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5,052 full-text articles. Page 164 of 165.

Effects Of Intimate Partner Violence On Pregnancy Trauma And Placental Abruption, Sandra D. Lane, J. Leone, E. H. Koumans, K. Demott, M. Wojtowycs, J. Jenson 2010 Syracuse University

Effects Of Intimate Partner Violence On Pregnancy Trauma And Placental Abruption, Sandra D. Lane, J. Leone, E. H. Koumans, K. Demott, M. Wojtowycs, J. Jenson

College Research Center

No abstract provided.


Beta-Glucan Effects On Pasting Properties And Potential Health Benefits Of Flours From Different Oat Lines, Yanjun Liu 2010 Iowa State University

Beta-Glucan Effects On Pasting Properties And Potential Health Benefits Of Flours From Different Oat Lines, Yanjun Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Oats (Avena sativa), a multifunctional crop, is nutritionally superior to many other unfortified cereals. Whole oat grains are good source of dietary fiber, especially soluble beta-glucans, protein, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.

Numerous laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that consumption of oat-based products can lower serum cholesterol levels, reduce glucose uptake, decrease plasma insulin response, and control weight through prolonged satiety (Davidson and others 1991; Braaten and others 1994; Mylkki and Virtanen 2001; Wood 2007). These physiological effects of oats are primarily attributable to the elevation of viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (Wood 2007), caused mainly by the beta-glucans. The ...


Assessing Prebiotic Effects Of Resistant Starch On Modulating Gut Microbiota With An In Vivo Animal Model And An In Vitro Semi-Continuous Fermentation Model, Li Li 2010 Iowa State University

Assessing Prebiotic Effects Of Resistant Starch On Modulating Gut Microbiota With An In Vivo Animal Model And An In Vitro Semi-Continuous Fermentation Model, Li Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resistant starch (RS) is the starch that escapes human digestion system and will be delivered to the lower gut for fermentation by gut microbiota. Five types of resistant starch have been described, including 1) physically amylase-inaccessible type 1 RS, 2) native high amylose type 2 RS, 3) retrograded type 3 RS, 4) chemically modified type 4 RS, and 5) fatty acid complexed type 5 RS. RS has been shown to lower postprandial glycemic index (including plasma glucose and insulin levels), indicating effects of RS in reducing risk of type II diabetes and possible obesity as well, In addition, RS fermentation ...


Effect Of Dietary Folate Restriction On Colon Carcinogenesis In Dna Polymerase Β Haploinsufficient Mice, Lisa F. Ventrella Lucente 2010 Wayne State University

Effect Of Dietary Folate Restriction On Colon Carcinogenesis In Dna Polymerase Β Haploinsufficient Mice, Lisa F. Ventrella Lucente

Wayne State University Dissertations

The data presented in this research is central to establishing the role that the base excision repair pathway (BER) plays in the development and progression of colon cancer when dietary folate is deficient. Both cellular folate restriction and BER deficiencies have been shown to result in the accumulation of endogenous damage and lesions that could eventually develop into carcinogenesis. In this study, a dietary folate deficiency (FD) resulted in a significant increase in aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and triggered liver tumorogenesis in wildtype (WT) animals, as did a BER deficiency in DNA polymerase Β haploinsufficient (Β-pol+/-) mice exposed to ...


Targeted Deletion Of Hepatocyte Abca1 Leads To Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Overproduction And Low Density Lipoprotein Hypercatabolism, Soonkyu Chung, Jenelle M. Timmins, MyNgan Duong, Chiara Degirolamo, Shunxing Rong, Janet K. Sawyer, Roshni R. Singaraja, Michael R. Hayden, Nobuyo Maeda, Lawrence L. Rudel, Gregory S. Shelness, John S. Parks 2010 Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Targeted Deletion Of Hepatocyte Abca1 Leads To Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Overproduction And Low Density Lipoprotein Hypercatabolism, Soonkyu Chung, Jenelle M. Timmins, Myngan Duong, Chiara Degirolamo, Shunxing Rong, Janet K. Sawyer, Roshni R. Singaraja, Michael R. Hayden, Nobuyo Maeda, Lawrence L. Rudel, Gregory S. Shelness, John S. Parks

