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Changes In The Expression Of Thin Filament-Associated Proteins In Colonic Smooth Muscle From Mice During Inflammation, Reem Alkahtani 2011 Virginia Commonwealth University

Changes In The Expression Of Thin Filament-Associated Proteins In Colonic Smooth Muscle From Mice During Inflammation, Reem Alkahtani

Theses and Dissertations

The contractility of smooth muscle in inflammatory bowel disease and experimental colitis is reduced due to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and a decrease in the response of smooth muscle to contractile agonists. We and others have shown that inflammation induced by TNBS treatment alters the expression and/or activity of signaling molecules involved in the regulation of Ca2+ mobilization, MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction in colonic smooth muscle. Although, thin filament- associated proteins such as calponin, caldesmon, tropomyosin and smoothelin do not directly participate in contraction, they regulate acto-myosin interaction and thus, muscle contraction. Calponin, caldesmon and tropomyosin inhibit actomyosin interaction ...


Changes In Mineral Concentrations And Phosphorus Profile During Dry-Grind Processing Of Corn Into Ethanol, KeShun Liu, Jianchun Han 2011 USDA-ARS

Changes In Mineral Concentrations And Phosphorus Profile During Dry-Grind Processing Of Corn Into Ethanol, Keshun Liu, Jianchun Han

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

For determining variation in mineral composition and phosphorus (P) profile among streams of dry-grind ethanol production, samples of ground corn, intermediate streams, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were obtained from three commercial plants. Most attributes (dry matter concentrations) increased significantly from corn to cooked slurry but fermentation caused most significant increase in all attributes. During centrifugation, more minerals went into thin stillage than wet grains, making minerals most concentrated in the former. Mineral increase in DDGS over corn was about 3 fold, except for Na, S, Ca, and Fe. The first three had much higher fold of increase ...


The Consequence Of Anthropogenic Disturbance On Communication And The Operation Of Sexual Selection In The Eastern Bluebird (Sialia Sialis), Ellen Michale Wisner 2011 Syracuse University

The Consequence Of Anthropogenic Disturbance On Communication And The Operation Of Sexual Selection In The Eastern Bluebird (Sialia Sialis), Ellen Michale Wisner

Biology - Dissertations

Signals that are efficiently transmitted and easily detected in their signaling environment are favored by natural selection. Anthropogenic disturbance can rapidly alter the signaling environment, and recent studies have shown that acoustic and visual signals change in response to these altered habitats. Although these studies provide important insight into the effects of urbanization on animal signals and have served as experiments testing the role of the environment in shaping signal design, several key aspects of how signal design can be influenced by environmental changes remain unclear.

Previous studies have focused on signals used between adults, such as those used in ...


Optimizing A New 5-Day Cidr-Co-Synch Timed Artificial Insemination Program, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, H.I. Mellieon, K. C. Olson, Sandra K. Johnson, David M. Grieger, John R. Jaeger, Ryan M. Breiner 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Optimizing A New 5-Day Cidr-Co-Synch Timed Artificial Insemination Program, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, H.I. Mellieon, K. C. Olson, Sandra K. Johnson, David M. Grieger, John R. Jaeger, Ryan M. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol is a popular ovulation-synchronization program used by cow-calf producers to facilitate artificial insemination (AI). A progesterone- impregnated controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert is placed intravaginally and an injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is given. After 7 days, prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) is administered and the CIDR insert is removed. Between 58 and 72 hours after insert removal, cows are inseminated after another injection of GnRH to induce ovulation. Timed AI pregnancy rates generally have ranged from 40 to 60% when suckled cows are treated with the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.


Export Sales Of U.S. Beef Semen Increased Faster Than Domestic Semen Sales, Sandra K. Johnson, Kevin C. Dhuyvetter 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Export Sales Of U.S. Beef Semen Increased Faster Than Domestic Semen Sales, Sandra K. Johnson, Kevin C. Dhuyvetter

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The use of artificial insemination (AI) in the dairy industry grew tremendously in the 1940s and has since become the industry norm. Adoption of AI in the beef industry has been much slower largely due to the more extensive nature of beef production systems. Improvements in protocols to synchronize estrus and ovulation now allow beef producers to achieve high pregnancy rates to AI with no heat detection and value-driven marketing programs have provided more incentive for use of high-accuracy genetics. The 2007 USDA National Animal Health Monitoring Surveillance survey reports the proportion of beef operations that use AI is only ...


