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Genotypic And Phenotypic Diversity Of Pyricularia Oryzae In The Contemporary Rice Blast Pathogen Population In Arkansas, Lu Zhai 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genotypic And Phenotypic Diversity Of Pyricularia Oryzae In The Contemporary Rice Blast Pathogen Population In Arkansas, Lu Zhai

Theses and Dissertations

Rice blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae (teleomorph: Magnaporthe grisea), is one of the most economically important diseases of rice worldwide, including Arkansas. Rice blast has been severe the past few years on conventional cultivars and, more recently, has been observed on hybrid rice cultivars. The first objective of the current research was to examine the genotypic and phenotypic variation in the P. oryzae population in Arkansas during the 2009, 2010, and 2011 growing seasons and compare isolates from conventional cultivars with those from and hybrids. A total of 904 isolates were recovered from symptomatic rice cultivars in Arkansas and were ...


A Role Of Environmental Components In Autoimmune Vitiligo Of Smyth Line Chickens, Lei Dong 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Role Of Environmental Components In Autoimmune Vitiligo Of Smyth Line Chickens, Lei Dong

Theses and Dissertations

The Smyth line (SL) of chickens is a well-established animal model for the study of spontaneous autoimmune vitiligo, displaying all the characteristics of human vitiligo. In humans, phenolic derivative 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP) has been shown to trigger vitiligo in susceptible individuals. In vitiligo-prone SL-chickens, live turkey herpesvirus (HVT) infection at hatch was identified as the most effective trigger of SL-vitiligo expression. This dissertation examined the role of the environmental factors 4-TBP and HVT in the etiology of SL-vitiligo. Specifically, the generation of reactive-oxygen-species by melanocyte-containing feather tissue (MC-FT) and cultured melanocytes in response to 4-TBP exposure in vitro (Study ...


Binding Site And Affinity Prediction Of General Anesthetics To Protein Targets Using Docking, Renyu Liu, Jose Manuel Perez Aguilar, David Liang, Jeffery G. Saven 2012 University of Pennsylvania

Binding Site And Affinity Prediction Of General Anesthetics To Protein Targets Using Docking, Renyu Liu, Jose Manuel Perez Aguilar, David Liang, Jeffery G. Saven

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

BACKGROUND: The protein targets for general anesthetics remain unclear. A tool to predict anesthetic binding for potential binding targets is needed. In this study, we explored whether a computational method, AutoDock, could serve as such a tool.

METHODS: High-resolution crystal data of water-soluble proteins (cytochrome C, apoferritin, and human serum albumin), and a membrane protein (a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus [GLIC]) were used. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments were performed to determine anesthetic affinity in solution conditions for apoferritin. Docking calculations were performed using DockingServer with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm and the Solis and Wets local search ...


Extending Description Logic Rules, David Carral Martinez, Pascal Hitzler 2012 Wright State University - Main Campus

Extending Description Logic Rules, David Carral Martinez, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Description Logics – the logics underpinning the Web Ontology Language OWL – and rules are currently the most prominent paradigms used for modeling knowledge for the Semantic Web. While both of these approaches are based on classical logic, the paradigms also differ significantly, so that naive combinations result in undesirable properties such as undecidability. Recent work has shown that many rules can in fact be expressed in OWL. In this paper we extend this work to include some types of rules previously excluded. We formally define a set of first order logic rules, C-Rules, which can be expressed within OWL extended with ...


Personality Assessment In African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Kristina Marie Horback 2012 University of Southern Mississippi

Personality Assessment In African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Kristina Marie Horback

Dissertations

The following study assessed personality in twelve African elephants using both observational behavior coding and standardized trait rating methods, thus demonstrating consistent individual differences across time and contexts. During the summer of 2010 and 2011, over 640 hours of behavioral data were collected onsite at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA. Four coding-based personality traits were determined after analysis: PLAYFUL, CURIOUS, TOLERANT, and, AGGRESSIVE. This data was then compared to survey ratings completed by the animal keeper staff during both summers. Four rating-based personality traits resulted from this analysis: PLAYFUL, CURIOUS, TIMID, and, AGGRESSIVE. All eight composite ...


