory that may result from abortive RABV infection in bats. In this study, a cohort of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was infected intramuscularly in the left and right masseter muscles with varying doses [10 ...


Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis-Associated Meningoencephalitis In A Sika Deer (Cervus Nippon), Richard Gerhold Jr., M Keel, K Arnold, D Hotton, R Beckstead 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis-Associated Meningoencephalitis In A Sika Deer (Cervus Nippon), Richard Gerhold Jr., M Keel, K Arnold, D Hotton, R Beckstead

Richard W. Gerhold Jr., DVM, MS, PhD

An adult, female, free-ranging, sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) from Wicomico County, Maryland, USA, was found circling and having no fear of humans. The animal was euthanized and submitted for a postmortem exam. There were no gross lesions and the deer was negative for rabies. Microscopic examination revealed lymphoplasmacytic, neutrophilic, and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with intralesional adult nematodes, larvae, and eggs consistent with nematodes in the family Protostrongylidae. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. tenuis-associated encephalitis in a sika deer.


Small Body Size And Extreme Cortical Bone Remodeling Indicate Phyletic Dwarfism In Magyarosaurus Dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria), Koen Stein, Zoltan Csiki, Kristi Curry Rogers, David Weishampel, Ragna Redelstorff, Jose Carballido, P. Martin Sander 2009 Macalester College

Small Body Size And Extreme Cortical Bone Remodeling Indicate Phyletic Dwarfism In Magyarosaurus Dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria), Koen Stein, Zoltan Csiki, Kristi Curry Rogers, David Weishampel, Ragna Redelstorff, Jose Carballido, P. Martin Sander

Kristi Curry Rogers

No abstract provided.


Inhibition Of Feline Herpesvirus 1 Replication In Vitro By Small Interfering Rnas, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Inhibition Of Feline Herpesvirus 1 Replication In Vitro By Small Interfering Rnas, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania

Stephen A Kania

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of 5 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting mRNA of the feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) DNA polymerase gene to reduce in vitro viral replication and gene expression of FHV-1, to evaluate combinations of these siRNAs with siRNAs that target the glycoprotein D gene of FHV-1, and to determine the combination or combinations of siRNAs that yield the greatest inhibition of in vitro viral replication. SAMPLE POPULATION: Cultured Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells. PROCEDURES: CRFK cells were transfected with siRNAs designed to target mRNA of the FHV-1 DNA polymerase gene. Effective treatment was determined by quantification of the ...


A Novel Aux/Iaa28 Signaling Cascade Activates Gata23-Dependent Specification Of Lateral Root Founder Cell Identity, Paul Overvoorde, et al 2009 Macalester College

A Novel Aux/Iaa28 Signaling Cascade Activates Gata23-Dependent Specification Of Lateral Root Founder Cell Identity, Paul Overvoorde, Et Al

Paul Overvoorde

No abstract provided.


Small-Scale Divergence In Egg Color Along An Elevation Gradient In The Mexican Jay (Aphelocoma Ultramarina): A Condition-Dependent Response?, John McCormack, Elena Berg 2009 Occidental College

Small-Scale Divergence In Egg Color Along An Elevation Gradient In The Mexican Jay (Aphelocoma Ultramarina): A Condition-Dependent Response?, John Mccormack, Elena Berg

John E. McCormack

The functional significance of bird egg color and patterning is a continuing subject of interest and debate. Extreme polymorphism in eggshell appearance is often thought to be maintained by frequency-dependent selection operating within populations. However, variation could also be explained by small-scale differentiation combined with limited migration. Here, we report the existence of extreme variation in egg color in a population of Mexican Jays (Aphelocoma ultramarina) inhabiting a steep elevation and habitat gradient within a single mountain range, the Sierra del Carmen of Coahuila, Mexico. We quantified egg color of 143 eggs from 54 nests throughout the mountain range, using ...


Biological Stoichiometry Of Plant Production: Metabolism, Scaling, And Ecological Response To Global Change, Andrew Kerkhoff, J.J. Elser, W.F. Fagan, B.J. Enquist 2009 Kenyon College

Biological Stoichiometry Of Plant Production: Metabolism, Scaling, And Ecological Response To Global Change, Andrew Kerkhoff, J.J. Elser, W.F. Fagan, B.J. Enquist

Andrew J Kerkhoff

No abstract provided.


Anuran Susceptibilities To Ranaviruses: Role Of Species Identity, Exposure Route, And A Novel Virus Isolate., J. Hoverman, Matthew Gray, Debra Miller 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Anuran Susceptibilities To Ranaviruses: Role Of Species Identity, Exposure Route, And A Novel Virus Isolate., J. Hoverman, Matthew Gray, Debra Miller

Debra L Miller

Ranaviruses are responsible for widespread amphibian die-offs, particularly with larval anurans. To understand the factors that may be contributing to the emergence of ranaviruses, we conducted 3 experiments that exposed 3 species of larval anurans to either endemic frog virus 3 (FV3) or an FV3-like isolate from a ranaculture facility. Our goals were to (1) determine the susceptibility of each species to each virus, (2) determine whether direct ingestion of virions or exposure to virions in a water bath were similarly lethal routes of transmission, and (3) quantify the effects of exposure duration on disease outcomes. We conducted our research ...


Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis In The Live Frog Trade Of Telmatobius (Anura: Ceratophryidae) In The Tropical Andes, Edgar Lehr, Alessandro Catenazzi, Vance Vredenburg 2009 Illinois Wesleyan University

Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis In The Live Frog Trade Of Telmatobius (Anura: Ceratophryidae) In The Tropical Andes, Edgar Lehr, Alessandro Catenazzi, Vance Vredenburg

Edgar Lehr

Species of frogs in the genus Telmatobius are traded and sold for human consumption in the Andes and in coastal cities of Peru and Bolivia. These frogs are harvested from wild populations. We report high prevalence of infection by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in live frogs purchased at the main market in Cusco, Peru, from January 2008 to January 2010. We suggest that the transport of native anurans through the live frog trade could facilitate the spread of this fungus among Andean frogs. The tropical Andes are the most important biodiversity hotspot for amphibians. Because many neotropical taxa are ...


Image Gallery, Nisa Blackmon 2009 Illinois Wesleyan University

Image Gallery, Nisa Blackmon

Nisa Blackmon

No abstract provided.


Understanding Sexual Orientation As A Habitus: Reasoning From The Natural Law, Appeals To Human Experience, And The Data Of Science, Father Nicanor Austriaco 2009 Providence College

Understanding Sexual Orientation As A Habitus: Reasoning From The Natural Law, Appeals To Human Experience, And The Data Of Science, Father Nicanor Austriaco

Rev. Nicanor Austriaco, O.P.

Notes on link: scroll down to Contents and click on Chapter 5 to see article.


Method For Casting Large Numbers Of Clay Eggs For Use In Studies Of Artificial Nests, Raymond Dueser, Joel Martin 2009 Utah State University

Method For Casting Large Numbers Of Clay Eggs For Use In Studies Of Artificial Nests, Raymond Dueser, Joel Martin

Raymond D. Dueser

We describe a method for making clay mimics of bird eggs. These eggs can be used in experiments that require many uniform, accurate artificial eggs. We developed methods and made about 1,000 clay eggs at a cost of $0.55 each.


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