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Ecopathology Of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians., Debra Miller, Matthew Gray, A. Storfer 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Ecopathology Of Ranaviruses Infecting Amphibians., Debra Miller, Matthew Gray, A. Storfer

Debra L Miller

Ranaviruses are capable of infecting amphibians from at least 14 families and over 70 individual species. Ranaviruses infect multiple cell types, often culminating in organ necrosis and massive hemorrhaging. Subclinical infections have been documented, although their role in ranavirus persistence and emergence remains unclear. Water is an effective transmission medium for ranaviruses, and survival outside the host may be for significant duration. In aquatic communities, amphibians, reptiles and fish may serve as reservoirs. Controlled studies have shown that susceptibility to ranavirus infection and disease varies among amphibian species and developmental stages, and likely is impacted by host-pathogen coevolution, as well ...


Calibrating Divergence Times On Species Tree Versus Gene Trees: Implications For Speciation History Of Aphelocoma Jays, John McCormack, Joseph Heled, Kathleen Delaney, A. Peterson, L. Knowles 2010 Occidental College

Calibrating Divergence Times On Species Tree Versus Gene Trees: Implications For Speciation History Of Aphelocoma Jays, John Mccormack, Joseph Heled, Kathleen Delaney, A. Peterson, L. Knowles

John E. McCormack

Estimates of the timing of divergence are central to testing the underlying causes of speciation. Relaxed molecular clocks and fossil calibration have improved these estimates; however, these advances are implemented in the context of gene trees, which can overestimate divergence times. Here we couple recent innovations for dating speciation events with the analytical power of species trees, where multilocus data are considered in a coalescent context. Divergence times are estimated in the bird genus Aphelocoma to test whether speciation in these jays coincided with mountain uplift or glacial cycles. Gene trees and species trees show general agreement that diversification began ...


Detection Of Human Papillomavirus Dna In Feline Premalignant And Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma, SH O'Neill, Kim Newkirk, EA Anis, R Brahmbhatt, LA Frank, Stephen Kania 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Detection Of Human Papillomavirus Dna In Feline Premalignant And Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Sh O'Neill, Kim Newkirk, Ea Anis, R Brahmbhatt, La Frank, Stephen Kania

Stephen A Kania

No abstract provided.


Streptococcus Phocae Isolated From A Spotted Seal ( Phoca Largha) With Pyometra In Alaska., K. Hueffer, C. Lieske, L. McGilvary, R. Hare, Debra Miller, T. O'Hara 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Streptococcus Phocae Isolated From A Spotted Seal ( Phoca Largha) With Pyometra In Alaska., K. Hueffer, C. Lieske, L. Mcgilvary, R. Hare, Debra Miller, T. O'Hara

Debra L Miller

A spotted seal harvested by subsistence hunters in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska (USA), showed a grossly enlarged uterus and associated lymph nodes. Streptococcus phocae was isolated from the purulent uterine discharge. Histopathologic examination revealed inflammation that was limited to the uterine mucosa. Lymph nodes draining the affected organ were reactive but no evidence of active infection was found in the lymph nodes. This report is the first Streptococcus phocae isolated from spotted seals as well as the first report of pyometra as the main pathologic finding associated with this pathogen. Isolation of this pathogen from Alaska expands the reported range to ...


‘Properly, With Love, From Scratch’: Jamie Oliver’S Food Revolution, K. Valentine Cadieux 2010 Hamline University

‘Properly, With Love, From Scratch’: Jamie Oliver’S Food Revolution, K. Valentine Cadieux

K. Valentine Cadieux

What to eat is of great concern to the U.S. public; it is the subject of social organizing at many scales and the focus of significant academic discussion. This article analyzesJamie Oliver's Food Revolution (JOFR), a much-discussed reality show that aired in 2010 in the United States, in which English celebrity chef Jamie Oliver, well known in the United Kingdom for directing government and public attention to school lunch, brought his campaign to promote fresh-cooked food to Huntington, West Virginia. We recognize the capacity of JOFR to encourage people to act on behalf of their and their ...