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Loss of ABCA1 activity in Tangier disease (TD) is associated with abnormal apoB lipoprotein (Lp) metabolism in addition to the complete absence of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We used hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knock-out (HSKO) mice to test the hypothesis that hepatic ABCA1 plays dual roles in regulating Lp metabolism and nascent HDL formation. HSKO mice recapitulated the TD lipid phenotype with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, markedly decreased LDL, and near absence of HDL. Triglyceride (TG) secretion was 2-fold higher in HSKO compared with wild type mice, primarily due to secretion of larger TG-enriched VLDL secondary to reduced hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. HSKO mice ...


Liver Injury In Acute Fatty Liver Of Pregnancy: Possible Link To Placental Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Kavitha R. Thangaraj, C. E. Eapen, Anup Ramachandran, Ashis Mukhopadhya, Mathews Mathai, Lakshmi Seshadri, Abraham Peedikayil, Banumathi Ramakrishna, Kunnissery A. Balasubramanian 2010 Christian Medical College

Liver Injury In Acute Fatty Liver Of Pregnancy: Possible Link To Placental Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Kavitha R. Thangaraj, C. E. Eapen, Anup Ramachandran, Ashis Mukhopadhya, Mathews Mathai, Lakshmi Seshadri, Abraham Peedikayil, Banumathi Ramakrishna, Kunnissery A. Balasubramanian

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare disorder which is fatal if not recognized and treated early. Delivery of the feto-placental unit results in dramatic improvement in maternal liver function, suggesting a role for the placenta. However, the mechanisms by which defects in the fetus or placenta lead to maternal liver damage are not well understood and form the focus of this study. Placenta and serum were obtained at delivery from patients with AFLP, and placental mitochondria and peroxisomes were isolated. Placental mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and fatty acid composition as well asserumantioxidants, oxidativeandnitrosative stress markers,andfatty acid ...


Predicting Successful Aging In A Population-Based Sample Of Georgia Centenarians, Jonathan Arnold, Jianliang Dai, Lusine Nahapetyan, Ankit Arte, Mary Ann Johnson, Dorothy Hausman, Willard L. Rodgers, Robert Hensley, Peter Martin, Maurice MacDonald, Adam Davey, Ilene C. Siegler, S. Michal Jazwinski, Leonard W. Poon 2010 University of Georgia

Predicting Successful Aging In A Population-Based Sample Of Georgia Centenarians, Jonathan Arnold, Jianliang Dai, Lusine Nahapetyan, Ankit Arte, Mary Ann Johnson, Dorothy Hausman, Willard L. Rodgers, Robert Hensley, Peter Martin, Maurice Macdonald, Adam Davey, Ilene C. Siegler, S. Michal Jazwinski, Leonard W. Poon

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Used a population-based sample (Georgia Centenarian Study, GCS), to determine proportions of centenarians reaching 100 years as (1) survivors (43%) of chronic diseases first experienced between 0–80 years of age, (2) delayers (36%) with chronic diseases first experienced between 80–98 years of age, or (3) escapers (17%) with chronic diseases only at 98 years of age or older. Diseases fall into two morbidity profiles of 11 chronic diseases; one including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and osteoporosis, and another including dementia. Centenarians at risk for cancer in their lifetime tended to be escapers (73%), while those at risk for ...


Combined Therapy Of Dietary Fish Oil And Stearoyl-Coa Desaturase 1 Inhibition Prevents The Metabolic Syndrome And Atherosclerosis, J. Mark Brown, Soonkyu Chung, Janet K. Sawyer, Chiara Degirolamo, Heather M. Alger, Tam M. Nguyen, Xuewei Zhu, My-Ngan Duong, Amanda L. Brown, Caleb Lord, Ramesh Shah, Matthew A. Davis, Kathryn Kelley, Martha D. Wilson, Jennifer Madenspacher, Michael B. Fessler, John S. Parks, Lawrence L. Rudel 2010 Wake Forest University School of Medicine

