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Role Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Non-Structural Protein 1 In Viral Replication And Pathogenesis, Lalit Beura 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Role Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Non-Structural Protein 1 In Viral Replication And Pathogenesis, Lalit Beura

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an infectious agent of significant concern to the global swine industry. PRRSV infection of pigs is initiated by a long viremia after which the virus enters in an extended persistent phase of 3-4 months that ultimately is resolved by the immune system. The delayed and weak host adaptive response is responsible for the protracted convalescence period. An initial sub-optimal innate immune response is postulated to be the reason behind such meager adaptive immune response. A major focus of the studies undertaken in this dissertation was to identify the viral non-structural proteins (nsps ...


Avian Influenza In Migratory Birds In The United States, 2007–2009, And Effects Of September Hunting Seasons On Survival, Harvest, And Recovery Rates Of Canada Geese Banded In Southeast Nebraska, Scott R. Groepper 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Avian Influenza In Migratory Birds In The United States, 2007–2009, And Effects Of September Hunting Seasons On Survival, Harvest, And Recovery Rates Of Canada Geese Banded In Southeast Nebraska, Scott R. Groepper

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1) poses risks to wild birds, poultry, and humans. Personnel with the United States Department of Agriculture-Animal Plant Health Inspection Service-Wildlife Services, state, and tribal wildlife agencies collected 168,940 samples from migratory birds from 2007 to 2009 to test for presence of HPAIV H5N1. No HPAIV was found, but other subtypes were discovered, including H5 and H7. I estimated prevalence of avian influenza virus by flyway and found prevalence was lowest each year in the Atlantic Flyway (6.7%–8.3%), highest in the Pacific Flyway in 2007 (13.3%) and 2008 (13.4 ...


Feeding Low-Fat Wet Distillers Grains And Beef Quality, Asia Haack 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Feeding Low-Fat Wet Distillers Grains And Beef Quality, Asia Haack

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Feeding distillers grains to cattle decreases shelf life stability of retail displayed steaks due to the increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) content. High levels of PUFAs cause rapid oxidation of the fats in meat. To improve shelf life, a low-fat distillers grain ration, without solubles (LFWDG; 4.72% fat), was compared to a traditional diet containing wet distillers grains plus solubles (TWDGS; 6.91% fat) and a corn-based control diet (Corn; 3.64% fat). Strip loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from 45 USDA Choice steers (15 per dietary treatment) were selected to determine the effects of diet on fatty acid profile ...


Effect Of The Infection With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus On The Regulation Of Cytokines - Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha And Interleukin-10, Sakthivel Subramaniam 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of The Infection With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus On The Regulation Of Cytokines - Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha And Interleukin-10, Sakthivel Subramaniam

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes late-term abortion in sows and pneumonia in growing piglets. PRRSV evades the host immune response by several mechanisms, including the modulation of cytokine secretions in infected pigs, which is the subject of this dissertation. Particularly, PRRSV reduces the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) but increases the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). The latter effect, however, is PRRSV strain-specific. In this dissertation, we have examined mechanisms by which PRRSV regulates TNF-α and IL-10 expressions. The pathogenic strain FL12, derived from a PRRSV infectious clone, consistently suppressed TNF-α ...


Effects Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Human Holocarboxylase Synthetase Gene On Catalytic Activity, Shingo Esaki 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effects Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Human Holocarboxylase Synthetase Gene On Catalytic Activity, Shingo Esaki

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes the covalent binding of biotin to carboxylases and histones in eukaryotic cells. Biotinylated carboxylases play essential roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, and glucose; biotinylated histones play essential roles in gene regulation and genome stability. HCS null individuals are not viable whereas HCS deficiency is linked to developmental delays and phenotypes such as short life span and low stress resistance. Greater than 2,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported for HCS, but the biological importance of these polymorphisms is unknown. We hypothesized that some of these SNPs impair catalytic activity and ...