Tmdl Implementation In Agricultural Landscapes: A Systemic And Communicative Approach, K. Valentine Cadieux 2010 Hamline University

Tmdl Implementation In Agricultural Landscapes: A Systemic And Communicative Approach, K. Valentine Cadieux

K. Valentine Cadieux

Increasingly, total maximum daily load (TMDL) limits are being defined for agricultural watersheds. Reductions in non-point source pollution are often needed to meet TMDL limits, and improvements in management of annual crops appear insufficient to achieve the necessary reductions. Increased adoption of perennial crops and other changes in agricultural land use also appear necessary, but face major barriers. We outline a novel strategy that aims to create new economic opportunities for land-owners and other stakeholders and thereby to attract their voluntary participation in land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Our strategy has two key elements. First, focused efforts are needed ...


Embryonic Staging Table For A Direct- Developing Salamander, Plethodon Cinereus (Plethodontidae), Ryan Kerney 2010 Dalhousie University

Embryonic Staging Table For A Direct- Developing Salamander, Plethodon Cinereus (Plethodontidae), Ryan Kerney

Ryan Kerney

This work presents a refined staging table for the direct-developing red-backed salamander Plethodon cinereus, which is based on the incom- plete staging system of James Norman Dent (J Morphol 1942; 71:577– 601). This common species from eastern North America is a member of the species-rich lungless salamander family Plethodontidae. The stag- ing table presented here covers several stages omitted by Dent and reveals novel developmental features of P. cinereus embryos. These include putative Leydig cells and open gill clefts, which are found in lar- vae of metamorphosing species but were previously reported as absent in direct-developing Plethodon. Other features ...


Smooth Crabgrass Control With Indaziflam At Various Spring Timings, Jim Brosnan, P McCullough, G Breeden 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Smooth Crabgrass Control With Indaziflam At Various Spring Timings, Jim Brosnan, P Mccullough, G Breeden

Jim Brosnan

Indaziflam is an alkylazine herbicide that controls annual grasses by inhibiting cellulose biosynthesis. Compared with other PRE herbicides like prodiamine, indaziflam has a longer half-life in soil (> 150 d), which may allow for greater flexibility with application timing. Research was conducted in 2010 in Tennessee and Georgia evaluating smooth crabgrass control efficacy with indaziflam applied at early PRE, PRE, and early POST timings on the basis of soil temperature. Regardless of application timing, all rates of indaziflam (35, 52.5, and 70 g ai ha−1) controlled smooth crabgrass 89 to 100%. Prodiamine at 840 g ai ha−1 applied ...


Molecular-Genetic Mapping Of Zebrafish Mutants With Variable Phenotypic Penetrance, Roshan Jain, Marc Wolman, Lauren Schmidt, Harold Burgess, Michael Granato 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Molecular-Genetic Mapping Of Zebrafish Mutants With Variable Phenotypic Penetrance, Roshan Jain, Marc Wolman, Lauren Schmidt, Harold Burgess, Michael Granato

Roshan A Jain

Forward genetic screens in vertebrates are powerful tools to generate models relevant to human diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Variability in phenotypic penetrance and expressivity is common in these disorders and behavioral mutant models, making their molecular-genetic mapping a formidable task. Using a ‘phenotyping by segregation’ strategy, we molecularly map the hypersensitive zebrafish houdini mutant despite its variable phenotypic penetrance, providing a generally applicable strategy to map zebrafish mutants with subtle phenotypes.


