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Host Cell Attachment By Lyme Disease And Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: A Dissertation, Vivian M. Benoit 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Host Cell Attachment By Lyme Disease And Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: A Dissertation, Vivian M. Benoit

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Host cell attachment by pathogenic bacteria can play very different roles in the course of infection. The pathogenic spirochetes Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato which cause relapsing fever and Lyme disease, respectively, are transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. After transmission, these spirochetes can cause systemic infection. Relapsing fever spirochetes remain largely in the bloodstream causing febrile episodes, while Lyme disease will often colonize a variety of tissues, such as the heart, joint and nervous system, resulting in a chronic multisystemic disorder. Borrelia species have the ability to bind to various cell types, a process which plays ...


Gender And Color Specific Differences In Event Related Potentials, Abhishek Trikha 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

Gender And Color Specific Differences In Event Related Potentials, Abhishek Trikha

All Theses and Dissertations

This project analyzed gender and color-specific differences in event-related potentials (ERPs). Previous studies have shown that males process color differently than females. In a recent study, sex differences were found in ERPs during a visual object recognition task. There were higher EEG amplitudes in females (especially P300) than males. Significant sex and color-specific differences have been found in diseases involving altered dopamine (DA) machinery. Thus, we analyzed differences between ERPs in males vs females during a color task. We also compared the color-specific differences in ERPs between males and females. Males and females participated in EEG recording sessions for 2 ...


Differential Gene Expression In Bugula Neritina During Symbiotic Association With "Candidatus Endobugula Sertula", Meril Mathew 2010 Georgia State University

Differential Gene Expression In Bugula Neritina During Symbiotic Association With "Candidatus Endobugula Sertula", Meril Mathew

Biology Theses

The colonial marine bryozoan, Bugula neritina, harbors an uncultured endosymbiont, “Candidatus Endobugula sertula” throughout its life stages. The bacterial symbiont has been proposed to be a source of complex polyketide metabolites, the bryostatins, that chemically defend B. neritina larvae from predation. Within a bryozoan colony, significantly higher amounts of bryostatins are found in ovicell-bearing zooids where the developing larvae are brooded, as compared to ovicell-free zooids. It is hypothesized that signaling between B. neritina and “Ca. Endobugula sertula” may be involved in the regulation of bryostatin production in different zooids, as well as in maintenance of the symbiosis. In this ...


The Effects Of Selective Estrogenic Drugs In The Medial Amygdala On Male Rat Sexual Behavior, Ejiroghene V. Ogaga-Mgbonyebi 2010 Georgia State University

The Effects Of Selective Estrogenic Drugs In The Medial Amygdala On Male Rat Sexual Behavior, Ejiroghene V. Ogaga-Mgbonyebi

Biology Theses

Male rat copulatory behavior is dependent on Testosterone (T) and its metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, ERα and ERβ, exist in the medial Amygdala (MEA) and either receptor might mediate mating behavior. Therefore, the effects of selective estrogenic MEA implants: propyl pyrazole triol (PPT, ERα agonist), diarylpropionitrile (DPN, ERβ agonist), and 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP, ERα antagonist) were compared to E2 in maintaining sexual behavior. Four groups of male rats were castrated and administered DHT s.c. and bilateral MEA implants containing either cholesterol, E2, PPT or DPN. An additional group of gonadally intact male ...


Serum Vitamin Concentrations Are Associated With Metabolic Syndrome And Insulin Resistance In Us Children, Nida I. Shaikh 2010 Georgia State University

Serum Vitamin Concentrations Are Associated With Metabolic Syndrome And Insulin Resistance In Us Children, Nida I. Shaikh

Nutrition Theses

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a concern in the US. Association between vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance (IR), and inflammation is unclear in children. Objective: The relationship between serum vitamin D and MetS, C-reactive protein (CRP), and Homeostatic Model Assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) was investigated. Design: Data from 3 cycles of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2006 for 3700 (1820, boys; 1880, girls) children and adolescents, aged 12-17 y were used to assess prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng>/mL) and association between serum vitamin D and prevalence of MetS, various components of MetS, CRP, and HOMA-IR using ...


The Effectiveness Of A Short Food Frequency Questionnaire In Determining The Adequacy Of Vitamin D Intake In Children, Caitlin Russell 2010 Georgia State University

The Effectiveness Of A Short Food Frequency Questionnaire In Determining The Adequacy Of Vitamin D Intake In Children, Caitlin Russell

Nutrition Theses

Background: Studies have consistently found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents. Few validated dietary intake assessment tools for vitamin D exist for adolescents.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can be used to effectively assess vitamin D intake in adolescents compared to a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ).

Participants/setting: 140 healthy 6-12 year old (male n=81) Caucasian and African American (n=94) children from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania completed a SFFQ and LFFQ at two time points 6 months apart.

Main outcome measures: Reliability and ...


