Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

179,985 Full-Text Articles 218,892 Authors 28,865,135 Downloads 389 Institutions

All Articles in Life Sciences

Faceted Search

179,985 full-text articles. Page 4329 of 4355.

Potential Hpai Shocks And Welfare Implications Of Market Power In The U.S. Broiler Industry, Jing Liang, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Helen H. Jensen, Gay Y. Miller 2010 Iowa State University

Potential Hpai Shocks And Welfare Implications Of Market Power In The U.S. Broiler Industry, Jing Liang, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, Helen H. Jensen, Gay Y. Miller

Economics Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Asia, Europe, and Africa have caused severe impacts on the broiler sector through production losses, trade restrictions and negative shocks to demand. This study develops a multimarket econometric model that is the basis of simulations to assess the spread and market implications of a potential HPAI outbreak in U.S. broiler industry. It takes into account market power that might exist within the livestock and meat sectors and endogenizes the optimal production condition on the model system. The results imply that the HPAI shocks affect prices at different marketing levels unequally ...


Pleiotrophin And Its Role In Regulating Haemopoietic Stem Cell Regeneration, Rebecca Smith 2010 Dublin Institute of Technology

Pleiotrophin And Its Role In Regulating Haemopoietic Stem Cell Regeneration, Rebecca Smith

Masters

HSCs are cells that have the capacity to self renew, proliferate and differentiate, providing cells of the mature blood system throughout a lifetime. The concept of such a cell was first considered in 1961 subsequent to the injection of healthy marrow into a lethally irradiated recipient mouse which mediated the reconstitution of mature blood cells in the irradiated host(Till and Mc Culloch, 1961). This finding provided preliminary experimental evidence that all of the blood cells were derived from a single type of progenitor cell, also known as HSC. The majority of mature blood cells have a limited life span ...


Over-Nutrition And Changing Health Status In High Income Countries, Wallace E. Huffman, Sonya K. Huffman, Kyrre Rickertsen, Abebayehu Tegene 2010 Iowa State University

Over-Nutrition And Changing Health Status In High Income Countries, Wallace E. Huffman, Sonya K. Huffman, Kyrre Rickertsen, Abebayehu Tegene

Economics Publications

As per capita incomes in developed countries have grown over the past three decades, overnutrition leading to obesity and elevated health risks for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer has occurred. We use economic and econometric models to identify the impact of food prices on the aggregate demand for calories and the supply of health, as reflected in mortality rates. Our models are fitted to unique panel data for 18 developed countries over 1971-2001, a period when the relative price of food first rose and then declined steadily. Some findings, using de-trended data, are that a lower real ...


Nutrition-Related Practices And Attitudes Of Kansas Skipped-Generation(S) Caregivers And Their Grandchildren, Mary Meck Higgins, Bethany J. Murray 2010 Kansas State University

Nutrition-Related Practices And Attitudes Of Kansas Skipped-Generation(S) Caregivers And Their Grandchildren, Mary Meck Higgins, Bethany J. Murray

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Despite growing numbers, the nutrition practices and attitudes of skipped-generation(s) kinship caregivers regarding feeding the dependent children in their care have not been examined. In this qualitative study, transcriptions of semi-structured interviews with 19 female and four male skipped-generation(s) Kansas caregivers (ages 47 to 80, 92% non-Hispanic whites, 83% female, 78% grandparents and 22% great-aunt or great-grandparent caregivers; caring for a range of one to four children, ages three to 18, for an average of nine years) were content analyzed for how their nutrition-related practices and attitudes had changed since parenting the first time. Sub-themes regarding practices included ...


Evaluation Of Ulv And Thermal Fog Mosquito Control Applications In Temperate And Desert Environments, Seth C. Britch, Kenneth J. Linthicum, Wayne W. Wynn, Todd W. Walker, Muhammad Farooq, Vincent L. Smith, Cathy A. Robinson, Branka B. Lothrop, Melissa Snelling, Arturo Gutierrez, Hugh D. Lothrop, Jerry D. Kerce, James J. Becnel, Ulrich R. Bernier, Julia W. Pridgeon 2010 USDA-ARS

Evaluation Of Ulv And Thermal Fog Mosquito Control Applications In Temperate And Desert Environments, Seth C. Britch, Kenneth J. Linthicum, Wayne W. Wynn, Todd W. Walker, Muhammad Farooq, Vincent L. Smith, Cathy A. Robinson, Branka B. Lothrop, Melissa Snelling, Arturo Gutierrez, Hugh D. Lothrop, Jerry D. Kerce, James J. Becnel, Ulrich R. Bernier, Julia W. Pridgeon

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Ultra-low-volume (ULV) and thermal fog aerosol dispersals of pesticides have been used against mosquitoes and other insects for half a century. Although each spray technology has advantages and disadvantages, only 7 studies have been identified that directly compare their performance in the field. US military personnel currently operating in hot-arid environments are impacted by perpetual nuisance and disease vector insect problems, despite adulticide operations using modern pesticide-delivery equipment such as ULV. None of the identified comparative studies has looked at the relative feasibility and efficacy of ULV and thermal fog equipment against mosquitoes in hot-arid environments. In this study we ...


