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Determining Optimal Maximum Culling Parity In Commercial Swine Breeding Herds, Caitlyn Abell, Kenneth J. Stalder, Anna K. Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, Gordon Jones 2010 Iowa State University

Determining Optimal Maximum Culling Parity In Commercial Swine Breeding Herds, Caitlyn Abell, Kenneth J. Stalder, Anna K. Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, Gordon Jones

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to estimate the value of the genetic lag associated with maintaining sows for additional parities. Number born alive (NBA), 21 day litter weight (W21), and days to market (D113) were the traits examined in this study. The genetic improvement per generation (economic values assigned) for these traits were 0.3 pigs ($22.00/pig), 1.36 kg ($1.54/kg), and 3.0 days ($0.17/day), respectively. The value of the genetic lag represents lost opportunity and when this value exceeds the gilt development variable costs, it represents the optimal time for culling ...


Validation Of The Equations Used In Determining Dry Matter Intake, And Metabolizable Protein Requirements For Finishing Lambs As Used In The Sheep Companion Module To Brands , Garland R. Dahlke, Daniel G. Morrical, Lauren J. Secor 2010 Iowa State University

Validation Of The Equations Used In Determining Dry Matter Intake, And Metabolizable Protein Requirements For Finishing Lambs As Used In The Sheep Companion Module To Brands , Garland R. Dahlke, Daniel G. Morrical, Lauren J. Secor

Animal Industry Report

The growth equations published in the 2006 NRC “Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants” along with the additions added to these equations when used in the Sheep Companion Module to BRaNDS appear to provide reasonable estimations of performance of feeder lambs.


Grazing Management Effects On Streambank Characteristics And Surface Run-Off Into Pasture Streams, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical 2010 Iowa State University

Grazing Management Effects On Streambank Characteristics And Surface Run-Off Into Pasture Streams, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical

Animal Industry Report

Grazing management practices in pastures can affect the sward and physical characteristics of riparian areas near pasture streams. These areas are prone to sediment, phosphorus, and fecal pathogen loading via surface run-off into the streams causing non-point source pollution of water sources. Six cool-season grass pastures were grazed by continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with access to the stream restricted to a 16-foot wide stabilized stream crossing (CSR), or rotational stocking (RS). For data and sample collections, pastures were divided into 2 zones: on the streambank (streambank zone) and 0 to 110 feet from the streambank ...


Improving The Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On No-Nitrateor-Nitrite-Added (Natural Or Organic) Frankfurters With Clean Label Antimicrobials, Kohl D. Schrader, Joseph C. Cordray, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson, Aubrey F. Mendonca 2010 Iowa State University

Improving The Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On No-Nitrateor-Nitrite-Added (Natural Or Organic) Frankfurters With Clean Label Antimicrobials, Kohl D. Schrader, Joseph C. Cordray, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson, Aubrey F. Mendonca

Animal Industry Report

Consumers are critical of the ingredients used in the production of processed meat products. With the increased growth in natural and organic processed meats, suppliers have begun to offer clean label solutions to improve the safety of minimally processed foods. This study investigated the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on uncured, no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added frankfurters with or without clean-label antimicrobials, during a 120 day storage period. No-nitrate-or-nitrite-added brands with no antilisterial control measures exhibited a decreased lag time and shorter generation time for initiation of growth, resulting in a greater population of L. monocytogenes when compared to the sodium nitrite, sodium lactate/diacetate ...


2009 Iowa Corn Silage Yield Trial And Rye Cover Crop Demonstration, Dale Thoreson, Brian Lang 2010 Iowa State University

2009 Iowa Corn Silage Yield Trial And Rye Cover Crop Demonstration, Dale Thoreson, Brian Lang

Animal Industry Report

Corn silage is harvested from about 1.8% of Iowa corn acres. Most corn silage is harvested in the northeast and northwest portions of the state where the majority of dairy herds are located. In these regions, corn silage is a major portion of the row-crop acres. Because no independent yield trials are being conducted on corn hybrids for silage, a coalition consisting of ISUE Field Specialists, NICC instructors, the NE Iowa Dairy Foundation, and several seed corn representatives initiated a corn silage hybrid trial at the NE Iowa Dairy Foundation farm in 2008. This is the second year of ...