Food Store Audits: Examining Food Price, Availability, And Quailty, Before And After Relocation Of Public Housing Residents, Anjenique Anderson 2010 Georgia State University

Food Store Audits: Examining Food Price, Availability, And Quailty, Before And After Relocation Of Public Housing Residents, Anjenique Anderson

Nutrition Theses

In an effort to deconcentrate poverty, Atlanta is attempting to become the first city in the U.S. to completely eliminate public housing by relocating ≈ 10,000 residents. Research has shown that the health status of public housing residents is worse than any other population. Evidence also suggests that there is an inverse relationship between neighborhood availability of healthy, affordable foods and diet intake. The aim of this study was to compare the price, availability, and quality of food items in the public housing residents’ communities, before and after relocation. Using Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS), a total of 42 ...


Development Of A Methodology To Attain High Levels Of Storage Proteins In Cassava Tuberized Roots And Its Implications, Mohammad Abhary 2010 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Development Of A Methodology To Attain High Levels Of Storage Proteins In Cassava Tuberized Roots And Its Implications, Mohammad Abhary

Dissertations

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, cultivated in the tropics and subtropical areas as a staple food crop for more than 700 million people around the world. The starchy storage roots of cassava are rich in calories and deficient in all other nutrients, cassava meals has the lowest of all sources of dietary protein. Severe protein deficiencies and malnutrition problems are common among those who rely on cassava as their daily meal. Although cassava is ranked the fifth most important crop in the world, the research on this crop is very limited. Among the limited ...


Immunity, Pathogenesis, And Prevention Of Poxvirus Infections: A Dissertation, Mina O. Seedhom 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Immunity, Pathogenesis, And Prevention Of Poxvirus Infections: A Dissertation, Mina O. Seedhom

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Vaccinia virus (VAC) is the prototypical member of the orthopoxvirus genus of the poxvirus family and the virus used for smallpox vaccinations. The following describes the testing of VAC variants designed to have similar immuno-protective profiles with decreased pathogenicity, examines the immune response to VAC after lethal infection in wild type and lupus-prone mice, and describes a method that allows for the enumeration of VAC-specific CD8+ T in naïve and VAC-immune mice.

The first part describes work examining VAC Wyeth (VAC-Wy) variants engineered to be less pathogenic in vivo. VAC-Wy variants included genes that code for three immunomodulatory proteins, an ...


The Effect Of Passive Stretching And Isometric Contractions On Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness After A Typical Bout Of Exercise, John W. Gibson 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

The Effect Of Passive Stretching And Isometric Contractions On Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness After A Typical Bout Of Exercise, John W. Gibson

All Theses and Dissertations

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) is a common response to activities involving lengthening contractions. Muscle inflammation is associated with DOMS and may play an integral role in protecting a muscle from damage and soreness in response to subsequent bouts of lengthening contractions. Research in animals has shown that prior exposure to passive stretching and isometric contractions of a muscle resulting in muscle inflammation attenuates the muscle inflammatory response following subsequent bouts of lengthening contractions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether passive stretching and isometric contractions in humans would reduce DOMS following a typical bout of resistance exercise ...


Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Silanes And Patterning On Silicon, Feng Zhang 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Silanes And Patterning On Silicon, Feng Zhang

All Theses and Dissertations

Self assembled monolayers (SAMs) are widely used for surface modification. Alkylsilane monolayers are one of the most widely deposited and studied SAMs. My work focuses on the preparation, patterning, and application of alkysilane monolayers. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) is one of the most popular silanes used to make active surfaces for surface modification. To possibly improve the surface physical properties and increase options for processing this material, I prepared and studied a series of amino silane surfaces on silicon/silicon dioxide from APTES and two other related silanes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). I also explored CVD of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane on silicon and ...


The Effects Of Chronic Ampk Activation On Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation And Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferaseactivity With High Fat Feeding, Mary E. Curtis 2010 Brigham Young University - Provo

The Effects Of Chronic Ampk Activation On Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation And Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferaseactivity With High Fat Feeding, Mary E. Curtis

All Theses and Dissertations

High fat feeding increases hepatic fat accumulation and is associated with hepatic insulin resistance. AMP Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is thought to inhibit lipid synthesis by the acute inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) activity and transcriptional regulation via SREBP-1c. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic activation of AMPK prevented an increase in GPAT1 activity in rats fed a high fat diet. Rats were fed a control (C), or a high fat (HF) diet (60% fat) for 6 weeks and injected with saline or a daily AICAR dose of 0.5 mg/g body weight. Chronic AMPK ...


Crop Advantage Series Provides Latest Crop Production Information, Brent A. Pringnitz 2010 Iowa State University

Crop Advantage Series Provides Latest Crop Production Information, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

Anyone involved in Iowa crop production should plan to attend a 2011 Crop Advantage Series meeting. The meetings provide information to help producers make profitable decisions for the upcoming growing season. Sponsored by Iowa State University Extension, the meetings will be held at 14 locations across Iowa in January.


Isu Extension Offers Soil Fertility Short Course, Brent A. Pringnitz 2010 Iowa State University

Isu Extension Offers Soil Fertility Short Course, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

With high input costs and volatile nutrient prices it is more important than ever to make sound management soil fertility decisions. ISU Extension will be offering a two-day short course focusing on principles of soils, soil fertility and nutrient management to help crop production professionals make informed decisions. In addition to classroom work, attendees will visit the ISU Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory.