Regulation Of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (Bhv-1) Productive Infection By Cellular Transcription Factors, Aspen M. Workman 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Regulation Of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (Bhv-1) Productive Infection By Cellular Transcription Factors, Aspen M. Workman

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) is a significant viral pathogen of cattle responsible for a variety of disease conditions, including: conjunctivitis, pneumonia, genital disorders, abortions, and shipping fever, a serious upper respiratory tract infection. Following acute infection in mucosal epithelium, BHV-1 establishes a lifelong latent infection in sensory ganglionic neurons. During latency, transcription is restricted to the latency related (LR) gene. Elevated corticosteroid levels due to stress and/or immune suppression can initiate reactivation from latency, resulting in virus shedding and spread to susceptible cattle. Additionally, administration of dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic corticosteroid, to calves latently infected with BHV-1 reproducibly leads ...


Supply Chain Performance Of The Australian Beef Industry: Comparing The Industry Structure, Inter-Firm Relationships And Knowledge Systems Of Western Australia And Queensland, Mohammad Nasir Uddin,, Nazrul Islam, Mohammed Quaddus 2011 Curtin University of Technology

Supply Chain Performance Of The Australian Beef Industry: Comparing The Industry Structure, Inter-Firm Relationships And Knowledge Systems Of Western Australia And Queensland, Mohammad Nasir Uddin,, Nazrul Islam, Mohammed Quaddus

Contributions to Books & Books

The meat and livestock industry in Australia accounts for more than 45 per cent of Australia’s total value of agricultural production, within which beef is the largest industry in value terms (Nossal, Sheng and Zhao 2008). But the industry is experiencing a long-term decline in terms of trade, and has lagged behind other industries in rates of productivity improvement (MLA 2008). As it is critical for the economy that the beef industry maintains profitability and sustainability, it is believed that the performance, competitiveness and success of the industry depends on improving cost efficiency and productivity of the whole supply ...


Growing South Dakota, South Dakota State University, College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 2011 South Dakota State University

Growing South Dakota, South Dakota State University, College Of Agriculture And Biological Sciences

Growing South Dakota (College of Agriculture & Biological Sciences Publication)

CONTENTS:
[Page] 2 Adapting for the Future: South Dakota 4-H Efforts Move Forward
[Page] 5 Regional Transitions: Eight Extension Centers to Open in October
[Page] 6 College News
[Page] 8 Making a Difference with Research: Ag Experiment Station Aids Industry & Economy
[Page] 10 Pig Potential: South Dakota's Swine Industry Offers Economic Opportunity
[Page] 13 New Department Debuts: Natural Resource Disciplines Join Forces
[Page] 14 Autumn in the AIr: Grab Your Blue and Gold and Visit Campus
[Page] 16 iGrow Evolves: Usability And Content Are Being Enhanced
[Page] 18 Collection Effort: Despite Budget Cuts, Private Funds Allowed for Growth
[Page ...


Designing A Soil Ph Monitoring Network For The Western Australian Wheatbelt, Karen Holmes, Pat Bellamy, Jim Dixon 2011 Centre of Excellence for Ecohydrology, University of Western Australia

Designing A Soil Ph Monitoring Network For The Western Australian Wheatbelt, Karen Holmes, Pat Bellamy, Jim Dixon

Resource management technical reports

Natural resource managers in Western Australia require a purposely designed soil pH monitoring network to identify areas at higher risk of soil acidification and to observe changes in soil pH through time. This monitoring network, in conjunction with field experimental work and acidification modelling, will identify state and regional trends and help shape state natural resource management policy and regional extension programmes, as well as directly inform industry and land managers.


Barley Variety Guide For Wa 2012, Blakely Paynter, Andrea Hills, Dhammu Harmohinder 2011 Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia

Barley Variety Guide For Wa 2012, Blakely Paynter, Andrea Hills, Dhammu Harmohinder

Bulletins

This variety guide is designed as a quick reference to help growers determine which barley variety to grow in their region. It provides domestic and international market feedback, relative grain yield comparisons, disease ratings, agronomic information and herbicide tolerance ratings for all malting barley varieties, the new food variety and selected feed varieties.


