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Effects Of Incorporation Of Sainfoin (Onobrychis Viciafolia Scop.) With Cool Season Grasses On In Vitro Digestibility And Ch4 Emission, H. P. Poudel, Y. Wang, T. McAllister, Z. J. Zu, B. Eisenreich, S. Acharya 2024 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Effects Of Incorporation Of Sainfoin (Onobrychis Viciafolia Scop.) With Cool Season Grasses On In Vitro Digestibility And Ch4 Emission, H. P. Poudel, Y. Wang, T. Mcallister, Z. J. Zu, B. Eisenreich, S. Acharya

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciafolia Scop.) is an important non-bloating perennial leguminous forage. The tannins in sainfoin alter protein metabolism in the rumen and have been implicated in altering both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. However, the effect of sainfoin when mixed with cool-season forages is unknown. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the in-vitro fermentation of sainfoin hay mixed with two other perennial cool-season forages, meadow bromegrass and orchardgrass at five ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:50, and 100:0). Data on dry matter disappearance (DMD), neutral detergent fiber disappearance (NDFD), gas production (GP) methane (CH4) emissions, and ammonia production were collected …


Condensed Tannins And Total Phenols In Stylosanthes Spp., M. V. F. Santos, J. P. Muir, O. F. Oliveira, I. M. Macêdo, W. P. S. Diniz, M. V. Cunha, José C. B. Dubeux Jr., M. A. Lira, R. L. C. Ferrreira 2024 Rural Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil

Condensed Tannins And Total Phenols In Stylosanthes Spp., M. V. F. Santos, J. P. Muir, O. F. Oliveira, I. M. Macêdo, W. P. S. Diniz, M. V. Cunha, José C. B. Dubeux Jr., M. A. Lira, R. L. C. Ferrreira

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Rangelands, such as the species of the genus Stylosanthes, are plants highly selected by animals and represent an important forage source for livestock in the Northeast region of Brazil. Plants of this genus are naturally occurring in several places in Brazil and other semi-arid areas. The variability of condensed tannins and total phenols in different Stylosanthes accessions is still poorly characterized. Based on that, the objective of this study was to quantify the content of condensed tannins and total phenols of Stylosanthes accessions collected in different physiographic zones of the State of Pernambuco and cultivated in germplasm banks. The …


Forage Production Is Not Changed In Dwarf Elephantgrass Swards Managed In A Wide Range Of Pre-Grazing Canopy Heights, V. Y. M. Moncada, K. C. Vargas, D. A. Barreta, D. S. Comassetto, F. C. S. Gislon, E. R. Ribeiro, D. Moraes, A. F. Sbrissa 2024 Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brazil

Forage Production Is Not Changed In Dwarf Elephantgrass Swards Managed In A Wide Range Of Pre-Grazing Canopy Heights, V. Y. M. Moncada, K. C. Vargas, D. A. Barreta, D. S. Comassetto, F. C. S. Gislon, E. R. Ribeiro, D. Moraes, A. F. Sbrissa

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Height corresponding to the critical leaf area index (LAI) has been successfully used to define pre-grazing management targets in pastures subjected to intermittent stocking. However, studies on short/stoloniferous grasses have demonstrated that it is possible to manage pastures at heights below those corresponding to the critical LAI (with a threshold grazing height of approximately 65% of those corresponding to the critical LAI) and achieve a similar forage yield, provided that the severity of defoliation does not exceed 50 percent of the pre-grazing height. In this study, we hypothesized that in tall tussock grasses (such as elephant grass), the amplitude of …


Brix As An Indicator Of Sugar Content And Nutritive Value In Alfalfa And Orchardgrass Herbage, Eric D. Billman, K. Soder, J. Horst, K. Balk, A. Hafla 2024 USDA-ARS

Brix As An Indicator Of Sugar Content And Nutritive Value In Alfalfa And Orchardgrass Herbage, Eric D. Billman, K. Soder, J. Horst, K. Balk, A. Hafla