Changes In Soil Respiration Across A Chronosequence Of Tallgrass Prairie Reconstructions, Ryan M. Maher, Heidi Asbjornsen, Randall K. Kolka, Cynthia A. Cambardella, James W. Raich 2010 Iowa State University

Changes In Soil Respiration Across A Chronosequence Of Tallgrass Prairie Reconstructions, Ryan M. Maher, Heidi Asbjornsen, Randall K. Kolka, Cynthia A. Cambardella, James W. Raich

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Close relationships among climatic factors and soil respiration (Rs) are commonly reported. However, variation in Rs across the landscape is compounded by site-specific differences that impede the development of spatially explicit models. Among factors that influence Rs, the effect of ecosystem age is poorly documented. We hypothesized that Rs increases with grassland age and tested this hypothesis in a chronosequence of tallgrass prairie reconstructions in central Iowa, U.S.A. We also assessed changes in root biomass, root ingrowth, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the strength of soil temperature and moisture in predicting Rs ...


Pop Promotions For Alcolhol: Increasing Brand Loyalty Or Just Increasing Binge Drinking?, Melissa Lynch, Sandra C. Jones 2010 University of Wollongong

Pop Promotions For Alcolhol: Increasing Brand Loyalty Or Just Increasing Binge Drinking?, Melissa Lynch, Sandra C. Jones

Sandra Jones

The consumption of alcohol by young Australians in general, and at risky levels has increased. University students, as part of this group, display consistent and increasing risky drinking patterns. One key area of interest in understanding this situation is the use of alcohol advertising and marketing. Of particular interest to this research is the use of point-of-purchase promotions in licensed venues and the impact they may have on consumption. In order to help understand these promotions, focus groups were conducted with male university students between the age of 18 and 24 years from the University of Wollongong. Overall, the perception ...


Who Would The Australian Public Trust To Tell Them About Bird Flu? Results Of An Australia-Wide Cati Survey, Sandra C. Jones, L. Waters, Don C. Iverson 2010 University of Wollongong

Who Would The Australian Public Trust To Tell Them About Bird Flu? Results Of An Australia-Wide Cati Survey, Sandra C. Jones, L. Waters, Don C. Iverson

Sandra Jones

A potential bird flu pandemic is currently the cause of much debate worldwide. Successful control efforts will require effective risk communication, and the choice of credible spokespeople is critical to prevent panic and elicit the desired public responses. This paper reports the results of one Australia-wide CATI survey which examined the Australian public’s preferred sources of information on bird flu and credibility of spokespeople in the event of a bird flu pandemic in Australia. Our results indicate medical personnel and organisations are perceived by the public as being the most credible sources for delivering information about bird flu. These ...


Children And The Internet: What Are "Safe" Websites Telling Our Kids About Food?, Sandra C. Jones, Belinda S. Fabrianesi 2010 University of Wollongong

Children And The Internet: What Are "Safe" Websites Telling Our Kids About Food?, Sandra C. Jones, Belinda S. Fabrianesi

Sandra Jones

Food advertising is a contentious issue in regards to childhood obesity and has increasing importance on the public policy agenda both in Australia and overseas. This study examines the nature and extent of food advertising/promotions on popular children’s websites. Three popular children’s websites were chosen: Total Girl, K-Zone and D-Mag. Each is linked to a top-selling magazine and targets children aged eight to12 years. The websites were monitored daily from 1-28 December 2005, with the increase or decrease of any food product advertisements recorded as well as any competitions, games, puzzles and recipes which promoted certain food ...


Message Framing Effects In Exercise Promotions: Confounded By Linguistic Complexity?, Sandra C. Jones 2010 University of Wollongong

Message Framing Effects In Exercise Promotions: Confounded By Linguistic Complexity?, Sandra C. Jones

Sandra Jones

Studies of framing effects on health-related intentions and behaviour have been conducted in numerous areas, with contradictory results. These inconsistent results can be partially explained by the differential nature of the behaviours concerned, and by the degree to which people engage in detailed processing of the messages, but there is clearly more to learn about framing effects. This study compared the effectiveness of the communication approaches inherent in the four-cell framing model towards adopting a health-enhancing behaviour (exercise). However we found an atheoretical interaction effect caused by the linguistic complexity of the messages.


Alcohol Energy Drinks: Engaging Young Consumers In Co-Creation Of Alcohol Related Harm, Sandra C. Jones, Lance Barrie 2010 University of Wollongong

Alcohol Energy Drinks: Engaging Young Consumers In Co-Creation Of Alcohol Related Harm, Sandra C. Jones, Lance Barrie

Sandra Jones

Alcohol-energy drinks are a relatively new entry to the alcohol market, but have rapidly gained popularity among young drinkers. Unfortunately, these products are also associated with higher levels of alcohol-related harm, including negative health effects and increased levels of aggression and violence. This paper reports on the social image functions served by these products, as perceived by university students; and suggests that there is a need to look beyond alcohol advertising to other factors that increase consumption – including pricing, distribution, use of social media, and consumer co-creation of brand image. Keywords: attitude, behaviour, experience, perception, public health, responsibility, alcohol


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