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Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. DeMarco 2018 East Tennessee State University

Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. Demarco

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantifying individual differences in behavior and the extent that behavior is influenced by circadian control is of paramount importance in behavioral ecology. In addition, the proximate mechanisms underlying behavior are also critical in order to obtain a more complete picture of how behavior evolves. Biogenic amines (BAs) are simple nitrogenous compounds derived from amino acids and have been consistently and extensively linked to behavior. For this study, we analyzed temporal patterns of BAs in relation to the antipredator (boldness) and aggressive behavior in female Agelenopsis pennsylvanica, a funnel-web spider. Using HPLC-ED, we compared behavioral responses to temporal patterns of octopamine ...


Effect Of A Skating Unit On Fitness In Fifth Grade Students, Eric Lange 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of A Skating Unit On Fitness In Fifth Grade Students, Eric Lange

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study investigates the effect of a skating unit on factors of cardiovascular fitness, static balance, explosive power, and agility in fifth graders. Methods: During a 6-weeks skating unit (twelve lesson), seventy-one students (ages 10-12; M age = 10.34) participated during regularly scheduled physical education classes. Three separate classes served as control group (C) (n=19; 8 male; 11 female) and two experimental groups: roller skating (RS) (n=26; 11 male; 15 female) and inline skating (IS) (n=26; 10 male; 16 female). Control group had no access to roller or inline skates during class time ...


Managing For Multiple Objectives In Southwestern Forests: Evaluating The Trade-Offs Between Enhancing Mexican Spotted Owl Nest Habitat And Mitigating Potential Crown Fire, Daniel C. Deane McKenna 2018 Utah State University

Managing For Multiple Objectives In Southwestern Forests: Evaluating The Trade-Offs Between Enhancing Mexican Spotted Owl Nest Habitat And Mitigating Potential Crown Fire, Daniel C. Deane Mckenna

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), the United States’ forest census, measured sixty-six Mexican spotted owl nest stands in order gain insight into the structure and composition of the nest habitat of this threatened species. I used these data, along with the greater FIA database and the Forest Vegetation Simulator to explore questions surrounding the management of Mexican spotted owl habitat, specifically how to balance the objective of sustaining and enhancing nest habitat in face of increasing forest fire size and severity in the Southwest. My research consisted of three studies. The first study quantified the structure and composition of ...


Pruning Strategies For High Density ‘Montmorency' Tart Cherry, Sheriden M. Hansen 2018 Utah State University

Pruning Strategies For High Density ‘Montmorency' Tart Cherry, Sheriden M. Hansen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) is the most significant fruit tree crop in Utah, accounting for roughly 51% of the total statewide commercial fruit acreage. In order to accommodate harvesting equipment, tart cherries are grown in conventional orchards with large trees spaced up to 5.5 meters apart. New methods of harvest are adapted to smaller trees in tighter spaced high density (HD) orchards. HD orchards bear fruit earlier in the orchard life than conventional orchards, but likely require different pruning and management strategies, which have not yet been determined for tart cherry. Experimental HD orchards were used to determine ...


Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz 2018 Utah State University

Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation research were to identify sites of genetic variation associated with mastitis resistance, and to define the contributions of the milk-secreting epithelial cells to mammary gland immune responses and mastitis resistance. Twenty seven regions ...


Effect Of High Intensity Ultrasound On The Crystallization Behavior Of Interesterified Fats, Jeta Vijay Kadamne 2018 Utah State University

Effect Of High Intensity Ultrasound On The Crystallization Behavior Of Interesterified Fats, Jeta Vijay Kadamne

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The process of partial hydrogenation produces trans fats and the fats that undergo this process are called partially hydrogenated fats (PHF). Clinical studies have shown a strong association between PHF and coronary heart diseases. In 2015 The U.S. Food and Drug Administration removed the Generally recognized as safe or "GRAS" status of PHF. These fats were used in confectionary, margarines, shortenings, doughnuts, cookies, cakes, etc. The PHF serve a function in food by providing a higher shelf life and a desired harder structure due to their higher melting point. Hence, the food industry is currently looking for PHF alternatives ...


Targeted-Grazing As A Fuels Reduction Treatment: Evaluation Of Vegetation Dynamics And Utilization Levels, Travis Decker 2018 Utah State University

Targeted-Grazing As A Fuels Reduction Treatment: Evaluation Of Vegetation Dynamics And Utilization Levels, Travis Decker

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wildfires have caused concern as they have increased in severity and intensity over the last few decades. Land managers have sought management actions to mitigate the risk of wildfire by reducing fuel loads, thus decreasing wildfire intensity. Camp Williams is a National Guard camp near Bluffdale, Utah, where small arms and artillery training occurs. Managers at Camp Williams have created fuel breaks by implementing targeted sheep and goat grazing to remove fine fuel and thin brush. Management objectives set utilization of fine fuels (herbaceous) at 80% by weight. Questions arose regarding the ecological impact of the prescribed grazing rates in ...