Nutrient Restriction Does Not Affect Implant Efficacy, T. Lee, Laman K. Mamedova, Benjamin W. Wileman, Daniel U. Thomson, Barry J. Bradford, Christopher D. Reinhardt 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Nutrient Restriction Does Not Affect Implant Efficacy, T. Lee, Laman K. Mamedova, Benjamin W. Wileman, Daniel U. Thomson, Barry J. Bradford, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Anabolic implants in finishing beef cattle offer significant return on investment. Anabolic implants improve average daily gain feed efficiency in pasture and feedlot cattle. One way growth-promoting implants stimulate growth is through increasing production of insulin-like growth factor 1. This hormone causes muscle cells to increase their uptake of glucose and amino acids from the bloodstream. Plasma urea nitrogen is a simple measure of the protein nutritional status of animals. If lean growth is stimulated, more feed protein is utilized and retained as body protein, reducing the amount of circulating plasma urea nitrogen. If an animal is stressed and is ...


Grazing Wheat Did Not Reduce Beef Cow Pregnancy Rates, Sandra K. Johnson, Keith R. Harmoney 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Grazing Wheat Did Not Reduce Beef Cow Pregnancy Rates, Sandra K. Johnson, Keith R. Harmoney

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Beef producers can lower feed costs by extending the grazing period and reducing the need for harvested forages. Complementary forage systems extend the native range grazing season; wheat pasture is common in the southern portion of the High Plains. Anecdotal reports have been made concerning lowered fertility in beef cows bred on lush forage such as wheat pasture; however, ruling out other possible causes of low fertility is difficult. In lactating dairy cows, fertility is lower during consumption of high-protein diets that result in high blood urea nitrogen content. Lower uterine pH that in turn affects embryo survival is thought ...


Length Of Weaning Period But Not Timing Of Vaccination Affects Feedlot Finishing Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Fall-Weaned, Ranch-Direct Beef Calves, M.J. Macek, J.W. Iliff, Todd W. Schmidt, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Daniel U. Thomson 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Length Of Weaning Period But Not Timing Of Vaccination Affects Feedlot Finishing Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Fall-Weaned, Ranch-Direct Beef Calves, M.J. Macek, J.W. Iliff, Todd W. Schmidt, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Daniel U. Thomson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Bovine respiratory disease decreases profitability associated with cattle feeding. The cost of respiratory disease includes death loss, expenses associated with treatment, and reduced growth performance. Respiratory disease also decreases carcass weights, USDA quality grade, and ribeye area of feedlot cattle. Decreased carcass weights, fat thickness, and ribeye area have been associated with treatment of apparent respiratory disease when compared to animals not treated, whereas reduced incidence of the disease resulted in improved carcass merit. Preshipment weaning and vaccination has been found not only to prepare calves for improved performance in feedlots, but also to reduce incidence and severity of respiratory ...


Forage Selection Preferences Of Experienced Cows And Naïve Heifers Grazing Native Tallgrass Range During Winter, N.A. Aubel, L.N. Edwards, G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Dale A. Blasi, Leigh W. Murray 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Forage Selection Preferences Of Experienced Cows And Naïve Heifers Grazing Native Tallgrass Range During Winter, N.A. Aubel, L.N. Edwards, G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Dale A. Blasi, Leigh W. Murray

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Estimating the nutritive value of a grazing animal's diet is a significant challenge. Description of the botanical composition of a grazed diet is vital in that regard. Microhistological analysis of fecal material has been used for estimating the botanical composition of wild and domestic ungulate diets since first described by Baumgartner and Martin in 1939. Little research has been conducted on the diet selection preferences of multiparous beef cows compared to primiparous beef cows. We hypothesized that foraging strategies change as cows age. To that end, our objective was to characterize differences in diet selection between experienced multiparous and ...


Sun-Curing And Harvest Maturity Impacts Concentration And Protein-Binding Capacity Of Condensed Tannins In Sericea Lespedeza (Lespedeza Cuneata), G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Sun-Curing And Harvest Maturity Impacts Concentration And Protein-Binding Capacity Of Condensed Tannins In Sericea Lespedeza (Lespedeza Cuneata), G.J. Eckerle, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) is a noxious weed that infests approximately 600,000 acres of native tallgrass range in Kansas. Intake of sericea lespedeza by grazing livestock is poor, presumably as a result of the plant's tannins. Condensed tannins reduce protein digestion by ruminants and may also decrease plant palatability.