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Brix, a measurement of total dissolved solids in solution, has been used by forage producers to provide real-time estimates of energy content of fresh herbage. However, its efficacy has never been validated in herbage through wet chemistry testing and comparisons with other nutritive value parameters. This study compared and correlated Brix measurements with sugar concentrations and common nutritive value parameters relating to protein, fiber, and energy to determine the viability of using Brix to predict when to graze or harvest fresh herbage. Brix measurements were collected monthly on fresh herbage samples of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis …


Integrating Livestock And Cropping Systems: Interseeding Cereal Rye Into Corn For Late Season Grazing, K. J. Soder 2024 USDA-ARS

Integrating Livestock And Cropping Systems: Interseeding Cereal Rye Into Corn For Late Season Grazing, K. J. Soder

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Corn (Zea mays) grown for grain is harvested too late in the year in many temperate regions to establish a cover crop to provide winter ground cover and an opportunity for late season grazing. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of interseeding cereal rye (Secale cereale) into corn for use as grazed forage after corn grain harvest on corn grain yield and additional grazing day/ha. In a 4-year study, corn was planted (64,246 plants/ha) in spring on two, 4.8-ha fields in central Pennsylvania. Cereal rye was interseeded (135 kg/ha) into the corn …


Organization Of Indigenous Dairy Cattle Production System In Murunkan Veterinary Region In Mannar District, Sri Lanka, RMUS Bandara, S. Fernando, S. C. Somasiri 2024 Rajarata University of Sri Lanka

Organization Of Indigenous Dairy Cattle Production System In Murunkan Veterinary Region In Mannar District, Sri Lanka, Rmus Bandara, S. Fernando, S. C. Somasiri

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The dairy sector in Murunkan veterinary region in Mannar district in the northern province, Sri Lanka was adversely affected by the 30-year-long civil war which ended in 2009. The post-war recovering dairy sector in the region produced 2.11 million litres of milk in 2017. However, the lack of updated information constrained the sector’s development and identification of development interventions. Hence, this study was designed to review the organization of the dairy production system in the Murunkan veterinary region in Mannar district. A survey was conducted involving 100 dairy cattle farmers selected from 40 villages in the Murunkan veterinary region using …


Building Partnerships To Address Social And Technological Challenges To Enhance Farm Profitability And Improve Water Quality Through Better Grassland Management, C. C. Stafford, R. A. Clark, L. Ritchie, J. Dudding, G. Pent, J. Fike, J. Benner, C. Swanson, S. Baker, T. Mize, V. Temu, K. Payne, D. Gill, D. Mullins, R. McGuire, C. Teutsch, W. Thomason, A. Grev, P. Blevins, T. P. Clarke, M. Poore, M. Booher, T. Stanley, G. Halich, J. Bovay, S. Jones, K. Love, A. Hilliard, A. Byington, E. Mullins, L. Haugen 2024 Virginia Cooperative Extension

Building Partnerships To Address Social And Technological Challenges To Enhance Farm Profitability And Improve Water Quality Through Better Grassland Management, C. C. Stafford, R. A. Clark, L. Ritchie, J. Dudding, G. Pent, J. Fike, J. Benner, C. Swanson, S. Baker, T. Mize, V. Temu, K. Payne, D. Gill, D. Mullins, R. Mcguire, C. Teutsch, W. Thomason, A. Grev, P. Blevins, T. P. Clarke, M. Poore, M. Booher, T. Stanley, G. Halich, J. Bovay, S. Jones, K. Love, A. Hilliard, A. Byington, E. Mullins, L. Haugen

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

With 2.1 million acres of pastureland and 1.25 million acres of hay land in Virginia, the rural Virginia landscape is predominately grassland. These lands form the base of the $3.96 billion-dollar livestock and dairy industry in Virginia. Managing these livestock in a profitable manner for farmers and beneficial to the environment is important. A cultural tradition with roots in colonial times has been to run animals in large fields year-round throughout Virginia. Livestock often graze from spring until fall (about 220 days), and farmers feed hay the remainder of the year. Spikes in the cost of fuel, fertilizer, and equipment …