On The Maintained Significance Of Botanical Illustration In Modern Plant Identification Guides, Andi Kur 2018 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

On The Maintained Significance Of Botanical Illustration In Modern Plant Identification Guides, Andi Kur

Honors Theses

This project began over 2.5 years ago when I, an artist by hobby, contacted Dr. Joey Shaw, the director of the Herbarium at the University of Tennessee Chattanooga, with a request to sketch from specimens in the UCHT collection. Dr. Shaw, fortuitously in need of an illustrator, prompted me with the opportunity to collaborate with him in the creation of illustrations for the second edition of the Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee. From here, this project has grown as we have attempted to determine the most effective way to illustrate the guide, our questions manifesting in a ...


Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer McCown 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer Mccown

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction of a new dicamba-resistant (Xtend) trait in soybean and cotton will increase dicamba herbicide use. Consequently, concern for injury to sensitive crops from off-target movement and tank contamination will likely increase. For soybean, foliar symptoms associated with dicamba damage do not necessarily reflect yield losses; hence, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dicamba on soybean growth, yield, and offspring. Low rates of dicamba [1/64X (8.75 g ae ha-1) and 1/256X (2.18 g ae ha-1) of a normal 1X field rate (560 g ae ha-1)] were applied at two vegetative growth stages (V4, V6 ...


Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Oxidative metabolism is required to produce adequate energy to sustain human life. A primary example of deteriorating oxidative capacity is seen in the cardiac musculature during chronic heart failure. This suggests that by improving oxidative potential, chronic heart disease could be mitigated and one approach to accomplish this may be through targeting the mt-mRNA translation system. Purpose: This investigation’s purpose was to characterize disruptions in mt-mRNA translation machinery in multiple forms of cardiomyopathy and to determine if mitochondrial mRNA translation initiation factor (mtIF2) is necessary to maintain oxidative capacity in cardiomyocytes. Methods Using a combination of animal and cell ...


An Evaluation Of Breeding, Agronomic, And Processing Methodologies Of Vegetable Soybean (Edamame) To Increase Domestic Production In The United States Market, David Octor Moseley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Evaluation Of Breeding, Agronomic, And Processing Methodologies Of Vegetable Soybean (Edamame) To Increase Domestic Production In The United States Market, David Octor Moseley

Theses and Dissertations

Edamame is a food-grade soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) that is either harvested immature (R6 stage) or after plant maturity (R8 stage). At R6, the premium product will have crescent- shaped large green pods and gray pubescence. At R8, the seed will either have stayed green or will have turned yellow, black, or brown. Edamame is a healthy snack with a sweet flavor and firm texture. The edamame market is growing in the United States, creating a need for more adapted varieties. The genetic diversity is low among adapted large-seeded breeding lines. Finding diverse accessions will help develop larger and ...


Using Covers And Wetting Agents To Prevent Winter Injury Of Ultradwarf Bermudagrass, Eric Deboer 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Covers And Wetting Agents To Prevent Winter Injury Of Ultradwarf Bermudagrass, Eric Deboer

Theses and Dissertations

As ultradwarf bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) putting green use in the United States moves further north, there is risk of sustaining winter injury from low-temperature exposure and tissue desiccation. Protective covers reduce low-temperature exposure on ultradwarf bermudagrass greens. Desiccation of turf can be caused by hydrophobic soils. Wetting agents are applied to actively growing ultradwarf bermudagrass greens to relieve symptoms of hydrophobic soils. Less is known about the effects late-fall wetting agent applications on dormant bermudagrass putting greens. This research aims to define a predicted low-temperature threshold for covering ultradwarf bermudagrass greens and to quantify the ...


A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder

Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of small grains caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. FHB poses potential economic losses and health risks due to the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on infected seed heads. The objectives of this study are: 1) evaluate soft red winter wheat (SRWW) lines for resistance to FHB in terms of resistance to initial inoculum (incidence); resistance to spread within the head (severity); resistance to DON accumulation; and resistance to Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), 2) determine the frequency and effect of known FHB resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and 3 ...


Effect Of Silicon On Wheat Growth And Development In Drought And Salinity Stress, Spencer A. Tibbitts 2018 Utah State University

Effect Of Silicon On Wheat Growth And Development In Drought And Salinity Stress, Spencer A. Tibbitts

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Silicon is a major component of most soils, and is found in significant concentration in plant tissue. Plants vary widely in the amount of silicon they take up, with some plants excluding it, and others using transporters to move the silicon from the soil into their roots. Early plant physiology studies were unable to determine conclusively whether silicon was essential to plant growth, but for some plants, most notably rice, it has proved to be important enough to justify fertilizing silicon deficient fields.

Researchers at the USU Crop Physiology Lab tested the effect of silicon on wheat growth and seed ...