Structure-Activity Relationships Of 33 Carboxamides As Toxicants Against Female Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), Julia Pridgeon, James J. Becnel, Ulrich R. Bernier, Gary G. Clark, Kenneth J. Linthicum 2010 USDA-ARS

Structure-Activity Relationships Of 33 Carboxamides As Toxicants Against Female Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), Julia Pridgeon, James J. Becnel, Ulrich R. Bernier, Gary G. Clark, Kenneth J. Linthicum

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Aedes aegypti L. is the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, and use of aerosolized insecticides is one of the primary ways to control this medically important mosquito. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control in recent years. As a part of our effort to search for new insecticides to control mosquitoes, toxicities of 33 carboxamides were evaluated against female A. aegypti by topical application. This group included nine different categories of compounds, namely benzamides, phenyl-propenamides, propanamides, butanamides, butenamides, pentanamides, pentenamides, hexanamides, and hexenamides, that exhibited varying levels of toxicity against this mosquito species. The ...


Potential For Stable Flies And House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) To Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus1, Michael J. Turell, David J. Dohm, Christopher J. Geden, Jerome A. Hogsette, Kenneth Linthicum 2010 US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

Potential For Stable Flies And House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) To Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus1, Michael J. Turell, David J. Dohm, Christopher J. Geden, Jerome A. Hogsette, Kenneth Linthicum

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a disease of ruminants and humans, has been responsible for large outbreaks in Africa that have resulted in hundreds of thousands of human infections and major economic disruption due to loss of livestock and to trade restrictions. As indicated by the rapid spread of West Nile viral activity across North America since its discovery in 1999 and the rapid and widespread movement of chikungunya virus from Africa throughout the Indian Ocean Islands to Asia and Europe, an introduced exotic arbovirus can be rapidly and widely established across wide geographical regions. Although RVF virus (RVFV) is normally ...


Effects Of Training On Physical Performance Wearing Personal Protective Equipment, David P. Swain, James A. Onate, Stacie I. Ringleb, Dayanand N. Naik, Marlene DeMaio 2010 Old Dominion University

Effects Of Training On Physical Performance Wearing Personal Protective Equipment, David P. Swain, James A. Onate, Stacie I. Ringleb, Dayanand N. Naik, Marlene Demaio

Human Movement Sciences Faculty Publications

We evaluated the effects of wearing a weighted vest during 6 weeks of military-style training. Forty-three subjects were randomly assigned to a control group or a vest group (carrying 4-5 kg for 2 weeks, and 8-10 kg for 4 weeks), with 37 completing the study (17 vest, 20 control). Both groups performed stair climbing in addition to standard Marine Corps training for 1 hour, four times per week. Pre- and post-tests were performed while wearing military personal protective equipment, with the exception of the Marine Physical Readiness Test (PRT). Both groups significantly improved PRT scores (8.4% 3-mile run, 28-38 ...


Mp761: Considerations And Recommendations For Retaining Woody Biomass On Timber Harvest Sites In Maine, Jeffrey G. Benjamin 2010 The University of Maine

Mp761: Considerations And Recommendations For Retaining Woody Biomass On Timber Harvest Sites In Maine, Jeffrey G. Benjamin

Miscellaneous Publications

This report and associated guidelines focus on the amount and type of woody biomass that should be retained in the forest after a harvest operation to protect soil productivity, water quality, and site-level biodiversity. Woody biomass, defined from a forest operations perspective, is comprised of logging residues, previously unmerchantable stems, and other such woody material harvested directly from the forest typically for the purposes of energy production. In the broadest sense woody biomass is the total mass of roots, stem, branches, bark and leaves of all tree and shrub species (live and dead) in the forest. Under the broad definition ...


Food And Consumer Economics, Laurian Unnevehr, James Eales, Helen Jensen, Jayson Lusk, Jill McCluskey, Jean Kinsey 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Food And Consumer Economics, Laurian Unnevehr, James Eales, Helen Jensen, Jayson Lusk, Jill Mccluskey, Jean Kinsey

Economics Publications

Agricultural economists first carried out demand studies in order to understand determinants of farm prices and incomes. The shift to a focus on consumer welfare began with studies of the role of food and food assistance in standards of living. Now the profession is more concerned with how information and quality attributes influence consumer behavior. Agricultural economists’ empirical work in this field has informed the development of household production theory, hedonic price theory, definitions of poverty thresholds, complete demand systems, and survey and experimental techniques to elicit preferences.