Effects Of Different Production Systems On The Nutrient Density Of Beef, T. Statham, J. Cloward, N. Evans, S. van Vliet 2024 Utah State University

Effects Of Different Production Systems On The Nutrient Density Of Beef, T. Statham, J. Cloward, N. Evans, S. Van Vliet

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

As concerns regarding beef production systems on human health and animal welfare become more apparent, consumer interest in pasture-raised livestock has been steadily on the rise in the US. Such interest has increasingly led to questions about potential nutritional composition differences in beef from different production systems, such as grass-fed beef and grain-fed beef. The goal of this work was to conduct untargeted metabolomics analysis on a broad range of samples from the US beef supply chain to provide insight into how different finishing systems impact the beef metabolome and nutrient density. Here, we found that 191 out of 802 …


Impacts Of Forage Cropping Decisions On Feed-Flows In Cool- Temperate Grazing Systems, D. R. Stevens, M. J. Casey 2024 AgResearch, Ltd.

Impacts Of Forage Cropping Decisions On Feed-Flows In Cool- Temperate Grazing Systems, D. R. Stevens, M. J. Casey

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Intensive cool-temperate grasslands often rely on adding forage crops to help supply feed when pasture growth is limited by cool temperatures and low sunlight. We tested the impacts of using single- or multi-graze crops to alter feed supply in either summer/autumn or winter on productivity in red deer farming systems in a cool-temperate environment. The choice of single-graze or multi-graze crops to provide forage in deer grazing systems had an impact on the feed flows and the amount of pasture available, with multi-graze crops supplying more feed during the dry summer months while single-graze crops supplying more feed during the …


Challenges And Opportunities For Sustainable Livestock Production In The Context Of Socioeconomic And Food Security In Northern Areas Of Pakistan, Muhammad Tariq 2024 University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Challenges And Opportunities For Sustainable Livestock Production In The Context Of Socioeconomic And Food Security In Northern Areas Of Pakistan, Muhammad Tariq

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Due to a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic variables, food insecurity in Pakistan is noticeably higher in the mountainous areas than in the plains. In the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, the issue of food insecurity made worse by rapid socio-economic and environmental changes as well as topographical constraints. In northern areas of Pakistan livestock is raised for many purposes, including milk, meat, wool, leather, and draft. The livestock not only contributes significantly to the region's food security but also a sizable portion of what local families eat on a daily basis at their food table. Livestock are raised using nomadic and …


Yak (Bos Grunniens): The Mammal Of Socio-Economic Importance In Gilgit- Baltistan, Pakistan, Muhammad Tariq, Asif Hameed 2024 University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Yak (Bos Grunniens): The Mammal Of Socio-Economic Importance In Gilgit- Baltistan, Pakistan, Muhammad Tariq, Asif Hameed

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The yaks are long-haired humped bovid, a multipurpose animal that can survive in a low oxygen and cold environment at an elevation of 2000 to 6000 meters above sea level. The animal has the ability to graze diverse foliage from coarse shrubs to short grasses. The majority of yak population is still living in central Asian highlands, which include parts of Tibet, China, Indo-Pak. Yak rearing in Pakistan is bounded to higher elevations (3,500–4,500 meters a.s.l) of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and Chitral, where yak is important and places the only means of livelihood through theprovision of milk, meat, and wool, hairs …


Integrated Crop And Pasture Based Livestock Production System Success On Reclaimed Surface Coal Mined Land In South Africa, W. F. Truter, E. N. Cele 2024 University of Pretoria, South Africa

Integrated Crop And Pasture Based Livestock Production System Success On Reclaimed Surface Coal Mined Land In South Africa, W. F. Truter, E. N. Cele

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Coal mining is the largest surface mining operation in South Africa’s grassland biome. Surface mining is leaving large tracts of land revegetated to pasture species as mining companies attempt to reclaim the agricultural potential of mined areas. Top soil management remains the key challenge to ensure agricultural productivity. During the reclamation process, newly placed soils are very often chemically, physically and microbiologically degraded, and high soil ameliorant inputs are required to catalyse agroecosystem function. These revegetated landscapes can offer good grazing capacity; however, to date there are no livestock grazing these areas, resulting in the subsequent deterioration of these new …


