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The Use Of Antimicrobial Substances In Food Animals: The Big Picture, Thomas Blaha 2011 University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover

The Use Of Antimicrobial Substances In Food Animals: The Big Picture, Thomas Blaha

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The paper gives rather a broad overview on the development of the use of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics from there very beginning until today. The paper deals with scientific facts known in the medical and veterinary community, but also with speculations and “gut-feeling” demands of activist groups that criticise e.g. intensive animal production procedures as “factory farming”.


A New Advisory Tool To Help Practitioners Reduce Antibiotic Consumption In Pig Herds, Hanne Bak 2011 Boehringer-Ingelheim Inc.

A New Advisory Tool To Help Practitioners Reduce Antibiotic Consumption In Pig Herds, Hanne Bak

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The present paper descibes an advisory tool, Farm Facts, developed to assist veterinarians to reduce the consumption of antibiotics in pig herds. Farm Facts is a spreadsheet in three parts: The first part identifying the source of the main consumption in a herd, the second part giving a template for an action plan setting up a threshold for success, and the third part providing tables and graphs for follow-up according to the threshold after implementation of the action plan.


Garlic Reduces Effect Of Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae Infection In Pigs, Monique Mul, P. Becker, C. van der Peet-Schwering, N. Stockhofe-Zurwieden 2011 Wageningen University

Garlic Reduces Effect Of Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae Infection In Pigs, Monique Mul, P. Becker, C. Van Der Peet-Schwering, N. Stockhofe-Zurwieden

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Lung diseases in pigs are among the most important health problem in pig husbandry, and generally treated with antimicrobials. To reduce the amount of antimicrobials used in pigs, we tested the preventive effects of freeze dried garlic added to feed on an infection with Actinobacilluspleuropneumoniae (APP). Thirty male pigs of about seven weeks of age were aerosol challenged with APP serotype 2. Fifteen pigs received 5% (w/w) garlic added to their diet (Garlic group), from two days prior to infection until four days after infection. The others received the a standard diet (Control group).


Risk Management With Regard To Dioxin Residues In Pork Meat, Michael Kühne 2011 Lower Saxony Federal State Office for Food Safety and Consumer Protection

Risk Management With Regard To Dioxin Residues In Pork Meat, Michael Kühne

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Maximum levels for dioxins have been established in 2001 in feed (feed materials and compound feed) and food of animal origin (fish, meat, eggs, milk and derived products). They are in force since 1 January 2002. These maximum levels were complemented in 2006 with maximum levels for the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food. By the Regulation (EC) No 183/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 January 2005 feed business operators have to put in place, implement and maintain procedures based on the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles. This ...


Hev Inactivation Assessment Using Viable Virus, A. Berto, F. Martelli, W. H. M. van der Poel, M. Banks 2011 Veterinary Laboratories Agency

Hev Inactivation Assessment Using Viable Virus, A. Berto, F. Martelli, W. H. M. Van Der Poel, M. Banks

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Hepatitis E is an acute icteric hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV is transmitted by water supplies in developing countries. Recently, HEV contamination in consumption water was also observed in a developed country (France). HEV is detected in pigs and several other animal species (e.g. wild boars and deer) and it is strongly suspected to be zoonotic, HEV has also been detected in the pork production chain: in a study conducted in a grocery in the USA 11% of livers tested were HEV positive and similar data have been observed in Europe also.


Alternative Method For Knife Disinfection With Inspexx 200 Is More Efficient Than 82°C Water, Lourens Heres, Edward Verkaar 2011 VION Food Group

Alternative Method For Knife Disinfection With Inspexx 200 Is More Efficient Than 82°C Water, Lourens Heres, Edward Verkaar

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

EU regulations require disinfection of slaughter-equipment with water of at least 82ºC. However, according EU regulation 853/2004, an alternative system having an equivalent effect may be used when equivalence can be shown. Ecolab’s Inspexx© 200 (Inspexx) is a solution containing a stabilised blend of peracetic acid, peroctanoic acid and other organic acids – is shown to be an equivalent alternative. It is applied in water at ambient temperatures and does not need to be rinsed after application. A practical trial in a Dutch pork abattoir was performed to study whether Inspexx is adequately effective in disinfecting knives used at ...


Public Health Burden Of Exposure To Microbes And Parasites Originating From Pigs And Pork, Arie Havelaar 2011 Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment

Public Health Burden Of Exposure To Microbes And Parasites Originating From Pigs And Pork, Arie Havelaar

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The production and consumption of pork still is an important source of human illness. Quantifying the burden of illness requires the integration of data from a wide variety of sources. First, relevant hazards need to be identified, based on sources such as outbreaks of human illness, and the occurrence of pathogens in pigs, pork and pork products. Then, the incidence of disease due to these pathogens in the population must be assessed. Reported cases only reflect a minor part of all illness and there are different approaches to estimating underreporting factors. The health impact of different pathogens varies widely in ...


Evaluation Of The Potential Use Of Risk-Based Sampling To Surveillance Of Antibacterial Residues In Danish Pork, Lis Alban, F. M. Baptista, N. Toft, A.-M. Olsen, J. Petersen 2011 Danish Agriculture and Food Council

Evaluation Of The Potential Use Of Risk-Based Sampling To Surveillance Of Antibacterial Residues In Danish Pork, Lis Alban, F. M. Baptista, N. Toft, A.-M. Olsen, J. Petersen

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Consumers consider presence of chemical substances in food products as undesirable. In Denmark, more than 20,000 samples are analysed each year for presence of antibacterial residues in Danish slaughter pigs, and these surveillance data indicate that the true antibacterial residue prevalence in Danish slaughter pigs is negligible. The question has been raised whether it would be possible to improve the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance programme. This was addressed in this study.


Modelling Of Salmonella Dynamics In The Pig Slaughterhouse, A. N. Swart, E. Evers, R. R. L. Simons, A. A. Hill, Tine Hald, E. L. Snary 2011 Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment

Modelling Of Salmonella Dynamics In The Pig Slaughterhouse, A. N. Swart, E. Evers, R. R. L. Simons, A. A. Hill, Tine Hald, E. L. Snary

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The burden of Salmonella entering pig slaughterhouses across the European Union (EU) is considered to be of public health significance. Therefore, targets will be set for each EU Member State (MS) to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella infection in pigs at slaughter. In order to meet the set target, each MS will need to develop a National Control Plan (NCP).


A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment For Salmonella Transmission In Pigs In Individual Eu Member States, A. A. Hill, E. L. Snary, R. R. L. Simons, A. N. Swart, H. Vigre, A. R. Domingues, Tine Hald, E. Evers, J. Tennant, S. Denman, L. Kelly 2011 Veterinary Laboratories Agency

A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment For Salmonella Transmission In Pigs In Individual Eu Member States, A. A. Hill, E. L. Snary, R. R. L. Simons, A. N. Swart, H. Vigre, A. R. Domingues, Tine Hald, E. Evers, J. Tennant, S. Denman, L. Kelly

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

A farm-to-consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of reductions of slaughter-pig prevalence and the impact of important control measures applied at the farm and during transport, lairage and slaughter on the number of human cases of salmonellosis.


Ranking Of Food Safety Risks In Pork From Organic And Free-Range Production Systems, M. Sandberg, C. Nygaard, Lis Alban 2011 Danish Agriculture and Food Council

Ranking Of Food Safety Risks In Pork From Organic And Free-Range Production Systems, M. Sandberg, C. Nygaard, Lis Alban

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The objectives of this semi-quantitative risk assessment were to identify, assess and rank food safety risks in outdoor pig production (organic and free-range) compared to indoor pig production (conventional) in Denmark. In addition, high-risk pork products would be identified. Finally, risk-reducing strategies for handling the identified agents would be suggested. Data were obtained from the literature as well as in-house statistics. Data describing tetracycline-resistant E. coli in outdoor pigs were available from the Qualysafe project. The OIE framework for risk assessment was applied.


National Baseline Surveys To Characterise Processing Hygiene And Microbial Hazards Of Australian Culled Sow Meat, Retail Pork Sausages And Retail Pork Mince, D. Hamilton, G. Holds, G. Smith, R. Flint, M. Lorimer, D. Davos, A. Kiermeier, A. Pointon 2011 South Australian Research and Development Institute

National Baseline Surveys To Characterise Processing Hygiene And Microbial Hazards Of Australian Culled Sow Meat, Retail Pork Sausages And Retail Pork Mince, D. Hamilton, G. Holds, G. Smith, R. Flint, M. Lorimer, D. Davos, A. Kiermeier, A. Pointon

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Pork products were sampled at retail to determine the impact of further processing on hazard levels to which consumers may be exposed, compared to carcases. Surveys of 116 fresh pork sausages and 148 fresh pork mince samples were purchased from supermarkets (n=87, n=105) and butcher shops (n=29, n=43), respectively. For sausages, concentrations of TVC averaged 4.6 log10 cfu/g.


Modelling The Use Of Different Enforcement Strategies To Improve Food Safety, Esther van Asselt, Piet Sterrenburg, Sjoukje Osinga 2011 Wageningen University

Modelling The Use Of Different Enforcement Strategies To Improve Food Safety, Esther Van Asselt, Piet Sterrenburg, Sjoukje Osinga

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

According to the General Food Law, food producers are responsible for the production of safe products. Safe in this regard is often interpreted as compliance to EU food safety legislation. The level of compliance between companies differs and can be improved by measures such as education or sanctions. In order to determine the effectiveness of various enforcement strategies on the level of compliance we developed a simulation tool using Agent Based Modelling (ABM) as a method.


Association Between Serological Salmonella Monitoring In Breeding Herds And Meat-Juice Prevalence In Sow Herds With Production Of Finishers, Jan Dahl 2011 Danish Agriculture and Food Council

Association Between Serological Salmonella Monitoring In Breeding Herds And Meat-Juice Prevalence In Sow Herds With Production Of Finishers, Jan Dahl

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Several epidemiological studies have studied risk factors for salmonella infections in finisher pigs. Most of these studies have focused on the risk for having a high prevalence, measured either bacteriologically or serologically. Surveillance programs have been implemented in several European countries, measuring the salmonella prevalence in meat-juice samples. The rationale is that herds should decrease the salmonella prevalence by instituting salmonella reducing production and management strategies, including hygiene, all in-all out production and manipulating the gut flora by the use of organic acids, fermented liquid feed and coarse ground, non-pelleted feed.


Salmonella In Pigs And Pork And Their Antimicrobial Resistance - 10 Years Of Surveillance In Germany, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen, A. Käsbohrer, R. Helmuth, K. Heckenbach, C. Dorn, B. Appel, A. Schroeter 2011 German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

Salmonella In Pigs And Pork And Their Antimicrobial Resistance - 10 Years Of Surveillance In Germany, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen, A. Käsbohrer, R. Helmuth, K. Heckenbach, C. Dorn, B. Appel, A. Schroeter

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Salmonella from pigs and pork have been submitted to the National Reference Laboratory for the Analysis and Testing of Zoonoses (Salmonella) (NRL Salm) for a number of years. This study retrospectively analyses the data of Salmonella and their antimicrobial resistance generated between 2000 and 2009. A total of 4163 isolates from pigs and 1839 isolates from pork submitted to the NRL Salm were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial resistance using the broth microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were evaluated using epidemiological cut-off values as provided by EUCAST (www.eucast.org) at the time of interpretation (2010). The majority of ...


Use Of Heavy Metals In Swine Feed And Its Association With The Co-Selection Of Metal Tolerant And Multi-Drug Resistant Salmonella, Wondwossen A. Gebreyes, B. Molla, M. Nicol, Melanie Abley, P. Rajala-Schultz 2011 Ohio State University

Use Of Heavy Metals In Swine Feed And Its Association With The Co-Selection Of Metal Tolerant And Multi-Drug Resistant Salmonella, Wondwossen A. Gebreyes, B. Molla, M. Nicol, Melanie Abley, P. Rajala-Schultz

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

This study was conducted to characterize the role of chemical interventions, biocides and heavy metal micronutrients, in particular, in swine production systems on the emergence of heavy metal and biocide tolerant Salmonella and its association with antimicrobial resistance. A total of 353 Salmonella isolates with different antimicrobial resistance profiles identified from 36 barns exposed to three different classes of biocides were analyzed. The sources of isolates included feed (n=30), fecal (n=226), and environment (n=97) samples that were systematically selected.


Case Studies: Tuberculination In Pig Herds Suspected Of Infection With Mycobacterium Avium, D. Oorburg, H. J. Wisselink, C. B. van Solt-Smits, A. Hiller, Lourens Heres, B. A.-P. Urlings 2011 Wageningen University

Case Studies: Tuberculination In Pig Herds Suspected Of Infection With Mycobacterium Avium, D. Oorburg, H. J. Wisselink, C. B. Van Solt-Smits, A. Hiller, Lourens Heres, B. A.-P. Urlings

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Mycobacterium avium, both subspecies hominissuis (MAH) and subsp avium (MAA), are considered a significant zoonotic hazard in pigs. Therefore special attention is given to detect the presence of this hazard in pigs during post mortem meat inspection. Herds delivered at slaughter were monitored on blood antibodies against MAH. Herds with an antibody response against a MAH infection were visited. Initially a questionnaire assessing relevant risk factors for MAH was applied.


A Retrospective Analysis Of Salmonella Isolation Trends From Pigs In Great Britain Since 1994, With Special Reference To Monophasic S. Typhimurium And Antimicrobial Resistance Trends , Doris Mueller-Doblies, K. Speed, R. H. Davies 2011 Veterinary Laboratories Agency

A Retrospective Analysis Of Salmonella Isolation Trends From Pigs In Great Britain Since 1994, With Special Reference To Monophasic S. Typhimurium And Antimicrobial Resistance Trends , Doris Mueller-Doblies, K. Speed, R. H. Davies

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The numbers of Salmonella reports from pigs in Great Britain have reduced considerably since the mid- 1990s, when up to 384 positive epidemiological group reports (incidents) per year were recorded, and numbers have been relatively stable since 2003 with less than 200 incidents reported per year. S. Typhimurium has been the most common serovar throughout the study period (between 58 and 75% of incidents). S. Derby, which was the second most common serovar for many years, has shown a downward trend since 2007, accounting only for 5% of incidents in 2009. At the same time, monophasic strains of S. Typhimurium ...


Clostridium Difficile In Pork And Retail Meat In Texas, Roger B. Harvey, Keri N. Norman, Kathleen Andrews, Bo Norby, Michael E. Hume, H. Morgan Scott 2011 United States Department of Agriculture

Clostridium Difficile In Pork And Retail Meat In Texas, Roger B. Harvey, Keri N. Norman, Kathleen Andrews, Bo Norby, Michael E. Hume, H. Morgan Scott

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile (Cd) have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains of Cd. Toxigenic Cd has been isolated from food and animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to humans.


Salmonella Sp. In Edible Offal (Liver And Tongue) From Pigs Slaughtered For Consumption, M. Vieira-Pinto, M. J. Vieira, M. Fontes, M. C. Fontes, P. Themudo, T. Semedo-Lemsaddek 2011 Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro

Salmonella Sp. In Edible Offal (Liver And Tongue) From Pigs Slaughtered For Consumption, M. Vieira-Pinto, M. J. Vieira, M. Fontes, M. C. Fontes, P. Themudo, T. Semedo-Lemsaddek

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

During this study, 120 samples from slaughtered pigs (tongue swabs, n=40; liver swabs, n=40; liver parenchyma, n=40) were collected in a slaughterhouse. Salmonella sp. was isolated using conventional microbiological methods and strains were analyzed using serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and macrorestriction profiling (MRP) by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), to identify clonal relationships and potential contamination sources.


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