Tillage Depth Effects On Soil Physical Properties, Sugarbeet Yield, And Sugarbeet Quality, J. D. Jabro, W. B. Stevens, W. M. Iversen, R. G. Evans 2010 United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service

Tillage Depth Effects On Soil Physical Properties, Sugarbeet Yield, And Sugarbeet Quality, J. D. Jabro, W. B. Stevens, W. M. Iversen, R. G. Evans

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Tillage depth influences the soil–water–plant ecosystem, thereby affecting crop yield and quality. The effects of tillage depth on soil physical properties and sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) yield and quality were evaluated. A field study composed of two tillage depths [10 cm, referred to as shallow (ST), and 20 cm, referred to as deep (DT)] was conducted on a Lihen sandy loam soil in spring 2007 at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) irrigated research farm near Williston, North Dakota. Soil bulk density (ρb), gravimetric water content (θw), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were measured three times during the growing ...


Targeted Deletion Of Hepatocyte Abca1 Leads To Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Overproduction And Low Density Lipoprotein Hypercatabolism, Soonkyu Chung, Jenelle M. Timmins, MyNgan Duong, Chiara Degirolamo, Shunxing Rong, Janet K. Sawyer, Roshni R. Singaraja, Michael R. Hayden, Nobuyo Maeda, Lawrence L. Rudel, Gregory S. Shelness, John S. Parks 2010 Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Targeted Deletion Of Hepatocyte Abca1 Leads To Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Overproduction And Low Density Lipoprotein Hypercatabolism, Soonkyu Chung, Jenelle M. Timmins, Myngan Duong, Chiara Degirolamo, Shunxing Rong, Janet K. Sawyer, Roshni R. Singaraja, Michael R. Hayden, Nobuyo Maeda, Lawrence L. Rudel, Gregory S. Shelness, John S. Parks

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Loss of ABCA1 activity in Tangier disease (TD) is associated with abnormal apoB lipoprotein (Lp) metabolism in addition to the complete absence of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We used hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knock-out (HSKO) mice to test the hypothesis that hepatic ABCA1 plays dual roles in regulating Lp metabolism and nascent HDL formation. HSKO mice recapitulated the TD lipid phenotype with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, markedly decreased LDL, and near absence of HDL. Triglyceride (TG) secretion was 2-fold higher in HSKO compared with wild type mice, primarily due to secretion of larger TG-enriched VLDL secondary to reduced hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. HSKO mice ...


Identification Of Novel Antimalarials From Marine Natural Products For Lead Discovery, Stephenie M. Alvarado 2010 University of Central Florida

Identification Of Novel Antimalarials From Marine Natural Products For Lead Discovery, Stephenie M. Alvarado

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An estimated 500 million cases of malaria occur each year. The increasing prevalence of drug resistant strains of Plasmodium in most malaria endemic areas has significantly reduced the efficacy of current antimalarial drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of this disease. Therefore, discovery of new, inexpensive, and effective drugs are urgently needed to combat this disease. Marine biodiversity is an enormous source of novel chemical entities and has been barely investigated for antimalarial drug discovery. In an effort to discover novel therapeutics for malaria, we studied the antimalarial activities of a unique marine-derived peak fraction library provided by Harbor Branch Oceanographic ...


Low Cost Production Of Proinsulin In Tobacco And Lettuce Chloroplasts For Injectable Or Oral Delivery Of Functional Insulin And, Diane Burberry 2010 University of Central Florida

Low Cost Production Of Proinsulin In Tobacco And Lettuce Chloroplasts For Injectable Or Oral Delivery Of Functional Insulin And, Diane Burberry

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Current treatment for type I diabetes includes delivery of insulin via injection or pump, which is highly invasive and expensive. The production of chloroplast-derived proinsulin should reduce cost and facilitate oral delivery. Therefore, tobacco and lettuce chloroplasts were transformed with the cholera toxin B subunit fused with human proinsulin (A, B, and C peptides) containing three furin cleavage sites (CTB-PFx3). Transplastomic lines were confirmed for site-specific integration of transgene and homoplasmy. Old tobacco leaves accumulated proinsulin up to 47% of total leaf protein (TLP). Old lettuce leaves accumulated proinsulin up to 53% TLP. Accumulation was so stable that up to ...


Catalog Of The Coreidae, Or Leaf-Footed Bugs, Of The New World, Richard J. Packauskas 2010 Fort Hays State University

Catalog Of The Coreidae, Or Leaf-Footed Bugs, Of The New World, Richard J. Packauskas

Fort Hays Studies Series

Studies on the New World Coreidae have languished for more than a century. Neglect of these often large, abundant, and occasionally economically important bugs has been due, I believe, to the lack of means to identify them. Most literature treating the New World Coreidae has been restricted to the North American fauna, except for the recent efforts of Brailovsky (1975 to 2007).