Clam (Corbicula Fluminea) As A Potential Sentinel Of Human Norovirus Contamination In Freshwater, Xunyan Ye 2012 University of Southern Mississippi

Clam (Corbicula Fluminea) As A Potential Sentinel Of Human Norovirus Contamination In Freshwater, Xunyan Ye

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and validate the use of the clam Corbicula fluminea as a sentinel of human noroviruses (HuNoV) contamination in freshwater. The first specific aim was to develop a new method to extract HuNoV RNA from contaminated bivalves (e.g. oysters, clams) that would be much faster than existing methods. The procedure developed includes an initial total RNA extraction using TRI Reagent, followed by HuNoV RNA concentration and purification using biotinylated probe-capture technology. HuNoV RNA is finally detected by real-time RT-PCR. Using bivalve homogenates spiked with HuNoV, 100 PCR detection units of the virus ...


Assembly And Automated Annotation Of The Clostridium Scatologenes Genome, Jitesh Tiwari 2012 Western Kentucky University

Assembly And Automated Annotation Of The Clostridium Scatologenes Genome, Jitesh Tiwari

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Clostridium scatologenes is an anaerobic bacterium that demonstrates some unusual metabolic traits such as the production of 3-methyl indole. The availability of genome level sequencing has lent itself to the exploration and elucidation of unique metabolic pathways in other organisms such as Clostridium botulinum. The Clostridium scatologenes genome, with an estimated length 4.2 million bp, was sequenced by the Applied Biosystems Solid method and the Roche 454 pyrosequencing method. The resulting DNA sequences were combined and assembled into 8267 contigs with an average length of 1250 bp with the Newbler Assembler program. Comparision of published subunits of csd gene ...


Internet Reviews: Understanding Evolution, John Creech 2012 Central Washington University

Internet Reviews: Understanding Evolution, John Creech

Library Scholarship

Review of the Understanding Evolution website by the University of California Museum of Paleontology and the National Center for Science Education.


Evaluation Of Electrophoretic Protein Extraction And Database-Driven Protein Identification From Marine Sediments, Eli K. Moore, Brook L. Nunn, Jessica F. Faux, David R. Goodlett, H. Rodger Harvey 2012 Old Dominion University

Evaluation Of Electrophoretic Protein Extraction And Database-Driven Protein Identification From Marine Sediments, Eli K. Moore, Brook L. Nunn, Jessica F. Faux, David R. Goodlett, H. Rodger Harvey

OEAS Faculty Publications

Intact proteins comprise a major component of organic carbon and nitrogen produced globally and are likely an important fraction of organic matter in sediments and soils. Extracting the protein component from sediments and soils for mass spectral characterization and identification represents a substantial challenge given the range of products and functionalities present in the complex matrix. Multiple forms of gel electrophoresis were evaluated as a means of enhancing recovery of sedimentary protein before proteomic characterization and compared with a direct enzymatic digestion of proteins in sediments. Resulting tryptic peptides were analyzed using shotgun proteomics and tandem mass spectra were evaluated ...


Designing An "Information-Experience" Using Creativity Science Theory And Tools, Stephanie Belhomme 2012 International Center for Studies in Creativity

Designing An "Information-Experience" Using Creativity Science Theory And Tools, Stephanie Belhomme

Creative Studies Graduate Student Master's Projects

An “information-experience” encapsulated by a technological/digital audio-visual tool presents data and potentially meaningful information to prompt actionable knowledge concerning: “unspoken creative process elements;” their profound impacts on both how well our “physiology of creativity” functions; but also on how well foundational creative thinking and behavioral prerequisites (energy, motivation, imagination, and ownership) are leveraged.