Administration Of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin At Embryo Transfer Induced Ovulation Of A First-Wave Dominant Follicle And Increased Progesterone And Transfer Pregnancy Rates, L.D. Wallace, C.A. Breiner, A.R. Spell, J.A. Carter, G.C. Lamb, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Ryan M. Breiner 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Administration Of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin At Embryo Transfer Induced Ovulation Of A First-Wave Dominant Follicle And Increased Progesterone And Transfer Pregnancy Rates, L.D. Wallace, C.A. Breiner, A.R. Spell, J.A. Carter, G.C. Lamb, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Ryan M. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Embryo transfer (ET) has become more widespread in recent years as a way to improve cattle genetics. According to the annual statistical survey of the American Embryo Transfer Association, more than 200,000 fresh and frozen bovine embryos were transferred in 2008. But despite advancements in reproductive technologies that have occurred since ET was commercialized in the 1970s, industrywide pregnancy rates are only 62.4 and 56.9% for fresh and frozen-thawed ET, respectively. Using ET helps avoid problems from failed fertilization; however, fertilization failure has been characterized as a relatively unimportant factor of pregnancy loss. Approximately 10% of pregnancy ...


Reproduction Of Heifers Sired By High Or Low Residual Feed Intake Angus Bulls, E. Blair, Daniel W. Moser, T.T. Marston, Jennifer Bormann 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Reproduction Of Heifers Sired By High Or Low Residual Feed Intake Angus Bulls, E. Blair, Daniel W. Moser, T.T. Marston, Jennifer Bormann

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Residual feed intake (RFI) has gained popularity as a selection tool for improving feed efficiency in beef cattle. RFI is the difference between what an animal consumes and what it is predicted to consume based on size and growth rate. Animals with low or negative RFI eat less than predicted and are more efficient. Although RFI is being used by the industry, research on the impact of selection for RFI on female fertility is lacking. The objective of this study is to evaluate the reproductive performance of heifers that have been selected for RFI.


Zilpaterol-Hcl Reduces Urinary Excretion Of N-Tau-Methylhistidine By Finishing Steers, D.W. Brake, Evan C. Titgemeyer 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Zilpaterol-Hcl Reduces Urinary Excretion Of N-Tau-Methylhistidine By Finishing Steers, D.W. Brake, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Zilpaterol-HCl is an orally active b-adrenergic agonist that repartitions nutrient use in cattle and has been approved for use during the final 20 to 40 days of the finishing period. Zilpaterol administration to finishing cattle increases average daily gain, feed efficiency, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, and dressing percentage; however, zilpaterol decreases meat tenderness, which is detectable by sensory panelists. Attenuation of zilpaterol's effect on tenderness would improve its benefits to cattle producers. Decreases in tenderness of meat from cattle fed zilpaterol may be closely related to decreases in protein degradation in skeletal muscles. Urinary excretion of N-tau-methylhistidine (NMH ...


Effects Of Prepartum Ruminally Protected Choline Supplementation On Performance Of Beef Cows And Calves, L.A. Pacheco, L.R. Hibbard, M.J. Macek, N.A. Sproul, G.J. Eckerle, E.A. Bailey, J.W. Bolte, John R. Jaeger, K. C. Olson 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Effects Of Prepartum Ruminally Protected Choline Supplementation On Performance Of Beef Cows And Calves, L.A. Pacheco, L.R. Hibbard, M.J. Macek, N.A. Sproul, G.J. Eckerle, E.A. Bailey, J.W. Bolte, John R. Jaeger, K. C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Prepartum supplementation of spring-calving beef cows is a vital part of cow-calf enterprises, often affecting subsequent reproductive success. Most research in the area of prepartum supplementation has focused on provision of either energy or protein; only modest attention has been given to the use of supplemental micronutrients. One such micronutrient is choline. Choline is classified generally as a B vitamin and is an essential nutrient. Phosphatidylcholine and other choline-containing lipids maintain the structural integrity of cellular membranes and play a vital role in metabolism of dietary fat. Choline-containing phospholipids are also important precursors for intracellular-messenger molecules and cell-signaling molecules critical ...


Marination Technique Influences Whole Muscle Beef Jerky Salt Content And Flavor Intensity, G.R. Skaar, Elizabeth A.E. Boyle 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Marination Technique Influences Whole Muscle Beef Jerky Salt Content And Flavor Intensity, G.R. Skaar, Elizabeth A.E. Boyle

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Beef jerky is a popular meat snack that is simple to recognize and define. The USDA Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book (FSLPB) allows labeling use of the title "jerky" to a product that has been dried to a moisture-to-protein ratio (MPR) of 0.75:1.0 or less, and states the species or kind (such as beef, pork, or venison) in the name. As long as the product is dried to the required MPR and the species of origin is noted, all additional ingredients used, spice applications, and processing procedures are open for interpretation and application. The USDA FSLPB ...