Growing Oats In Western Australia For Hay And Grain, Raj Malik, Blakely Paynter, Cindy Webster, Amelia McLarty 2011 Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia

Growing Oats In Western Australia For Hay And Grain, Raj Malik, Blakely Paynter, Cindy Webster, Amelia Mclarty

Bulletins

The oat industry in Western Australia has made phenomenal progress in recent years with the discovery of new markets, the release of several high yielding varieties and the development of agronomic guidelines through rigorous research programs. Oat production in Western Australia for the domestic and export market has significantly increased over the past few years. Oats are now regarded as one of the most profitable cropping enterprises. Oat production is mainly export orientated and thus has a substantial economic influence on the agricultural industry.

In Western Australia, oats are grown for grain, for both milling and feed, and for hay ...


Estimating Cost Efficiencies Of Propane Use In Broiler Production: Case Study From Savoy, Arkansas And Trnaca Pri Laborci, Slovak Republic, Zuzana Petrikova 2011 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Estimating Cost Efficiencies Of Propane Use In Broiler Production: Case Study From Savoy, Arkansas And Trnaca Pri Laborci, Slovak Republic, Zuzana Petrikova

Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on analyzing the common practice of U.S. broiler farmers to operate on cash basis instead open credit lines for operating cost of propane gas for heating. Data for analysis were taken over from U.S. ABRF at Savoy and Slovak Farm Univerza at Trnava pri Laborci. Predicting the propane gas usage and propane gas cost was analyzed using the OLS model. It describes impact of selected factors on gas usage and cost. The overall purpose of the thesis is to find out which approach from designed scenarios is more economically efficient for farmer: (a) to pre-purchase ...


Optimal Theory Applied In Integrodifference Equation Models And In A Cholera Differential Equation Model, Peng Zhong 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Optimal Theory Applied In Integrodifference Equation Models And In A Cholera Differential Equation Model, Peng Zhong

Doctoral Dissertations

Integrodifference equations are discrete in time and continuous in space, and are used to model the spread of populations that are growing in discrete generations, or at discrete times, and dispersing spatially. We investigate optimal harvesting strategies, in order to maximize the profit and minimize the cost of harvesting. Theoretical results on the existence, uniqueness and characterization, as well as numerical results of optimized harvesting rates are obtained. The order of how the three events, growth, dispersal and harvesting, are arranged also affects the harvesting behavior.

Cholera remains a public health threat in many parts of the world and improved ...


Stochastic Population Dynamics In Populations Of Western Terrestrial Garter Snakes With Divergent Life Histories, David A. Miller, William R. Clark, Stevan J. Arnold, Anne M. Bronikowski 2011 Iowa State University

Stochastic Population Dynamics In Populations Of Western Terrestrial Garter Snakes With Divergent Life Histories, David A. Miller, William R. Clark, Stevan J. Arnold, Anne M. Bronikowski

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Comparative evaluations of population dynamics in species with temporal and spatial variation in life-history traits are rare because they require long-term demographic time series from multiple populations. We present such an analysis using demographic data collected during the interval 1978–1996 for six populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) from two evolutionarily divergent ecotypes. Three replicate populations from a slow-living ecotype, found in mountain meadows of northeastern California, were characterized by individuals that develop slowly, mature late, reproduce infrequently with small reproductive effort, and live longer than individuals of three populations of a fast-living ecotype found at lakeshore ...


High And Low Active Transit Accessibility On Greenways: The Relationship With Physical Activity, Dana Lizbeth Wolff 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

High And Low Active Transit Accessibility On Greenways: The Relationship With Physical Activity, Dana Lizbeth Wolff

Masters Theses

Greenways (GW) can be sited to increase the potential for individuals to access the GW through active transit (AT) and provide opportunities for individuals to meet PA guidelines. PURPOSE: To determine if GWs, with varying AT access potential, relate to user characteristics and their GW-related PA. METHODS: A trail intercept survey measuring access mode, GW-specific PA, and demographics of GW users was administered to 611 adults on 2 GWs with high and low AT potential (GWhigh vs. GWlow). RESULTS: Users of GWhigh(N=216) compared to GWlow (N=400) were more likely to be younger, male ...