Combined Therapy Of Dietary Fish Oil And Stearoyl-Coa Desaturase 1 Inhibition Prevents The Metabolic Syndrome And Atherosclerosis, J. Mark Brown, Soonkyu Chung, Janet K. Sawyer, Chiara Degirolamo, Heather M. Alger, Tam M. Nguyen, Xuewei Zhu, My-Ngan Duong, Amanda L. Brown, Caleb Lord, Ramesh Shah, Matthew A. Davis, Kathryn Kelley, Martha D. Wilson, Jennifer Madenspacher, Michael B. Fessler, John S. Parks, Lawrence L. Rudel

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background—Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a critical regulator of energy metabolism and inflammation. We have previously reported that inhibition of SCD1 in hyperlipidemic mice fed a saturated fatty acid (SFA)-enriched diet prevented development of the metabolic syndrome, yet surprisingly promoted severe atherosclerosis. In this study we tested whether dietary fish oil supplementation could prevent the accelerated atherosclerosis caused by SCD1 inhibition.

Methods and Results—LDLr-/-, ApoB100/100 mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat or fish oil in conjunction with antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatment to inhibit SCD1. As previously reported, in SFA-fed mice, SCD1 inhibition dramatically ...


Nutrition-Related Practices And Attitudes Of Kansas Skipped-Generation(S) Caregivers And Their Grandchildren, Mary Meck Higgins, Bethany J. Murray 2010 Kansas State University

Nutrition-Related Practices And Attitudes Of Kansas Skipped-Generation(S) Caregivers And Their Grandchildren, Mary Meck Higgins, Bethany J. Murray

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Despite growing numbers, the nutrition practices and attitudes of skipped-generation(s) kinship caregivers regarding feeding the dependent children in their care have not been examined. In this qualitative study, transcriptions of semi-structured interviews with 19 female and four male skipped-generation(s) Kansas caregivers (ages 47 to 80, 92% non-Hispanic whites, 83% female, 78% grandparents and 22% great-aunt or great-grandparent caregivers; caring for a range of one to four children, ages three to 18, for an average of nine years) were content analyzed for how their nutrition-related practices and attitudes had changed since parenting the first time. Sub-themes regarding practices included ...


The Carboxyl-Terminal Segment Of Apolipoprotein A-V Undergoes A Lipid-Induced Conformational Change, Kasuen Mauldin, B. L. Lee, M. Oleszczuk, B. D. Sykes, R. O. Ryan 2010 University of California - Berkeley

The Carboxyl-Terminal Segment Of Apolipoprotein A-V Undergoes A Lipid-Induced Conformational Change, Kasuen Mauldin, B. L. Lee, M. Oleszczuk, B. D. Sykes, R. O. Ryan

Faculty Publications

Apolipoprotein (apo) A-V is a 343-residue, multidomain protein that plays an important role in regulation of plasma triglyceride homeostasis. Primary sequence analysis revealed a unique tetraproline sequence (Pro293-Pro296) near the carboxyl terminus of the protein. A peptide corresponding to the 48-residue segment beyond the tetraproline motif was generated from a recombinant apoA-V precursor wherein Pro295 was replaced by Met. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of the precursor protein, followed by negative affinity chromatography, yielded a purified peptide. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis verified that apoA-V(296-343) solubilizes phospholipid vesicles, forming a relatively heterogeneous population of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein with Stokes’ diameters>17 nm ...


Implementing A Solid Waste Management Diversion Program In A Conventional Cook–Serve Hospital System: A Feasibility Study, Marjorie Freedman, Irene Franklin 2010 San Jose State University

Implementing A Solid Waste Management Diversion Program In A Conventional Cook–Serve Hospital System: A Feasibility Study, Marjorie Freedman, Irene Franklin

Faculty Publications

Americans generate over 250 million tons of municipal solid waste (trash) each year, with institutional facilities such as hospitals accounting for up to 45% of this waste. Solid waste diversion, through recycling and composting, decreases the waste sent to landfills. The objective of this feasibility study was to implement an integrated solid waste diversion program at a conventional cook–serve kitchen for a 250-bed hospital. The waste diversion program resulted in 1390 pounds of organic matter and recycling being diverted from landfills over 5 days. It is estimated that the continuing program will reduce landfill waste by 51 tons annually.


