Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

160260 Full-Text Articles 188238 Authors 26761560 Downloads 356 Institutions

All Articles in Life Sciences

Faceted Search

160260 full-text articles. Page 3247 of 3720.

Using Avian Radar To Examine Relationships Among Avian Activity, Bird Strikes, And Meteorological Factors, Peter S. Coates, Michael L. Casazza, Brian J. Halstead, Joseph P. Fleskes, James A. Laughlin 2011 U.S. Geological Survey

Using Avian Radar To Examine Relationships Among Avian Activity, Bird Strikes, And Meteorological Factors, Peter S. Coates, Michael L. Casazza, Brian J. Halstead, Joseph P. Fleskes, James A. Laughlin

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index ...


Rodent Population Management At Kansas City International Airport, Gary W. Witmer 2011 USDA/APHIS/Wildlife Services’ National Wildlife Research Center

Rodent Population Management At Kansas City International Airport, Gary W. Witmer

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Birds pose serious hazards at United States airports because of the potential for collisions with aircraft. Raptors, in particular, are hazardous to aircraft safety due to their size, hunting behavior, and hovering and soaring habits. Reduction of rodent populations at an airport may decrease raptor populations in the area and, therefore, reduce risk that raptors pose to aircraft. Rodent populations can be reduced by population management (i.e., use of rodenticides) or by habitat management (i.e., vegetation and land-use management) that reduces the area’s carrying capacity for rodents. I found that zinc phosphide-treated oats reduced rodent populations by ...


Condition, Survival, And Productivity Of Mule Deer In Semiarid Grassland-Woodland In East-Central New Mexico, Louis C. Bender, Jon C. Boren, Heather Halbritter, Shad Cox 2011 New Mexico State University

Condition, Survival, And Productivity Of Mule Deer In Semiarid Grassland-Woodland In East-Central New Mexico, Louis C. Bender, Jon C. Boren, Heather Halbritter, Shad Cox

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an economically important species to wildlife enterprises throughout New Mexico and the western United States, but populations are declining, limiting recreational and revenue potential to private and public wildlife managers. We documented body condition, survival, production of fawns, and trends in population size of a declining mule deer population on the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (CRLRC), a multiple-use research ranch in east-central New Mexico owned by New Mexico State University. Mule deer females were in poor condition, characterized by accrual of little body fat or lean tissue (muscle mass) reserves. Annual female survival ...


Does Diversionary Feeding Create Nuisance Bears And Jeopardize Public Safety?, Lynn L. Rogers 2011 Wildlife Research Institute

Does Diversionary Feeding Create Nuisance Bears And Jeopardize Public Safety?, Lynn L. Rogers

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Diversionary feeding of black bears (Ursus americanus) around campgrounds and residential areas has received little study because of concerns that it might create nuisance bears and jeopardize public safety. To evaluate those concerns and assess its effectiveness in mitigating human–bear conflict, we studied diversionary feeding, habituation, and food conditioning at a U.S. Forest Service campground and residential complex near Ely, Minnesota. During 1981 to 1983, 6 bears (2/year) had been removed from this area as nuisances; but during 8 years of diversionary feeding (1984 to 1991), the only removals were 2 bears that had newly immigrated to ...


Predator Cues Reduce American Beaver Use Of Foraging Trails, William J. Severud, Jerrold L. Belant, John G. Bruggink, Steve K. Windels 2011 Northern Michigan University

Predator Cues Reduce American Beaver Use Of Foraging Trails, William J. Severud, Jerrold L. Belant, John G. Bruggink, Steve K. Windels

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Herbivores must balance energy needs with avoiding risks, using various cues to assess predation risk. The American beaver (Castor canadensis) is a semi-aquatic herbivore vulnerable to predation on land by wolves (Canis lupis). We tested the use of wolf urine as a potential tool to reduce human–beaver conflicts. We used infrared cameras to monitor use of terrestrial foraging trails by beavers during food cache construction in Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan, from September to November 2008. Two foraging trails at 15 colonies (30 total trails) were monitored for 1 week to establish baseline use. One trail from each colony ...