The product: 1) introduces the user to one component of the CPS (Creative Problem Solving) Facilitation Process - Exploring the Challenge; 2) features a content specific component which prompts exploration of the many correlations between societal, organizational / community, human physiological / behavioral data, and the direct relationships of ...


Electrospun Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Andreas Haukas 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Electrospun Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Andreas Haukas

Theses and Dissertations

Stem cell and tissue engineering offer us with a unique opportunity to research and develop new therapies for treating various diseases that are otherwise incurable using traditional medicines. However, development of these new therapies replies upon the establishment of in vitro cell culture and differentiation systems that mimic in vivo microenvironments required for cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction. The development of these cell culture systems depends upon the identification of appropriate biomaterials and cell sources. Biomaterials should be carefully selected and fabricated into scaffolds for supporting cell growth and differentiation. In this study, we explored the fabrication of 3D electrospun nanofiber ...


Characterization Of Novel Histone H2b Mutants Associated With Chromosome Segregation Defects In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Thiruchelvam Rajagopal 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Novel Histone H2b Mutants Associated With Chromosome Segregation Defects In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Thiruchelvam Rajagopal

Theses and Dissertations

Histones are small basic proteins that associate with DNA to form the basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome. Histones H3 and H4 form a tetramer that is bound by two H2A-H2B dimers to form the histone octamer, to which approximately 146 bp of DNA wrap around to form the nucleosome. High resolution structural information and recent advances in the understanding of histone post-translational modifications have illuminated the many regulatory functions chromatin exerts in the cell, from the transcriptional control of gene expression to chromosome segregation. However, the specific role that histones play in these processes is not well understood. Previous ...


Natural And Constructed Wetlands For Ecosystem And Engineering Services In The Arid And Semi-Arid Regions, Achyut Raj Adhikari 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Natural And Constructed Wetlands For Ecosystem And Engineering Services In The Arid And Semi-Arid Regions, Achyut Raj Adhikari

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Las Vegas Wash (LVW) has undergone significant wetlands degradation and soil erosion over the past thirty years due to increasing flow resulting from urbanization and large rainfall events in the Las Vegas Valley Watershed. The increased flow and associated pollution load in the LVW and its adverse impact in Lake Mead have alerted stakeholders to pay a greater attention to explore alternative measures for rehabilitation of wetland ecosystems. This dissertation, using the case of changes in LVW, analyzes and describes ecological and engineering services provided by wetlands in arid and semi-arid regions and provides a knowledge base that can ...


You Should Know Jack: A Qualitative Study Of The Jack Lalanne Show (1951-~1965), Robert Cochrane 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

You Should Know Jack: A Qualitative Study Of The Jack Lalanne Show (1951-~1965), Robert Cochrane

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Jack LaLanne hosted the first and longest running fitness program in United States broadcast history from 1951 through 1985. Since LaLanne's rise as a broadcasting celebrity, the health and fitness industry has grown from a small, somewhat-maligned field into a multi-billion dollar per year economy of its own. As LaLanne reached iconic status through his show, his name became synonymous with good health and nutrition, but the messages of his show went far beyond simple exercises. He used religious, patriotic, and biomedical messages to get his points across. In addition, he was a showman who sang to his audience ...


Exploring The Seed Bank Dynamics Of Red Brome: Longevity, Density, And Relationship To Fire, Benjamin S. Jurand 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Exploring The Seed Bank Dynamics Of Red Brome: Longevity, Density, And Relationship To Fire, Benjamin S. Jurand

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This research explores several untested aspects of the seed bank characteristics of red brome (Bromus rubens), an invasive annual grass in southwestern United States arid lands. Red brome is a formidable competitor to native plant species, both annual and perennial alike, and produces many seeds that germinate easily. The stalks of red brome contribute continuous-cover fuel loads that facilitate wildfires destructive to mature native Mojave Desert plant communities. This makes it a priority species for land managers, particularly when dealing with recovery after fire.