Breeding Season Ecology And Demography Of Lesser Scaup (Aythya Affinis) At Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Jeffrey M. Warren 2018 Utah State University

Breeding Season Ecology And Demography Of Lesser Scaup (Aythya Affinis) At Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Jeffrey M. Warren

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It is hypothesized that individuals make reproductive decisions based on current assessments of their physiological condition and environmental conditions. For female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), breeding occurs after an energetically costly spring migration. Increasing fat reserves (i.e., ‘body condition’) prior to breeding allows a female to produce a larger clutch of eggs, but time spent gaining body condition is costly in terms of time allowed to raise ducklings before freezing conditions in the fall. In Chapter 2 I explored rate of pre-breeding body condition gain in female lesser scaup, and how that rate influenced clutch size. Spring phenology, measured ...


Using Remotely Piloted Aircraft And Infrared Technology To Detect And Monitor Greater Sage-Grouse, Thomas R. Thompson 2018 Utah State University

Using Remotely Piloted Aircraft And Infrared Technology To Detect And Monitor Greater Sage-Grouse, Thomas R. Thompson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In wildlife management, using cutting edge technology and science to monitor greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) populations, enables land managers to better assess the impact of their management decisions. Having precise counts of sage-grouse lek attendance, and specifically male lek attendance, is an important metric used to evaluate population status and response to conservation actions (Gifford et.al, 2013, Dahlgren et al., 2016). Leks are seasonal breeding sites where males perform a ritualistic courtship dance for females.

Our case study examined if a Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) was effective in detecting, and counting, sage-grouse during the lek season (early March ...


Historical Biogeography And Natural History Of Nocturnal Wasps In The Southwestern Deserts With Special Emphasis On The Genus Chyphotes (Hymenoptera: Chyphotidae), Emily A. Sadler 2018 Utah State University

Historical Biogeography And Natural History Of Nocturnal Wasps In The Southwestern Deserts With Special Emphasis On The Genus Chyphotes (Hymenoptera: Chyphotidae), Emily A. Sadler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Deserts are interesting places due to the large number of plants and animals that live there. Nocturnal wasps are extremely abundant in deserts, but they are difficult to identify and their life cycles are not well known especially the families of Chyphotidae, Tiphiidae (Brachycistidinae), and Mutillidae (velvet ants). In this dissertation, I determine how to correctly identify a particularly difficult group of species that all have black heads from the family Chyphotidae. This is important because these species make up a large proportion of specimens collected. Also, I expanded our knowledge on the distribution of the species of these three ...


Phenology Of A Southern Population Of Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Ponderosae), Anne Elise McManis 2018 Utah State University

Phenology Of A Southern Population Of Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Ponderosae), Anne Elise Mcmanis

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, Hopkins) is a major disturbance agent in pine ecosystems of western North America. Adaptation to local climates has resulted in primarily univoltine (one generation per year) generation timing across a thermally diverse latitudinal gradient. We hypothesized that this pattern in total development time is shaped by selection for slower developmental rates, altered developmental thresholds, or oviposition rates in southern populations inhabiting warmer climates. To investigate traits responsible for latitudinal differences we measured lifestage-specific development of southern mountain pine beetle eggs, larvae and pupae across a range of temperatures. We also describe and model oviposition of ...


Novel Treatments For Native Forb Restoration In The Great Basin, Adam J. Fund 2018 Utah State University

Novel Treatments For Native Forb Restoration In The Great Basin, Adam J. Fund

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Public land management agencies, conservation organizations, and landowners are interested in expanding the diversity of plant species used in rangeland restoration seedings. While the restoration of native grasses and shrubs in the Great Basin has become increasingly successful, restoration of native forbs continues to be problematic. In the Great Basin, soil water availability and soil fungal pathogens are thought to limit to restoration success. During the course of two years, we conducted two field experiments at three sites in the Great Basin that spanned a latitudinal gradient encompassing different precipitation and temperature patterns.

In the first experiment, we evaluated two ...


Characterization Of Black Walnut Genotypes For Resistance To Thousand Cankers Disease, Frost Hardiness And Other Desirable Horticultural Traits, J. Elisa Lauritzen 2018 Utah State University

Characterization Of Black Walnut Genotypes For Resistance To Thousand Cankers Disease, Frost Hardiness And Other Desirable Horticultural Traits, J. Elisa Lauritzen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The black walnut, Juglans nigra L., is native to the United States (USA) and is a valuable timber and nut tree. Just before the beginning of the 21st century, several western states observed a decline in the health and, later, death of black walnut trees. The pathogen-vector complex now known as thousand cankers disease (TCD) was shown to be the cause. The disease, caused by Geosmithia morbida Kolařik, is vectored by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman. Thousands of WTB will swarm and enter a tree vectoring the fungus at each entry point where cankers then develop, quickly ...


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