Economic Evaluation Of Beaver Management To Protect Timber Resources In Mississippi, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Kris Godwin 2011 USDA/Wildlife Services’ National Wildlife Research Center,

Economic Evaluation Of Beaver Management To Protect Timber Resources In Mississippi, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Kris Godwin

Human–Wildlife Interactions

It has become essential for groups involved with wildlife policy formulation and decision making to examine the economic benefits and costs derived from the management of nuisance wildlife species. Beavers (Castor canadensis) in Mississippi have seen significant population fluctuations over the last 150 years as their status has changed from a game species to protected species to nuisance species. The objectives of this study were to assess the beaver-caused economic impacts to the timber industry in Mississippi and estimate the damages avoided due to Mississippi’s Beaver Control Assistance Program (BCAP) activities from 2005 to 2009. The total BCAP costs ...


Canada Goose Crop Damage Abatement In South Dakota, Troy M. Radtke, Charles D. Dieter 2011 South Dakota State University

Canada Goose Crop Damage Abatement In South Dakota, Troy M. Radtke, Charles D. Dieter

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can cause considerable damage to crops during summer when geese are flightless. We evaluated the effectiveness of a program designed to alleviate crop damage on soybeans by Canada geese in South Dakota, USA. The applications of electric fences, feeding stations, and propane cannons reduced the area of crop damage by 90% in 2006 and 80% in 2007, but the timing was important. Fields where abatement practices were applied early in the growing season had less damage than fields where they were applied later. Abatement practices that were properly applied as soon as damage started and that ...


Factors Affecting White-Tailed Deer-Browsing Rates On Early Growth Stages Of Soybean Crops, Gregory M. Colligan, Jacob L. Bowman, Joseph E. Rogerson, Bruce L. Vasilas 2011 University of Delaware

Factors Affecting White-Tailed Deer-Browsing Rates On Early Growth Stages Of Soybean Crops, Gregory M. Colligan, Jacob L. Bowman, Joseph E. Rogerson, Bruce L. Vasilas

Human–Wildlife Interactions

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) damage to soybean crops is a concern for soybean producers. Although researchers have documented decreases in the intensity of deer-browse on soybean plants as the growing season progresses, an understanding of the mechanisms driving the decrease in deer-browse is necessary for reduction and mitigation of deer damage to soybean crops. We tested 4 hypotheses to determine why deer-browse rates decrease 3 weeks after plant emergence: (1) plant phenology affects plant palatability; (2) diet change occurs; (3) deer damage induces a plant response making soybean leaves less palatable: and (4) deer consume fewer leaves but the same ...


Mechanisms Of Translation Arrest Following Focal Brain Ischemia, Monique K. Lewis 2011 Wayne State University

Mechanisms Of Translation Arrest Following Focal Brain Ischemia, Monique K. Lewis

Wayne State University Dissertations

MECHANISMS OF TRANSLATION ARREST FOLLOWING FOCAL BRAIN

ISCHEMIA

by

MONIQUE K. LEWIS

August 2011

Advisor: Dr. Donald DeGracia

Major: Physiology

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

The loss of blood flow to the brain is termed ischemia and the subsequent resumption of blood flow is termed reperfusion. Brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) occurs primarily following resuscitation from cardiac arrest and stroke and presents one of the most significant clinical challenges. At present, there are no clinically effective pharmacologic interventions to halt brain damage following I/R. The major Aim of this dissertation will be to investigate possible mechanisms involved in neuron ...


Effect Of Electron Beam Irradiation And Storage On The Quality Attributes Of Sausages With Different Fat Contents, Joongho Kwon, Kichang Nam, Hojin Kang, Dong U. Ahn 2011 Iowa State University

Effect Of Electron Beam Irradiation And Storage On The Quality Attributes Of Sausages With Different Fat Contents, Joongho Kwon, Kichang Nam, Hojin Kang, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Industry Report

The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of sausages was not affected by fat content, but increased after irradiation (5 kGy). Storage for 60 days increased the TBARS of nonirradiated sausages (P < 0.05), but had no effect on irradiated ones. The numbers of volatile compounds and the amounts of total volatiles increased by irradiation in both high-fat (29% fat) and low-fat (16% fat) sausages. Dimethyl sulfide was detected only in irradiated sausages regardless of fat content (P < 0.05), but disappeared after 60 days of storage. Pentane and 1-heptene were detected only in irradiated samples after 60 days of storage. Low-fat sausages had higher L*-value, but had lower a*- and b*-values than high fat sausages. Irradiation and storage had little effects on both the exterior and interior color (L*-, a*-, and b*-values) of sausages. Fat content had no effect on the sensory parameters of sausages regardless irradiation and storage. However, irradiated sausages had significantly stronger off-odor and off-taste than nonirradiated ones regardless of fat contents (P < 0.05). This indicated that fat content in sausages had minimal effects on the quality of irradiated sausages during storage.