Grazing And Animal Welfare Of Dairy Cows In Europe, What Do We Know?, A. Van den Pol-van Dasselaar, D. Hennessy, J. Isselstein 2024 Aeres University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands

Grazing And Animal Welfare Of Dairy Cows In Europe, What Do We Know?, A. Van Den Pol-Van Dasselaar, D. Hennessy, J. Isselstein

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Grazing systems are important components of the landscape in almost all European countries. Grazing is inherently close to the nature of herbivores, but no longer applied everywhere in Europe. This paper discusses the extent of dairy cow grazing in Europe and the effect of grazing on animal welfare. The study builds on results of surveys from the European Grassland Federation (EGF) Working Group “Grazing” (WGG) in the period 2010–2022 and a focus group meeting in 2022. Data on the extent of grazing of dairy cows in Europe are provided. Europe can be divided into six distinctive regions with respect to …


Diurnal Variation In Forage Nutrient Composition And Metabolic Parameters Of Horses Grazing Warm-Season, Perennial Grass-Legume Mixed Pastures, A. C. Vasco, J. Dubeux, L. Sollenberger, M. Wallau, E. Santos, J. Lance, L. Warren, C. Wickens 2024 Midway University

Diurnal Variation In Forage Nutrient Composition And Metabolic Parameters Of Horses Grazing Warm-Season, Perennial Grass-Legume Mixed Pastures, A. C. Vasco, J. Dubeux, L. Sollenberger, M. Wallau, E. Santos, J. Lance, L. Warren, C. Wickens

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Although warm-season, grass-legume mixed pastures have improved nutritive value and may reduce negative environmental impacts relative to nitrogen-fertilized grass monocultures, no study has been done to evaluate their effect on diurnal variation of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and other nutrients, and on the metabolic responses observed in horses’ blood and fecal samples. This 2-yr study aimed to investigate the circadian variation in nutrient composition and the fecal and blood metabolic responses in horses grazing these pastures. Forage, fecal, and blood samples were collected every 28 days at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 0000 h, in two years, for measurement of diurnal variation …


Herbage Responses And Performance Of Mature Horses Grazing Warm-Season Perennial Grass-Legume Mixed Pastures, A. C. Vasco, E. R. Santos, J. Lance, J. Dubeux, L. Sollenberger, M. Wallau, C. Wickens, L. Warren 2024 Midway University

Herbage Responses And Performance Of Mature Horses Grazing Warm-Season Perennial Grass-Legume Mixed Pastures, A. C. Vasco, E. R. Santos, J. Lance, J. Dubeux, L. Sollenberger, M. Wallau, C. Wickens, L. Warren

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Legume-grass mixtures may be a useful alternative to nitrogen-fertilized grass monocultures, but pasture and animal responses have not been assessed for pastures grazed by horses in Florida. This 2-yr study compared pasture and horse responses of continuously stocked, mixed pastures of rhizoma peanut (RP, Arachis glabrata Benth) and bahiagrass (BG, Paspalum notatum Flüggé) receiving 30 kg nitrogen (N)/ha (RP-BG) compared with BG pastures fertilized with 120 kg/N ha (BG-N) or with no N (BG-No N). Herbage mass was similar among treatments in 2020 and for most evaluation days in 2019. In 2019, stocking rate (AU/ha) was greater in …


Integrating Plant Secondary Metabolites And Foraging Behavior To Enhance Animal Health In Ruminant Production Systems, J. J. Villalba, J. W. MacAdam, S. Van Vliet, F. D. Provenza 2024 Utah State University

Integrating Plant Secondary Metabolites And Foraging Behavior To Enhance Animal Health In Ruminant Production Systems, J. J. Villalba, J. W. Macadam, S. Van Vliet, F. D. Provenza