Kinetic Profile Of Chicken Macrophage Immune Response Upon Exposure To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Daniel S. Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont 2010 Iowa State University

Kinetic Profile Of Chicken Macrophage Immune Response Upon Exposure To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Daniel S. Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Large scale gene expression studies expedite the discovery process and provide a comprehensive view of host immune response. We used the Affymetrix GeneChip chicken genome array to determine the nature and breadth of the gene activation elicited by endotoxin from Salmonella typhimirium (ST) 798. The data obtained from this type of research are important to improve vaccine development efficacy and to enhance animal health and food safety. Our findings may contribute to elucidation of disease response pathways.


Mill Creek Management Plan, Joey A. Gentry 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Mill Creek Management Plan, Joey A. Gentry

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

The goal of this study is to conduct a management plan for the Mill Creek property. This will be obtained through meeting the landowner objectives concerning: wildlife with habitat enhancements, recreation locations, and the forest growth potential pertaining to different areas of the property. This plan will also offer suggestions and guidelines to maximize the use of the property. Including a collection of flora, fauna, and health related issues in the appendices for identification. The site condition on the property is very poor, and as a result the growth rate for this area is slow. It is recommended that the ...


A Comparative Study Of Hoof Growth In Sows When Housed In Individual Stalls: How Does Parity Affect This?, Allison M. Meiszberg, Anna K. Johnson, Linda I. Engblom, Kenneth J. Stalder, Lori L. Layman, Locke A. Karriker 2010 Iowa State University

A Comparative Study Of Hoof Growth In Sows When Housed In Individual Stalls: How Does Parity Affect This?, Allison M. Meiszberg, Anna K. Johnson, Linda I. Engblom, Kenneth J. Stalder, Lori L. Layman, Locke A. Karriker

Animal Industry Report

Lameness has been incorrectly labeled as a “cow and not a sow” concern, and this has possibly arisen due to the majority of sows being far more stationary over their productive lifetime compared to dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of weekly lateral toe growth for parity one through three sows when housed in gestation stalls during a one month period. A total of 30 sows were used (Yorkshire [n = 3], Duroc [n = 14] and Yorkshire x Duroc crosses [n = 13]). There were 10 parity one sows (158.8 kg to 204.1 ...


To Determine The Active And Inactive Hours For Sound Sows When Housed In Individual Pens, Allison M. Meiszberg, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker 2010 Iowa State University

To Determine The Active And Inactive Hours For Sound Sows When Housed In Individual Pens, Allison M. Meiszberg, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker

Animal Industry Report

There are currently no analgesic drugs specifically approved for pain relief in livestock by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Therefore, the objective of this study was to (1) identify the active hours of sound sows and (2) use this information to watch these active hours of the same sows when lame and after pain mitigation treatments. To avoid confounding injury due to aggression, twelve, clinically normal, mixed-parity, crossbred sows were purchased from a commercial producer in Iowa and housed in individual pens at Iowa State University. One 12 v black and white CCTV camera was affixed above ...


The Effect Of Selection For Residual Feed Intake On Lesion Scores In Yorkshire Gilts, Larry J. Sadler, Anna K. Johnson, Steven M. Lonergan, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Daniel S. Nettleton 2010 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Selection For Residual Feed Intake On Lesion Scores In Yorkshire Gilts, Larry J. Sadler, Anna K. Johnson, Steven M. Lonergan, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Daniel S. Nettleton

Animal Industry Report

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selection for reduced residual feed intake (RFI) on lesion scores in gilts in their home pen. A total of 192 gilts were used; 96 were from a line that had been selected for low residual feed intake over 5 generations (LRFI) and 96 from a randomly bred control line (CRFI). Gilts were housed in 12 pens (16 gilts/pen; 0.82 m2 /gilt) containing 8 gilts from each line in a conventional grow-finish unit. Lesion scores were collected the day after placement and every 4 weeks for 3 ...


The Effect Of Selection For Residual Feed Intake On General Behavioral Activity In Yorkshire Gilts, Larry J. Sadler, Anna K. Johnson, Steven M. Lonergan, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Daniel S. Nettleton 2010 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Selection For Residual Feed Intake On General Behavioral Activity In Yorkshire Gilts, Larry J. Sadler, Anna K. Johnson, Steven M. Lonergan, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Daniel S. Nettleton

Animal Industry Report

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selection for reduced residual feed intake (RFI) on behavior and activity in gilts in their home pen. A total of 192 gilts were used, 96 were from a line that had been selected for low residual feed intake over 5 generations (LRFI) and 96 from a randomly bred control line (CRFI). Gilts were housed in 12 pens, containing 8 gilts from each line in a conventional grow-finish unit. Twelve hours of video footage was collected on the day of placement and then every 4 wk for 3 more observational ...