This project addressed questions related to the longevity of red brome seeds in soil seed banks ...


Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection In A Hemiparkinsonian 6-Hydroxydopamine Rat Model, Merrill Russen Landers 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection In A Hemiparkinsonian 6-Hydroxydopamine Rat Model, Merrill Russen Landers

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Outside of finding a cure, one of the preeminent goals of research in Parkinson's disease (PD) is finding a neuroprotective treatment that when applied prior to the onset of the disease will decrease the risk and severity of the subsequent disease. One such treatment that has potential as a neuroprotective agent in PD is exercise. Several studies have found forced exercise to be protective of Parkinson's disease in adult rodent models; however, few of these studies have used a design wherein voluntary exercise was evaluated. Moreover, no study has used a true neuroprotective design in which exercise was ...


A Study Of The Spawning Ecology And Early Life History Survival Of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout, Phaedra Budy, Sarah Wood, Brett Roper 2012 Utah State University

A Study Of The Spawning Ecology And Early Life History Survival Of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout, Phaedra Budy, Sarah Wood, Brett Roper

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We completed a large-scale field experiment in four tributaries of the Logan River, Utah, where the largest metapopulation of imperiled Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah persists. We documented the spatial and temporal distributions of spawners, quantified substrate use versus substrate availability, and evaluated differences in hatch and emergence fry success between and among sites in relation to habitat characteristics. We observed considerable variability in the timing, magnitude, and duration of spawning among study areas (streams), in part as a function of a variable, multipeaked hydrograph. Nevertheless, across study areas, >70% of redds were constructed on the final descending limb ...


Genomic Analysis Of Characteristics In Swine Contributing To Sow Longevity, Julie Kathleen Tart 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genomic Analysis Of Characteristics In Swine Contributing To Sow Longevity, Julie Kathleen Tart

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Selection for improved sow lifetime reproductive longevity is of growing importance to swine producers due to recent increases in sow culling rates. Traditional selection results in minimal response due to low heritability and late expression of the trait; incorporation of DNA markers into selection programs could be a more economically viable tool and improve lifetime reproductive performance.

In order to assess the relationship between markers and reproductive longevity, 967 gilts from two maternal crossbred lines were evaluated for age at puberty (AP), litter size traits, and number of successful parities (SP). Females were culled only for death, unsoundness, or reproductive ...


Ecology And Integrated Pest Management Of Western Bean Cutworm Striacosta Albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) In Field Corn, Silvana Vieira de Paula Moraes 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Ecology And Integrated Pest Management Of Western Bean Cutworm Striacosta Albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) In Field Corn, Silvana Vieira De Paula Moraes

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and historically distributed in the western United States. The insect’s recent expansion eastward is documented since 1999. The species is univoltine, the adults typically emerge in the middle of July, lay eggs on corn leaves, and the larvae feed on different corn tissues. In the fourth instar, larvae start colonization of the ear where they feed on kernels. There is a narrow window for management and early detection of the pest in the field is essential ...


Validation Of Thermal Processing To Control Salmonella Spp. And Clostridium Perfringens During Prime Rib Preparation From Intact And Non-Intact Meat, Maria A. Calle 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Validation Of Thermal Processing To Control Salmonella Spp. And Clostridium Perfringens During Prime Rib Preparation From Intact And Non-Intact Meat, Maria A. Calle

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Beef prime rib is a delicacy cooked at low temperatures for long period and extended hot holding prior to consumption. Due to the potential survival and outgrowth of foodborne pathogens, this process may pose a public health risk. Considering an increase in the availability of non-intact beef, the microbial safety of the preparation of prime rib from intact and mechanically tenderized beef was evaluated.

In the first study, lethality of the prime rib (from intact and non-intact, blade tenderized beef) cooking process to Salmonella spp. was evaluated. Boneless beef rib eye was surface inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella ...


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