Autism Spectrum Traits In The Typical Population Predict Structure And Function In The Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus., Elisabeth von dem Hagen, Lauri Nummenmaa, R Yu, Andrew Engell, Michael Ewbank, Andy Calder 2010 Kenyon College

Autism Spectrum Traits In The Typical Population Predict Structure And Function In The Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus., Elisabeth Von Dem Hagen, Lauri Nummenmaa, R Yu, Andrew Engell, Michael Ewbank, Andy Calder

Andrew Engell

n/a


Adaptation As Process: The Future Of Darwinism And The Legacy Of Theodosius Dobzhansky, David Depew 2010 University of Iowa

Adaptation As Process: The Future Of Darwinism And The Legacy Of Theodosius Dobzhansky, David Depew

David J Depew

Conceptions of adaptation have varied in the history of genetic Darwinism depending on whether what is taken to be focal is the process of adaptation, adapted states of populations, or discrete adaptations in individual organisms. I argue that Theodosius Dobzhansky’s view of adaptation as a dynamical process contrasts with so-called “adaptationist” views of natural selection figured as “design-without-a-designer” of relatively discrete, enumerable adaptations. Correlated with these respectively process and product oriented approaches to adaptive natural selection are divergent pictures of organisms themselves as developmental wholes or as “bundles” of adaptations. While even process versions of genetical Darwinism are insufficiently ...


Size Of Food Bowl And Scoop Affects Amount Of Food Owners Feed Their Dogs, Maryanne Murphy, Angela Witzel, Joe Bartges, Claudia Kirk 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Size Of Food Bowl And Scoop Affects Amount Of Food Owners Feed Their Dogs, Maryanne Murphy, Angela Witzel, Joe Bartges, Claudia Kirk

Claudia A Kirk

The incidence of canine obesity appears to be increasing dramatically and understanding factors impacting the amount of food pet owners provide their dogs may improve weight management. Human research has shown the size of food bowls, plates and utensils can significantly impact the amount of food portioned and consumed. This effect can be attributed to both the Delboeuf optical illusion and the Ebbinghaus-Titchener size-contrast illusion. To investigate the existence of a similar effect with dog owners, 54 dogs and their owners were recruited for a four treatment randomized prospective trial. Owners scooped out a normal kibble-based meal using a small ...


The Microbe As A Reporter: Microbial Bioreporter Sensing Technologies For Chemical And Biological Detection, Steven Ripp, A. Layton, G. Sayler 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

The Microbe As A Reporter: Microbial Bioreporter Sensing Technologies For Chemical And Biological Detection, Steven Ripp, A. Layton, G. Sayler

Steven Ripp

With contributions from a broad range of leading researchers this book focuses on current technology and its applications. Although aimed primarily at research scientists and graduate students in water microbiology, the topics and techniques are equally applicable to all branches of environmental microbiology. The initial chapters cover the concentration, detection and characterization of microbes in drinking water, other chapters are technology focused and cover topics such as geochips and microarrays and their applications, Raman microspectroscopy and related single cell techniques, the use of amoebae hosts, bacteria and bacteriophage as bioreporters, viability of detected microbes and fecal source tracking. Authors have ...


Global Comparison Of Warring Groups In 2002-2007: Fatalities From Targeting Civilians Vs. Fighting Battles., M Hicks, U Lee, R Sundberg, M Spagat 2010 Selected Works

Global Comparison Of Warring Groups In 2002-2007: Fatalities From Targeting Civilians Vs. Fighting Battles., M Hicks, U Lee, R Sundberg, M Spagat

Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks

BACKGROUND:

Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors) that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002-2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved ...


Serotonin Transporter (5-Httlpr) Genotype And Childhood Trauma Are Associated With Individual Differences In Decision Making, Scott Stoltenberg 2010 Selected Works

Serotonin Transporter (5-Httlpr) Genotype And Childhood Trauma Are Associated With Individual Differences In Decision Making, Scott Stoltenberg

Scott F. Stoltenberg

The factors that influence individual differences in decision making are not yet fully characterized, but convergent evidence is accumulating that implicates serotonin (5-HT) system function. Therefore, both genes and environments that influence serotonin function are good candidates for association with risky decision making. In the present study we examined associations between common polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTTLPR and rs25531), the experience of childhood trauma and decision making on the Iowa gambling task (IGT) in 391 (64.5% female) healthy Caucasian adults. Homozygosity for the 5-HTTLPR L allele was associated with riskier decision making in the first block ...