Tenderness And Intramuscular Lipid Of Most Major Muscles From Bos Indicus Cattle Are Less Than Bos Taurus Cattle, C.M. Highfill, O.E. Font, Donald H. Kropf, Michael E. Dikeman 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Tenderness And Intramuscular Lipid Of Most Major Muscles From Bos Indicus Cattle Are Less Than Bos Taurus Cattle, C.M. Highfill, O.E. Font, Donald H. Kropf, Michael E. Dikeman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In semitropical climates in the United States, Bos indicus breeds of cattle, primarily the Brahman breed, are utilized in crossbreeding programs with Bos taurus cattle to improve productivity by increasing disease and insect resistance, heat tolerance, heterosis, and additive genetic variation. About 25% of the U.S. beef population contains some Bos indicus breeding. Numerous published reports show that tenderness of ribeye and strip loin steaks and marbling are significantly reduced in Bos indicus straightbred or crossbred cattle compared to most Bos taurus breeds. One very large study reported that heritability of tenderness and marbling is around 0.4, making ...


Evaluation Of Methionine Availability To Dairy Cows When Added To Mechanically Extracted Soybean Meal With Soy Gums, D.W. Brake, Evan C. Titgemeyer, Barry J. Bradford, C.A. Macgregor 2011 Kansas State University Libraries

Evaluation Of Methionine Availability To Dairy Cows When Added To Mechanically Extracted Soybean Meal With Soy Gums, D.W. Brake, Evan C. Titgemeyer, Barry J. Bradford, C.A. Macgregor

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Twenty-five Holstein cows were fed 5 different diets to evaluate amounts of metabolizable methionine provided to dairy cows from a mechanically extracted soybean meal (meSBM) with methionine added during manufacture. The control diet was designed to be deficient in metabolizable methionine supply. Two amounts of methionine were added from either a commercially available ruminally protected product (RPMet) or from a meSBM with methionine added during manufacture (meSBM-Met). Average milk yield was 98.8 lb/day, average milk fat was 2.81%, and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) averaged 8.6 mg/dL. Milk protein yield was not responsive to metabolizable methionine ...


Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2010, Fred M. Bourland, A. B. Beach, D. P. Roberts Jr. 2011 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Cotton Variety Test 2010, Fred M. Bourland, A. B. Beach, D. P. Roberts Jr.

Research Series

The primary goal of the Arkansas Cotton Variety Test is to provide unbiased data regarding the agronomic performance of cotton varieties and advanced breeding lines in the major cotton-growing areas of Arkansas. This information helps seed companies establish marketing strategies and assists producers in choosing varieties to plant.


Ecological Role Of Blue Catfish In Chesapeake Bay Communities And Implications For Management, Ryan W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio, Robert J. Latour, Greg C. Garman, Bob Greenlee, Mary Groves, James Gartland 2011 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Ecological Role Of Blue Catfish In Chesapeake Bay Communities And Implications For Management, Ryan W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio, Robert J. Latour, Greg C. Garman, Bob Greenlee, Mary Groves, James Gartland

VIMS Books and Book Chapters

Rapid increase in abundance and expanded distribution of introduced blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus populations in the Chesapeake Bay watershed have raised regional management concerns. This study uses information from multiple surveys to examine expansion of blue catfish populations and document their role in tidal river communities. Originally stocked in the James, York, and Rappahannock River systems for development of commercial and recreational fisheries, blue catfish have now been documented in adjacent rivers and have expanded their within-river distribution to oligo- and mesohaline environments. Range expansions coincided with periods of peak abundance in 1996 and 2003 and with the concurrent decline ...


The Maintenance Of Male Color Polymorphism In Poecilia Parae, Jorge L. Hurtado-Gonzales 2011 Syracuse University

The Maintenance Of Male Color Polymorphism In Poecilia Parae, Jorge L. Hurtado-Gonzales

Biology - Dissertations

Genetic color polymorphisms are common in nature, and a major challenge for evolutionary biologists has been to understand how they are maintained despite the effects of directional selection. Recent studies suggest that frequency-dependent selection may explain the persistence of intraspecific variation in color. However, it remains to be determined whether frequency-dependent selection is the most predominant (or perhaps the only) mechanism to maintain such genetically-based polymorphisms. Using a South American fish, Poecilia parae, my dissertation aims to elucidate the relative roles of natural and sexual selection in the maintenance of polymorphisms in natural populations. Poecilia parae males exhibit five distinct ...


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