Changes Of Hormone Sensitive Lipase, Adipose Tissue Triglyceride Lipase, And Free Fatty Acids In Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues Throughout The Ripening Process Of Dry-Cured Ham, Shan Xiao, Wangang Zhang, Dong U. Ahn 2011 Iowa State University

Changes Of Hormone Sensitive Lipase, Adipose Tissue Triglyceride Lipase, And Free Fatty Acids In Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues Throughout The Ripening Process Of Dry-Cured Ham, Shan Xiao, Wangang Zhang, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Industry Report

Changes in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipases (HSL) in subcutaneous adipose tissue of Xuanwei ham at different ripening stages were studied. Green hams were salted for 40 d and then ripened in a ventilated chamber for 15 months. Adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL could be detected during the whole ripening period of Xuanwei ham, but their protein levels decreased as the ripening time increased. The decrease of lipase proteins could be attributed to the decrease in protein synthesis as ripening time progressed. The level of free fatty acids (FFAs) increased at the first stage but HSL protein ...


Environmental Conditions In Beef Deep-Bedded Mono-Slope Facilities, Mindy Spiehs, Bryan Woodbury, Beth E. Doran, Roger Eigenberg, Kris Kohl, Vince Varel, Elaine Berry, James Wells 2011 United States Department of Agriculture

Environmental Conditions In Beef Deep-Bedded Mono-Slope Facilities, Mindy Spiehs, Bryan Woodbury, Beth E. Doran, Roger Eigenberg, Kris Kohl, Vince Varel, Elaine Berry, James Wells

Animal Industry Report

Ammonia (NH3), temperature, moisture content, pH, pack depth, nutrient composition and concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured at 56 locations in each of four pens in two commercial beef deep-bedded mono-slope facilities (BDMF). Areas of high NH3 concentration occurred randomly throughout the pens. Ammonia concentration increased as pack and ambient air temperature increased. Concentration of VOC was highest in transition areas between the bedded pack and the concrete floor. Depth, moisture content, and pH of the bedded pack did not influence concentration of NH3 and VOC. Nutrient composition of the manure/bedding material in BDMF is similar ...


Diesel Fuel Price As A Means Of Forecasting Livestock Yardage Costs, Garland R. Dahlke 2011 Iowa State University

Diesel Fuel Price As A Means Of Forecasting Livestock Yardage Costs, Garland R. Dahlke

Animal Industry Report

Current retail values of diesel fuel can be used as an index to estimate current and near-future yardage charges in maintaining livestock.


Potential Of Chemically Treated Corn Stover And Modified Distiller Grains As A Partial Replacement For Corn Grain In Feedlot Diets, James R. Russell, Daniel D. Loy, Jessica Anderson, Mike Cecava 2011 Iowa State University

Potential Of Chemically Treated Corn Stover And Modified Distiller Grains As A Partial Replacement For Corn Grain In Feedlot Diets, James R. Russell, Daniel D. Loy, Jessica Anderson, Mike Cecava

Animal Industry Report

Because treatment with calcium oxide (CaO) will increase the digestibility of corn stover, CaO-treated corn stover may be a cost-effective alternative to a portion of corn grain in beef feedlot diets. Single-pass harvested corn stover was ensiled either untreated or treated with 5% CaO on a dry matter (DM) basis. Ground baled stover, untreated stover silage, or CaO-treated stover silage were fed at 20% of the diet DM with modified distillers grains with solubles and corn grain at 40 and 35% of the DM and fed either during the growing phase or both the growing and finishing phases in comparison ...


Factors Affecting Ruminal Hydrogen Sulfide Concentration Of Cattle, Mary Drewnoski, Donald C. Beitz, Daniel D. Loy, Stephanie L. Hansen, Steve M. Ensley 2011 Iowa State University

Factors Affecting Ruminal Hydrogen Sulfide Concentration Of Cattle, Mary Drewnoski, Donald C. Beitz, Daniel D. Loy, Stephanie L. Hansen, Steve M. Ensley

Animal Industry Report

Ruminal hydrogen sulfide concentrations may be a useful tool to determine risk of cattle developing sulfurinduced polioencephalomalacia. In this study, steers were fed a low sulfur (0.2% S) or a high sulfur diet (0.7% S) and ruminal hydrogen sulfide concentrations were measured. Although differences in ruminal hydrogen sulfide due to sulfur intake were maintained throughout the day, concentrations within treatment varied greatly throughout the day. Ruminal hydrogen sulfide concentrations peaked during the period from 6 to 10 hours after feeding. More research is needed to develop a threshold of ruminal hydrogen sulfide that may cause polioencephalomalacia. Additionally, time ...