Biological Activity And Mass Spectrometric Analysis Of Vernonia Amygdalina Fractions, Broderick Eribo 2010 Howard University

Biological Activity And Mass Spectrometric Analysis Of Vernonia Amygdalina Fractions, Broderick Eribo

Broderick Eribo

Vernonia amygdalina (VA) is a tropical African plant of the Asteraceae family used as dietary supplement and as a medicinal herb. In this study, fatty acid esters, fatty acid amide, triterpene, diterpene alcohols and phytostanols were identified as the major chemical groups in the aqueous and organic fractions of VA leaf extracts. Their structures were elucidated, on the basis of GC-MS data, as hexanedioic acid, bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester (2a), erucamide (2b) and squalene (2c) in the water fraction; hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (3a), 9(Z)12(Z)15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (3b) and phytol (3c) in methanol fraction ...


Occurrence Of Pediocin Pa-1/Ach-Like Bacteriocin In Native Non-Starter Lactobacillus Casei, Lactobacillus Paracasei And Lactobacillus Rhamnosus From Retail Cheddar Cheese, Mothomang Mlalazi, Angela Winslow, Junia Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Broderick Eribo 2010 Howard University

Occurrence Of Pediocin Pa-1/Ach-Like Bacteriocin In Native Non-Starter Lactobacillus Casei, Lactobacillus Paracasei And Lactobacillus Rhamnosus From Retail Cheddar Cheese, Mothomang Mlalazi, Angela Winslow, Junia Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Broderick Eribo

Broderick Eribo

Bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were isolated from retail Cheddar cheese and identified by both phenotypic and molecular methods. These isolates were found to produce bacteriocins with broad-spectrum activity against several foodborne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, E. coli O157:H7, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further characterization of the bacteriocins showed that they had extremely high thermostability as activity was maintained after boiling for 6.5 h. In addition, autoclaving for 45 minutes had no significant effect on the activity. Similarly, storage at -20 ⁰C, 4 ⁰C, 25 ⁰C, 37 ⁰C ...


Relationship Of Exercise Volume With Change In Depression And Its Association With Self-Efficacy To Control Emotional Eating In Severely Obese Women, Jim Annesi, Linda L. Vaughn 2010 Kennesaw State University

Relationship Of Exercise Volume With Change In Depression And Its Association With Self-Efficacy To Control Emotional Eating In Severely Obese Women, Jim Annesi, Linda L. Vaughn

Jim Annesi

Introduction. Exercise may improve one's perceived ability to control overeating related to negative emotions through psychological pathways such as reduced depression; however, the volume required is unclear. 

Methods. Severely obese women () participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition treatment incorporating self-regulatory skills training, and were assessed on depression, self-efficacy, self-regulatory skills usage, weight, and waist circumference, at baseline and treatment end.

Results. Subjects completing low-moderate (40–149.9 minutes/week) and public health (≥150 minutes/week) volumes of exercise had significant and similar reductions in depression scores. No significant changes were found for those completing <40 minutes/week. For ...


Effects Of Improved Self-Appraisal And Mood Factors On Weight Loss In Obese Women Initiating Supported Exercise, Jim Annesi 2010 Kennesaw State University

Effects Of Improved Self-Appraisal And Mood Factors On Weight Loss In Obese Women Initiating Supported Exercise, Jim Annesi

Jim Annesi

This study aimed to test to what extent improvements in self-appraisal and mood factors were associated with changes in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and waist circumference. Women with obesity (N=171) completed Physical Self-Concept, Exercise Self-Efficacy, Body Areas Satisfaction, Tension, and Depression scales, and were measured on BMI and waist circumference, at baseline and just after a 24-week supported exercise program. With the exception of Physical Self-Concept, improvements on each psychological factor were associated with significantly greater weight and waist circumference improvements. Multiple regression analyses indicated that improvement/non-improvement on the psychological factors explained a significant 9 to ...


Associations Between Core Strength, Walking Speed, And Age In Women, Jean Omodt 2010 St. Catherine University

Associations Between Core Strength, Walking Speed, And Age In Women, Jean Omodt

Jean Omodt

No abstract provided.


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