First Report Of Viral Pathogens Wssv And Ihhnv In Argentine Crustaceans [Note], Sergio Roberto Martorelli, Robin M. Overstreet, Jean A. Jovanovich Alvillar 2010 CEPAVE

First Report Of Viral Pathogens Wssv And Ihhnv In Argentine Crustaceans [Note], Sergio Roberto Martorelli, Robin M. Overstreet, Jean A. Jovanovich Alvillar

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

The pathogenic penaeid shrimp viruses white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are reported for the first time from Argentina. They both occurred in wild crustaceans in Bahia Blanca Estuary, with WSSV detected by polymerase chain reaction (pCR) or real time quantitative pCR (qpCR) methods as infecting samples as high as 56% of the penaeid Artemesia longinaris Bate, 1888, 67% of the grapsoid Cyrtograpsus angulatus dana, 1851, and 40% of the introduced palaemonid Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902. The highest detected copy number was 39,600 copies/μg dNA. IHHNV was tested for using pCR ...


Discovery Of New Ohbayashinema Spp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) In Ochotona Princeps And Ochotona Cansus (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) From Western North America And Central Asia, With Considerations Of Historical Biogeography, M.-C. Durrette-Desset, Kurt E. Galbreath, Eric P. Hoberg 2010 Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France

Discovery Of New Ohbayashinema Spp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) In Ochotona Princeps And Ochotona Cansus (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) From Western North America And Central Asia, With Considerations Of Historical Biogeography, M.-C. Durrette-Desset, Kurt E. Galbreath, Eric P. Hoberg

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp. and Ohbayashinema aspeira n. sp., are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiated from the 5 known species of the genus parasitic in Ochotonidae from the Old World by very long spicules and an oblique axis of orientation for the ridges composing the synlophe. Ohbayashinema aspeira, described only from females, is similar to Oh. nearctica based on the number of cuticular ridges at the midbody. It is mainly differentiated by an ...


How Specialists Can Be Generalists: Resolving The "Parasite Paradox" And Implications For Emerging Infectious Disease, Salvatore J. Agosta, Niklas Janz, Daniel R. Brooks 2010 University of Toronto

How Specialists Can Be Generalists: Resolving The "Parasite Paradox" And Implications For Emerging Infectious Disease, Salvatore J. Agosta, Niklas Janz, Daniel R. Brooks

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

The parasite paradox arises from the dual observations that parasites (broadly construed, including phytophagous insects) are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, and yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common in the phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in ecological time. We synthesize the emerging solution to this paradox: phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, grouped under the term ecological fitting, provide substantial opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, in the absence of the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. We discuss mechanisms behind ecological fitting, its implications for defining specialists ...


Muellerius Capillaris Dominates The Lungworm Community Of Bighorn Sheep At The National Bison Range, Montana, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Alicia M. Hines, Elizabeth A. Archie, Eric P. Hoberg, Ingrid M. Asmundsson, John T. Hogg 2010 University of Montana - Missoula

Muellerius Capillaris Dominates The Lungworm Community Of Bighorn Sheep At The National Bison Range, Montana, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Alicia M. Hines, Elizabeth A. Archie, Eric P. Hoberg, Ingrid M. Asmundsson, John T. Hogg

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Lungworm infections are common among bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America, and the predominant species reported are Protostrongylus stilesi and P. rushi. The only records of another lungworm species, Muellerius capillaris, infecting bighorns come from South Dakota, USA. At the National Bison Range (NBR), Montana, USA we found that across six sampling periods, 100% of wild bighorn sheep surveyed were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) which appeared to be consistent with M. capillaris. By contrast, only 39%or fewer sheep were passing Protostrongylus larvae. Using molecular techniques, we positively identified the DSL from the NBR bighorns as M. capillaris ...


Isolation And Cultivation Of Equine Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts And Myofibroblasts, Dylan G. Buss, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Ajay Sharma, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 University of Missouri, Columbia

Isolation And Cultivation Of Equine Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts And Myofibroblasts, Dylan G. Buss, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Ajay Sharma, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—To establish an in vitro model for the investigation of equine corneal wound healing. To accomplish this goal, a protocol to isolate and culture equine corneal keratocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts was developed.

Animal material—Equine corneal buttons were aseptically harvested from healthy research horses undergoing humane euthanasia for reasons unrelated to this study. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was performed prior to euthanasia by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist to ensure that all samples were harvested from horses free of anterior segment disease.

Procedure—Equine corneal stroma was isolated using mechanical techniques and stromal subsections were then cultured. Customized media at different culture ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress