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Soybean Homologs Of Mpk4 Negatively Regulate Defense Responses And Positively Regulate Growth And Development, Jian-Zhong Liu, Heidi D. Horstman, Edward J. Braun, Michelle Graham, Chunquan Zhang, Duroy Navarre, Wen-Li Qiu, Yeunsook Lee, Dan Nettleton, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham 2011 Iowa State University

Soybean Homologs Of Mpk4 Negatively Regulate Defense Responses And Positively Regulate Growth And Development, Jian-Zhong Liu, Heidi D. Horstman, Edward J. Braun, Michelle Graham, Chunquan Zhang, Duroy Navarre, Wen-Li Qiu, Yeunsook Lee, Dan Nettleton, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in disease resistance in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). However, the importance of MAPK signaling pathways in the disease resistance of crops is still largely uninvestigated. To better understand the role of MAPK signaling pathways in disease resistance in soybean (Glycine max), 13, nine, and 10 genes encoding distinct MAPKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKKKs, respectively, were silenced using virus-induced gene silencing mediated by Bean pod mottle virus. Among the plants silenced for various MAPKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKKKs, those in which GmMAPK4 homologs (GmMPK4s) were silenced displayed ...


Functional Analysis Of The Asian Soybean Rust Resistance Pathway Mediated By Rpp2, Ajay K. Pandey, Chunling Yang, Chunquan Zhang, Michelle Graham, Heidi D. Horstman, Yeunsook Lee, Olga Zabotina, John H. Hill, Kerry F. Pedley, Steven A. Whitham 2011 United States Department of Agriculture

Functional Analysis Of The Asian Soybean Rust Resistance Pathway Mediated By Rpp2, Ajay K. Pandey, Chunling Yang, Chunquan Zhang, Michelle Graham, Heidi D. Horstman, Yeunsook Lee, Olga Zabotina, John H. Hill, Kerry F. Pedley, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Asian soybean rust is an aggressive foliar disease caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi. On susceptible plants, the pathogen penetrates and colonizes leaf tissue, resulting in the formation of necrotic lesions and the development of numerous uredinia. The soybean Rpp2 gene confers resistance to specific isolates of P. pachyrhizi. Rpp2-mediated resistance limits the growth of the pathogen and is characterized by the formation of reddish-brown lesions and few uredinia. Using virus-induced gene silencing, we screened 140 candidate genes to identify those that play a role in Rpp2 resistance toward P. pachyrhizi. Candidate genes included putative orthologs to ...


Arabidopsis Monothiol Glutaredoxin, Atgrxs17, Is Critical For Temperature-Dependent Postembryonic Growth And Development Via Modulating Auxin Response, Ning-Hui Cheng, Jian-Zhong Liu, Xing Liu, Qingyu Wu, Sean M. Thompson, Julie Lin, Joyce Chang, Steven A. Whitham, Sunghun Park, Jerry D. Cohen, Kendal D. Hirschi 2011 United States Department of Agriculture

Arabidopsis Monothiol Glutaredoxin, Atgrxs17, Is Critical For Temperature-Dependent Postembryonic Growth And Development Via Modulating Auxin Response, Ning-Hui Cheng, Jian-Zhong Liu, Xing Liu, Qingyu Wu, Sean M. Thompson, Julie Lin, Joyce Chang, Steven A. Whitham, Sunghun Park, Jerry D. Cohen, Kendal D. Hirschi

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Global environmental temperature changes threaten innumerable plant species. Although various signaling networks regulate plant responses to temperature fluctuations, the mechanisms unifying these diverse processes are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that an Arabidopsis monothiol glutaredoxin, AtGRXS17 (At4g04950), plays a critical role in redox homeostasis and hormone perception to mediate temperature-dependent postembryonic growth. AtGRXS17 expression was induced by elevated temperatures. Lines altered in AtGRXS17 expression were hypersensitive to elevated temperatures and phenocopied mutants altered in the perception of the phytohormone auxin. We show that auxin sensitivity and polar auxin transport were perturbed in these mutants, whereas auxin biosynthesis was not altered ...


Sampling For Plant-Parasitic Nematodes In Corn Strip Trials Comparing Nematode Management Products, Gregory L. Tylka, Timothy C. Todd, Terry L. Niblack, Ann E. MacGuidwin, Tamra Jackson 2011 Iowa State University

Sampling For Plant-Parasitic Nematodes In Corn Strip Trials Comparing Nematode Management Products, Gregory L. Tylka, Timothy C. Todd, Terry L. Niblack, Ann E. Macguidwin, Tamra Jackson

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Protectant seed treatments are a new management option for plant-parasitic nematodes that feed on corn. Avicta from Syngenta Crop Protection became widely available for use on corn in the United States in the 2010 growing season, and Votivo from Bayer CropScience is now available for use on corn in the 2011 growing season. Many growers and agribusiness personnel working for co-ops, grain elevators, and seed and chemical companies are conducting strip-trial comparisons of nematode seed treatments in growers’ fields. Yield monitors in combines and/or weigh wagons can be used to collect yield data from multiplerow strips that stretch across ...


Testing For Plant-Parasitic Nematodes That Feed On Corn In Iowa 2000-2010, Gregory L. Tylka, Adam J. Sisson, Laura C. Jesse, John Kennicker, Christopher C. Marett 2011 Iowa State University

Testing For Plant-Parasitic Nematodes That Feed On Corn In Iowa 2000-2010, Gregory L. Tylka, Adam J. Sisson, Laura C. Jesse, John Kennicker, Christopher C. Marett

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The Iowa State University Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic analyzes soil and root samples for plant-parasitic nematodes. The results of samples associated with corn that were submitted from 2000 through 2010 were summarized. One or more genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 92% of the samples. Spiral nematode and root-lesion nematode were most commonly found. Other nematodes recovered were dagger, lance, needle, pin, ring, and stunt nematodes. Nematodes recovered at damaging population densities were dagger, needle, ring, and spiral nematodes. An average of 15 samples were submitted per year from 2000 to 2004. Sample numbers increased nearly threefold since ...


Lea Proteins During Water Stress : Not Just For Plants Anymore., Steven Hand, Michael Menze, Mehmet Toner, Leaf Boswell, Daniel Moore 2011 Louisiana State University

Lea Proteins During Water Stress : Not Just For Plants Anymore., Steven Hand, Michael Menze, Mehmet Toner, Leaf Boswell, Daniel Moore

Faculty Scholarship

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are extremely hydrophilic proteins that were first identified in land plants. Intracellular accumulation is tightly correlated with acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and data support their capacity to stabilize other proteins and membranes during drying, especially in the presence of sugars like trehalose. Exciting reports now show LEA proteins are not restricted to plants; multiple forms are expressed in desiccation-tolerant animals from at least four phyla. We evaluate here the expression, subcellular localization, biochemical properties and potential functions of LEA proteins in animal species during water stress. LEA proteins are intrinsically unstructured in aqueous solution, but ...


Modernization Of Meat Inspection, S. Buncic 2011 University of Novi Sad

Modernization Of Meat Inspection, S. Buncic

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Current pig meat inspection still has significant value in detecting and controlling hazards related to animal welfare, animal health and meat quality, but public health-relevant hazards detected largely include those that are transmitted to humans primarily via routes other than eating pork or lack evidence of causing human disease via pork consumption. On the other hand, the main pork safety hazards presently causing the majority of human foodborne illness (e.g. enteric pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia), or causing serious concerns (e.g. protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii) do not cause any lesions observable by the current meat inspection.


Evaluation Of The Usefulness Of Carcass-Weight, Meat-Percentage Or Identity Of Pig-Producer In Future-Risk-Based Meat Inspection, M. Sandberg, Lis Alban, B. Stenberg 2011 Danish Agriculture and Food Council

Evaluation Of The Usefulness Of Carcass-Weight, Meat-Percentage Or Identity Of Pig-Producer In Future-Risk-Based Meat Inspection, M. Sandberg, Lis Alban, B. Stenberg

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

In the search for new and risk-based ways of conducting meat inspection, a pilot study was conducted with the amin of investigating whether carcass weight in combination with meat percentage, or producer-identity could be used as indicators for rejection of finisher pig carcasses.


State Of Art Of Meat Inspection Of Pigs In The Eu, Lis Alban, B. Steenberg, A.-M. Olsen, J. V. Petersen, F. Thune-Stephensen 2011 Danish Agriculture and Food Council

State Of Art Of Meat Inspection Of Pigs In The Eu, Lis Alban, B. Steenberg, A.-M. Olsen, J. V. Petersen, F. Thune-Stephensen

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The current meat inspection in the European Union (EU) is based on principles that are around 100 years old. However, the zoonotic hazards have shifted and the production systems for livestock are changing. This makes it necessary to look at whether the present way of conducting meat inspection is efficient or not.


Risk-Based Meat Inspection: Implementation Experiences In Germany And Integration Of Animal-Oriented Welfare Criteria , D. Meemken, G. Klein, Thomas Blaha 2011 University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover

Risk-Based Meat Inspection: Implementation Experiences In Germany And Integration Of Animal-Oriented Welfare Criteria , D. Meemken, G. Klein, Thomas Blaha

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The paper describes the experiences from seven pilot projects in Germany on implementing the risk-based meat inspection: analysing the status quo per slaughter house, defining the specific risks of the region of the supplying herds, creating the preconditions for recording and exchanging a meaningful set of data for the food chain information including animal health and welfare criteria, training of risk-oriented logistic slaughter and adding targeted inspection procedures in case of increased food safety risks indicated for entire herds or slaughter batches.


Experiences With A Risk Based Meat Inspection Standard In Pigs, Derk Oorburg, A. Hiller, G. Schulze-Althoff, Lourens Heres, B. A.-P. Urlings 2011 Wageningen University

Experiences With A Risk Based Meat Inspection Standard In Pigs, Derk Oorburg, A. Hiller, G. Schulze-Althoff, Lourens Heres, B. A.-P. Urlings

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The European Union legislation provides several possibilities to modernize meat inspection. Improvement of food safety by active contribution of food business operators in the supply chain being responsible for food safety is envisaged in these new standards.


Application Of The Diva Principle To Salmonella Typhimurium Vaccines In Pigs Avoids Interference With Serosurveillance Programmes, Bregje Leyman, Filip Boyen, Alexander van Parys, Elin Verbrugghe, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans 2011 Ghent University

Application Of The Diva Principle To Salmonella Typhimurium Vaccines In Pigs Avoids Interference With Serosurveillance Programmes, Bregje Leyman, Filip Boyen, Alexander Van Parys, Elin Verbrugghe, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases in humans and Salmonella infections are often linked with the consumption of contaminated pork. In order to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium infections in humans, minimization of the Salmonella intake into the food chain is important.


Transmission Study Of Salmonella In Pigs With 3 Intervention Strategies, L. de Ridder, Dominiek Maes, J. Dewulf, F. Pasmans, Filip Boyen, E. Méroc, P. Butaye, Y. van der Stede 2011 CODA-CERVA

Transmission Study Of Salmonella In Pigs With 3 Intervention Strategies, L. De Ridder, Dominiek Maes, J. Dewulf, F. Pasmans, Filip Boyen, E. Méroc, P. Butaye, Y. Van Der Stede

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

In this study, the effect of 3 different intervention strategies on the transmission of Salmonella in pigs was evaluated: feed supplementation with coated calcium-butyrate salt, vaccination and acidified drinking water. Strategies were evaluated serologically and bacteriologically using an experimental in vivo seeder setup. Significantly higher antibody titers were detected in the groups with acidified drinking water and vaccination.


A Farm Transmission Model For Salmonella In Pigs For Individual Eu Member States, A. Hill, A. Swart, L. Kelly, Tine Hald, E. Snary 2011 Veterinary Laboratories Agency

A Farm Transmission Model For Salmonella In Pigs For Individual Eu Member States, A. Hill, A. Swart, L. Kelly, Tine Hald, E. Snary

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

The burden of Salmonella entering pig slaughterhouses across the European Union (EU) is considered to be of public health significance. Therefore, targets will be set for each EU Member State (MS) to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs at slaughter. As part of the evidence base for the development of National Control Plans (NCPs), a Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) was funded to support the scientific opinion required by the EC from the European Food Safety Authority, and subsequently adopted by the BIOHAZ panel.