Performance And Carcass Composition Of Yorkshire Pigs Selected For Low Residual Feed Intake Under Ad Libitum And Restricted Feeding, Nick Boddicker, Nicholas K. Gabler, Michael E. Spurlock, Daniel S. Nettleton, Jack C.M. Dekkers 2010 Iowa State University

Performance And Carcass Composition Of Yorkshire Pigs Selected For Low Residual Feed Intake Under Ad Libitum And Restricted Feeding, Nick Boddicker, Nicholas K. Gabler, Michael E. Spurlock, Daniel S. Nettleton, Jack C.M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Growth performance and carcass composition of 40 Yorkshire pigs (74.8±9.9 kg or 164.9±21.8 lbs), 20 pigs from a line selected for low residual feed intake for 5 generations and 20 pigs from a control line, was observed while fed on either an ad libitum or NRC maintenance (weight-stasis) basis over a 6 week period. The aim of the latter diet treatment was to keep pigs at a constant weight for six weeks. In the ad libitum treatment, there was no difference in initial (p < 0.49) or final body weights (p < 0.65) but the low residual feed intake line consumed 9% less feed compared to the control (p < 0.08). Similarly, there was no difference in LEA (p < 0.57) but the low residual feed intake line had slightly less backfat compared to the control (p < 0.21). These same results were found from chemical analysis of the carcass, as there was no difference in protein percentage (p < 0.60), but the ad libitum low residual feed intake pigs had a slightly lower fat percentage (p < 0.21). For the weight stasis treatment, the low residual feed intake pigs weighed 3.5% more than the control (p < 0.08), despite attempts to maintain a static body weight, and consumed 7.6% less feed overall (p < 0.09). Both lines had a decrease in backfat; however, the low residual feed intake line had an increase in loin eye area while the control line had a decrease. No differences were observed in chemical carcass composition between the two lines on the weight stasis treatment. These data show that the low residual feed intake line is more efficient, with only slight differences in carcass composition.


Anexdb: An Integrated Animal Annotation And Microarray Expression Database, Oliver Couture, Keith Callenberg, Neeraj Koul, Sushain Pandit, Remy Younes, Zhi-Liang Hu, Jack C.M. Dekkers, James M. Reecy, Vasant G. Honavar, Christopher K. Tuggle 2010 Iowa State University

Anexdb: An Integrated Animal Annotation And Microarray Expression Database, Oliver Couture, Keith Callenberg, Neeraj Koul, Sushain Pandit, Remy Younes, Zhi-Liang Hu, Jack C.M. Dekkers, James M. Reecy, Vasant G. Honavar, Christopher K. Tuggle

Animal Industry Report

All publicly available porcine expressed sequences were assembled to create longer, fuller transcripts for annotation purposes. The longer sequences were then used as queries in sequence alignment and comparison software to transfer functional annotation from their homologues in other species. In addition to transferred annotation, sequence variation was also predicted from the assembly. This information can then be used with expression data from high through-put expression measures, such as microarrays, to more fully understand the underlying mechanisms of biological processes. Both kinds of data, expression and annotation, are housed together and available at www.anexdb.org.


Igf-1 Concentration At A Young Age Is Associated With Feed Efficiency In Pigs, Kim L. Bunter, Weiguo Cai, David J. Johnston, Jack C.M. Dekkers 2010 University of New England

Igf-1 Concentration At A Young Age Is Associated With Feed Efficiency In Pigs, Kim L. Bunter, Weiguo Cai, David J. Johnston, Jack C.M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

The concentration of IGF-I in blood of young pigs has previously been found to be genetically associated with feed efficiency and performance in pigs. To test these associations, data from the ISU selection line for residual feed intake (RFI) were used. Compared to controls, in the line selected for increased efficiency through reduced RFI, a correlated response in the expected downwards direction was observed for juvenile IGF-I. Genetic correlations of IGF-I were 0.63 with RFI and 0.78 with feed conversion ratio. These results confirm that juvenile IGF-I is a good physiological indicator of genetic merit for economically important ...