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Legumes and forbs contain bioactives or plant secondary compounds (PSC) with potential to enhance animal health through their antibiotic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties that are evident even at small dietary concentrations. In turn, ruminants can regulate their ingestion of PSC through behavioral mechanisms that allow for the efficient achievement of homeostasis. High concentrations of PSC lead to food avoidance, whereas lower content of PSC in the diet achieved through regulatory mechanisms of ingestion could promote medicinal and/or prophylactic effects in the animal and concomitant health benefits to milk and meat products. Under this context, we discuss the restructuring of rangelands …


The Effect Of Spring Grass Availability On Dry Matter Intake Of Early Lactation Dairy Cows, S. Walsh, Z. C. McKay, M. Egan 2024 Teagasc, Ireland

The Effect Of Spring Grass Availability On Dry Matter Intake Of Early Lactation Dairy Cows, S. Walsh, Z. C. Mckay, M. Egan

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Spring grass availability has a major impact on dry matter intake (DMI) of dairy cows during early lactation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of opening farm cover (OFC) on DMI during early lactation. A twelve week experiment, which was split into two 6 week periods (Period 1 (Week 1 – 6) and period 2 (Week 7 – 12), was conducted over a two year period. A high and low OFC were established for two treatment groups; 1253 kg DM/ha (High grass = HG) and 887 kg DM/ha (Low grass = LG). Animals were randomly assigned …


Effects Of Stocking Rates On Water Use Efficiency Of Established Species In Stipa Breviflora Desert Steppe, M. Zhao, G. M. Yin, S. B. Liu, W. J. Meng 2024 Inner Mongolia Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, China

Effects Of Stocking Rates On Water Use Efficiency Of Established Species In Stipa Breviflora Desert Steppe, M. Zhao, G. M. Yin, S. B. Liu, W. J. Meng

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Plant water use efficiency reflects the survival adaptation strategies adopted by plants to obtain maximum carbon harvest. Understanding the water and resource utilization strategies of Stipa breviflora in desert steppe will help people understand its growth mechanism, and it is of great significance to analyze the ecological countermeasures of Stipa breviflora to cope with disturbance. In this study, the water use efficiency (WUE) of the established populations of Stipa breviflora in desert steppe was measured by stable carbon isotope method and photosynthometer method, and the adaptation mechanism of Stipa breviflora under different stocking rates was discussed based on the basic …


The Hindgut Microbiome Of Grazing Horses, J. R. Weinert, C. A. Williams 2024 Rutgers University

The Hindgut Microbiome Of Grazing Horses, J. R. Weinert, C. A. Williams

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

The hindgut microbiome plays an essential role in horses consuming forage-based diets high in fiber, such as pasture. The equine hindgut harbors a large microbial community that ferments dietary fiber and produces by-products which provide a substantial portion of daily energy requirements. Despite the importance in nutrition and health, research evaluating the hindgut microbiome of grazing horses is relatively limited. Grazing horse microbiome research has primarily focused on inter-diet comparisons with mixed diets including concentrates as well as with other forms of forage. Recent research has begun to explore responses of the gut microbiome to different pasture forage species and …


Horse And Pasture Responses To Stocking Methods: Rotational Versus Continuous, C. A. Williams, J. R. Weinert-Nelson 2024 Rutgers

Horse And Pasture Responses To Stocking Methods: Rotational Versus Continuous, C. A. Williams, J. R. Weinert-Nelson

IGC Proceedings (2001-2023)

Rotational grazing management offers potential advantages for economic and environmental sustainability, as well as for horse health. Rotational grazing has the potential to increase pasture yields and available forage for grazing, and therefore reduce supplemental feed costs. A rotational grazing management strategy can also prevent or mitigate negative effects of overgrazing, with implications for pasture productivity and the environment. Overgrazing can reduce vegetative cover over time, increasing the potential for erosion and nutrient run-off. Overgrazing may also result in long-term decreased forage stand persistence and weed invasion, necessitating more frequent pasture renovation. All of this can negatively impact the horse’s …


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