Effects Of Dietary Sulfur Concentration On Carcass Quality, Performance And Mineral Status Of Beef Cattle, Erin Richter, Mary Drewnoski, Stephanie L. Hansen 2011 Iowa State University

Effects Of Dietary Sulfur Concentration On Carcass Quality, Performance And Mineral Status Of Beef Cattle, Erin Richter, Mary Drewnoski, Stephanie L. Hansen

Animal Industry Report

Sulfur (S) is an essential element in ruminant diets, but it can be toxic at high levels. Sulfur also interacts with other minerals in the diet such as copper (Cu), impacting the status of the animal. This study utilized 96 crossbred yearling steers fed a low sulfur diet (LS, 0.3% S) or the LS diet with additional S from sodium sulfate creating a high S diet (0.6% S, HS) to determine the effects of S concentration on performance, carcass quality, and mineral status. High S decreased gains and Cu and magnesium (Mg) status. Decreased gains may result in ...


Mixing Wet Distillers Grain In Beef Feed Rations, Nathan Schuler, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Daniel D. Loy, Carl J. Bern, Thomas J. Brumm 2011 Iowa State University

Mixing Wet Distillers Grain In Beef Feed Rations, Nathan Schuler, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Daniel D. Loy, Carl J. Bern, Thomas J. Brumm

Animal Industry Report

Distillers grains use in beef feeding operations has become more popular over the recent years due to the growing ethanol industry; although, little is known about the order in which the ingredients should be added, optimum mixer design, and optimum mix time when using distillers grains. Not using the correct methods and equipment when mixing distillers grains cost beef producer’s time and money. Recognizing the lack of information available on the mixing process, a joint effort by four professors and one junior undergraduate student from the Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering Department at Iowa State University was established. The results of ...


The Feeding Value Of Heat Damaged Corn Grain In Cattle Diets, Garland R. Dahlke, Mary Drewnoski 2011 Iowa State University

The Feeding Value Of Heat Damaged Corn Grain In Cattle Diets, Garland R. Dahlke, Mary Drewnoski

Animal Industry Report

Heat damaged grain, if not completely destroyed by fire, takes on a roasted appearance ranging from a slight brownish tint to black. This grain can be salvaged and used in cattle rations. The color can be used to determine relative digestibility and available energy in the diets of cattle.


Performance And Carcass Traits Of Market Beef Cattle Supplemented Self-Fed Byproducts On Pasture: Final Report, Daniel Kiesling, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Mark S. Honeyman, W. Darrell Busby, H. Joe Sellers, Dallas L. Maxwell 2011 Iowa State University

Performance And Carcass Traits Of Market Beef Cattle Supplemented Self-Fed Byproducts On Pasture: Final Report, Daniel Kiesling, Daniel G. Morrical, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Mark S. Honeyman, W. Darrell Busby, H. Joe Sellers, Dallas L. Maxwell

Animal Industry Report

Over a two year period (2007 and 2008), 162 head of beef steers were finished with self-fed byproducts on cool season grass pastures. Yearling steers were continuously grazed at the Neely-Kinyon Farm in southwest Iowa on cool season grasses that were predominantly fescue at a stocking density of 2.25 head/acre. Half of the cattle were implanted (with Synovex®-S) or half were not. Cattle received a diet of either soyhulls-dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) or ground corn-dried distillers grains with solubles that was offered through self-feeders. The rations were mixed at a 1:1 ratio with a ...


Evaluation Of Double Stranded Rna For The Prevention Of Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (Imnv) In Litopenaeus Vannamei, J. Dustin Loy, Lyric C. Bartholomay, D. L. Hank Harris 2011 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Double Stranded Rna For The Prevention Of Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (Imnv) In Litopenaeus Vannamei, J. Dustin Loy, Lyric C. Bartholomay, D. L. Hank Harris

Animal Industry Report

Double stranded RNA was synthesized in vitro with sequences corresponding to portions of the IMNV genome and were injected into shrimp prior to challenge with IMNV. This is the first time these methods have been used to prevent IMN in shrimp.


Digital Commons powered by bepress