Transcriptional Profiling Of The Caloric Restriction In Key Metabolic Tissues Of Pigs Differing In Feed Efficiency, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver Couture, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Daniel S. Nettleton, Christopher K. Tuggler 2010 Iowa State University

Transcriptional Profiling Of The Caloric Restriction In Key Metabolic Tissues Of Pigs Differing In Feed Efficiency, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver Couture, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Daniel S. Nettleton, Christopher K. Tuggler

Animal Industry Report

Residual feed intake is a measure of feed efficiency, where low RFI denotes high feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and to human health benefits such as longevity and cancer prevention. We have developed pig lines that differ in RFI and we are interested in identifying the genes and pathways that underlie feed efficiency. Prepubertal Yorkshire gilts with low RFI (n=10) or high RFI (n=10) were fed ad libitum or at 80% of maintenance for 8 days. We measured serum metabolites and generated transcriptional profiles of liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue ...


Sow Reproductive Stayability And Lifetime Traits, Linda Engblom, Kenneth J. Stalder, John W. Mabry, Justin Holl, William Herring, Matt Culbertson 2010 Iowa State University

Sow Reproductive Stayability And Lifetime Traits, Linda Engblom, Kenneth J. Stalder, John W. Mabry, Justin Holl, William Herring, Matt Culbertson

Animal Industry Report

Sow longevity can be improved by selection, but genetic evaluations are challenged for implementation due to the long time interval required to collect complete lifetime data and low reliability of early indicator traits. Present study evaluated genetic parameters for several sow reproductive, stayability and longevity traits. Heritabilities for sow reproductive and longevity traits were estimated from 0.03 to 0.09. Heritabilities of the binary stayability traits were estimated from 0.00 to 0.14. Common litter effect had largest impact in early recorded traits. The results show that fitting the binary stayability traits to normal variance function give the ...


Lifetime Reproductive Traits In Landrace, Yorkshire And Crossbred Sows, Linda Engblom, Kenneth J. Stalder, John W. Mabry, Clint R. Schwab 2010 Iowa State University

Lifetime Reproductive Traits In Landrace, Yorkshire And Crossbred Sows, Linda Engblom, Kenneth J. Stalder, John W. Mabry, Clint R. Schwab

Animal Industry Report

Selection for more robustness could improve sow longevity. The problem is that sow longevity is truly expressed in crossbred sows in commercial herds but selection is performed among purebred animals in nucleus herds. The present study investigated sow longevity traits on both levels to determine whether the use of commercial performance can facilitate added genetic progress in nucleus animals. Heritability estimates were estimated from 0.00 to 0.16 for Landrace, Yorkshire and crossbred F1sows. Preliminary results indicate that it could be useful to implement data from crossbred sows in breeding evaluations to improve selection accuracy for sow longevity.


Culling, Mortality And Lifetime Production Among U.S. Sows, Linda Engblom, Kenneth J. Stalder, John W. Mabry 2010 Iowa State University

Culling, Mortality And Lifetime Production Among U.S. Sows, Linda Engblom, Kenneth J. Stalder, John W. Mabry

Animal Industry Report

To evaluate the present situation, sow removal and lifetime production was investigated among 132 U.S. pork producers participating in the Datashare program with PigCHAMP. Of the removed sows, 18% only produced one litter before removal, and less than 50% produced five litters. Most sows (32%) were removed due to reproductive disorders and only every fifth are removed due to old age. Of the removed sows 84% were slaughtered, 3% were euthanized on farm and 12% were mortalities found on farm. On average a sow weaned 40.6 piglets during her lifetime. There was a substantial variation between farms. Producers ...


Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2007, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman 2010 Iowa State University

Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2007, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman

Animal Industry Report

Information is provided on pig production efficiency for niche pork production. Information from 27 niche pork producers is included in the analysis.

The average female breeding herd size was 81 females. The average feed efficiency was 4.42 pounds of feed per pound of production, although the average for the top 9 herds was 3.78 and the average for the bottom 9 herds was 5.24. Average labor use was 1.01 hours per hundred pounds of pork produced. About one of every four pigs born alive died before weaning. Another 13 percent died from weaning to market. Breeding ...


Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman 2010 Iowa State University

Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David Stender, James B. Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber, Mark S. Honeyman

Animal Industry Report

Information is provided on pig production efficiency for niche pork production. Information from 18 niche pork producers is included in the analysis.

The average female breeding herd size was 61 females. The average feed efficiency was 4.63 pounds of feed per pound of production, although the average for the top 6 herds was 4.20 and the average for the bottom 6 herds was 5.25. Average labor use was 1.02 hours per hundred pounds of pork produced. About one of every five pigs born alive died before weaning. Another 10 percent died from weaning to market. Breeding ...


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