Bringing Biodiversity To Development: Perceptions Of Integrating Eucalyptus And Forest-Corridors Around The Serra Do Brigadeiro, Brazil, Maggie R Stevens 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Bringing Biodiversity To Development: Perceptions Of Integrating Eucalyptus And Forest-Corridors Around The Serra Do Brigadeiro, Brazil, Maggie R Stevens

Masters Theses

The Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil is a hot-spot for biodiversity and should be conserved. It is also at the center of the largest municipalities in Brazil and therefore has a severely fragmented landscape. Iracambi, a working farm near the Serra do Brigadeiro state park in Minas Gerais, is working for conservation in an area of intense agricultural production and expanding forestry industry. Most households in this rural area have some amount of eucalyptus on their property and consequently the director of Iracambi is developing the preliminary foundation for a forest corridor program comprised of primarily eucalyptus with the goal ...


Effectiveness Of Different Molecular Weights And Concentrations Of Chitosan On Enteric Viral Surrogates, Robert Hamilton Davis 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effectiveness Of Different Molecular Weights And Concentrations Of Chitosan On Enteric Viral Surrogates, Robert Hamilton Davis

Masters Theses

Chitosan is known to be antibacterial and antifungal, but information on its effectiveness against foodborne viruses is limited. Enteric viruses are a major concern in food safety, especially human noroviruses which are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. The overall goal of this research was to determine the antiviral effectiveness of chitosan. The specific objectives were to determine the effects of molecular weight (MW) and concentration of chitosan against the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174). Purified chitosans (53, 222, 307, 421, ~1,150kDa) were dissolved in water, 1% acetic acid ...


Non-Thermal Plasma Inactivation Of Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Spores, Yaohua Huang 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Non-Thermal Plasma Inactivation Of Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Spores, Yaohua Huang

Masters Theses

Bacterial spores have remarkable resistance to a variety of harsh conditions, causing spoilage in food industry and becoming the primary bacterial agent in biowarfare and bioterrorism. In this study, inactivation mechanisms of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) spores by non-thermal plasma (NTP) were investigated by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as a major tool to exam spores after NTP treatment. Chemometric techniques, such as multivariate classification models based on soft independent modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were employed to identify functional group changes in FTIR spectra. The IR absorbance bands correlated to dipicolinic acid (DPA) decreased after ...


Functional Analysis Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster For Caffeine- And Phenobarbital-Inducibility By Site-Directed Mutagenesis, Olivia Nichole Hill 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Functional Analysis Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster For Caffeine- And Phenobarbital-Inducibility By Site-Directed Mutagenesis, Olivia Nichole Hill

Masters Theses

Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), found in almost all organisms, are involved in endobiotic metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotic compounds, such as drugs, pollutants, and insecticides. In insects, CYPs play a major role in conferring resistance to various insecticides including DDT. In Drosophila and other insects, DDT-resistant strains exhibit increased expression of multiple P450 genes; however, the mechanism of overexpression is unknown. Since many CYP genes including Cyp6a8 of Drosophila are induced by caffeine and other xenobiotics, these chemicals are used as tools to understand the regulation of these genes. Previously it was shown that the 0.8-kb (-1/-732) and ...


Fertilization Characteristics Of Spermatozoa Collected From Bulls Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures, Jessica Pegan Harris 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fertilization Characteristics Of Spermatozoa Collected From Bulls Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures, Jessica Pegan Harris

Masters Theses

Consumption of toxic endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue pastures is known to have a negative impact on bull reproductive performance. Since decreased cleavage rates of embryos fertilized with spermatozoa from bulls grazing E+ tall fescue pastures have been observed in several studies using differing sets of bulls, technicians, pastures, and other methods of inducing tall fescue toxicosis (ergotamine tartrate), it is hypothesized that spermatozoa function from bulls grazing E+ is impaired in ways undetectable by gross semen examination.

During a three-month grazing study, 6 Angus bulls were utilized to determine the effects of grazing E+ tall fescue pastures on growth performance ...


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