Risk-Mitigation For Antimicrobial Resistance In Danish Swine Herds At A National Level, M. Andreasen, Lis Alban, Jan Dahl, A. C. Nielsen 2011 Danish Agriculture and Food Council

Risk-Mitigation For Antimicrobial Resistance In Danish Swine Herds At A National Level, M. Andreasen, Lis Alban, Jan Dahl, A. C. Nielsen

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

In Denmark, actions to mitigate the risk related to antimicrobial resistance have been put in place continuously. Due to an increase in the consumption of antimicrobials in the Danish pig production further actions were implemented in July 2010. These were: a voluntary ban on use of cephalosporin in Danish swine herds for a 2-year period and a so-called “Yellow card” scheme from the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA). Farmers with the highest use of antibiotics receive a Yellow Card. Approximately 10% of Danish herds are above the yellow card threshold value. The consumption in pigs is evaluated as animal ...


Association Between Salmonella Sp. And Yersinia Enterocolitica Infection In Swine, E. Shaw, Julie A. Funk, A. Plovanich-Jones 2011 Michigan State University

Association Between Salmonella Sp. And Yersinia Enterocolitica Infection In Swine, E. Shaw, Julie A. Funk, A. Plovanich-Jones

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Swine are known reservoirs for both Salmonella and Yersinia enterocolitica. Both are foodborne pathogens and can result in zoonotic disease if contamination of pork products occurs during harvest. The epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica and Salmonella in swine is not well understood. Previous reports from experimental studies in mice suggest that, vai quorum-sensing, Salmonella detects Y. enterocolitical signals, increasing Salmonella colonization.


Aerial Dissemination Of Clostridium Difficile Spores Inside And Outside A Pig Farm, E. C. Keessen, C. J. Donswijk, C. Hermanus, E. J. Kuijper, L. J. A. Lipman 2011 Utrecht University

Aerial Dissemination Of Clostridium Difficile Spores Inside And Outside A Pig Farm, E. C. Keessen, C. J. Donswijk, C. Hermanus, E. J. Kuijper, L. J. A. Lipman

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

In both human and veterinary medicine Clostridium difficile infections are increasingly reported. The observation that aerial dissemination occurs in a hospital environment and can pla a role in the transmission of human C. difficile infection, resulted in the present study to the occurence of airborne C. difficile in, and nearby a pig farm with a high prevalence of C. difficile.


Stress Induced Salmonella Typhimurium Re-Excretion By Pigs Is Associated With Cortisol Induced Increased Intracellular Proliferation In Porcine Macrophages, E. Verbrugghe, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, Bregje Leyman, K. van Deun, A. Thompson, N. Shearer, Alexander van Parys, F. Pasmans 2011 Ghent University

Stress Induced Salmonella Typhimurium Re-Excretion By Pigs Is Associated With Cortisol Induced Increased Intracellular Proliferation In Porcine Macrophages, E. Verbrugghe, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, Bregje Leyman, K. Van Deun, A. Thompson, N. Shearer, Alexander Van Parys, F. Pasmans

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Infections of pigs with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur.


Genetic Characterization Of Yersinia Enterocolitica Collected From Tonsils Of Slaughtered Pigs, Martine Denis, M. Fondrevez, A. Labbé, C. Houdayer 2011 French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety

Genetic Characterization Of Yersinia Enterocolitica Collected From Tonsils Of Slaughtered Pigs, Martine Denis, M. Fondrevez, A. Labbé, C. Houdayer

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

From January to March 2009, detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was done from 900 tonsils swabs collected from 45 pig batches in one slaughterhouse. 316 Y. enterocolitica isolates were collected and confirmed as pathogenic biotype by biochemical tests. For this study, these strains were genetically characterized on the basis of their virulence genes and their PFGE profiles. Real Time PCR was used to evaluate the presence of genes ail, myfA, and ystA on the genome and the gene yadA on the pYV plasmid. PFGE analysis using XbaI enzyme was also realised.


The Infection Biology Of Pig-Associated Salmonella, G. Crayford, P. Wigley, T. Humphrey 2011 University of Liverpool

The Infection Biology Of Pig-Associated Salmonella, G. Crayford, P. Wigley, T. Humphrey

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Through the use of an establishe dline of porcine intestinal epithelial cells, known as IPEC-1, this in vitro work examines the initial adhesion, invasion and persistence abilities of different Salmonella serovars and phage types, including multiresistant and monophasic S. typhimurium DT193 isolates. The resultant innate immune response of the porcine cells to the isolates is assessed through determination of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 concentrations present in cell culture supernatants.


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