Obesity And Food Choices Among Faculty And Staff At A Large Urban University, Marjorie Freedman, Rebecca Rubinstein 2010 San Jose State University

Obesity And Food Choices Among Faculty And Staff At A Large Urban University, Marjorie Freedman, Rebecca Rubinstein

Faculty Publications

Objective: In order to address increasing health care costs associated with obesity, this study sought to determine prevalence of overweight and obesity and examine eating behaviors, food choices, health beliefs, and attitudes of university employees. Participants and Methods: An online survey was distributed to > 3,800 faculty and staff at a large public metropolitan university in Winter 2008. Results: Almost half (48%) of 806 respondents were classified as overweight or obese. Compared to those with normal weights, overweight and obese respondents consumed fewer fruits and vegetables (p < .05), were less confident in making healthful food choices (p < .001), and were more influenced by food choices available in on-campus dining facilities (p < .05). Conclusions: Obesity among university employees warrants attention. Because these employees have less self-efficacy and consume less healthful diets than their normal weight colleagues, universities need to improve on-campus access to healthful foods.


Development, Evaluation, And Validation Of Environmental Assessment Tools To Evaluate The College Nutrition Environment, Marjorie Freedman 2010 San Jose State University

Development, Evaluation, And Validation Of Environmental Assessment Tools To Evaluate The College Nutrition Environment, Marjorie Freedman

Faculty Publications

Objective: To develop, evaluate, and validate 2 nutrition environment assessment tools (surveys), for specific use in combating overweight on college/university campuses.Participants and Methods: Invitations to complete surveys were e-mailed to food service and health center directors at 47 universities, Winter 2008. Overall response rate was 48%. Responses from the 39 individuals who completed tool evaluations at the end of each survey were analyzed. Follow-up interviews and site visits performed through Summer 2008 validated responses. Results: The majority of respondents (64%) indicated tools were effective at assessing their nutrition environments; 78% believed these types of assessment tools to be ...


Protective Effects Of Polydimethylsiloxane In Soybean Oil At Frying Temperatures, Jose Arnaldo Gerde 2010 Iowa State University

Protective Effects Of Polydimethylsiloxane In Soybean Oil At Frying Temperatures, Jose Arnaldo Gerde

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The impact of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on oxidation of soybean oil at frying temperatures was investigated. At concentrations of PDMS greater than that calculated to be necessary for a compact monolayer on the oil surface, the rates of degradation of linoleate (18:2) and gamma- and delta-tocopherols were slower than in untreated oil. Degradation rates of 18:2 increased after a certain time at frying temperatures, likely caused by a reduction of the tocopherols and/or the PDMS to levels at which they were no longer protective. PDMS decreased oxygen transfer to the oil at temperatures close to frying temperatures. The ...


Promoting Health Literacy Through The School Nutrition Environment, Amber Ann Appleton 2010 Iowa State University

Promoting Health Literacy Through The School Nutrition Environment, Amber Ann Appleton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Health literacy and food perceptions influence health knowledge, behaviors, and subsequent health status. Improving health literacy and modifying food perceptions through social marketing nutrition messaging may prove beneficial, particularly in youth. Presently, schools are sending youth mixed messages. Healthful eating behaviors are taught and promoted in the classroom, but not modeled in the school nutrition environment; items sold in competitive food venues (i.e. vending, ala carte, school stores) are typically energy dense, nutrient poor. Thus, the purpose of this study was to improve student health literacy and food perceptions through social marketing nutrition messaging and improving the quality ...


Estimating Intake Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids During Pregnancy, Rebecca Me Filipowicz 2010 Iowa State University

Estimating Intake Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids During Pregnancy, Rebecca Me Filipowicz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Estimating intake of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy

by

Rebecca Mary Elizabeth Filipowicz

The essential omega 3 (n-3) fatty acid alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) and the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important structural components of cell membranes. During pregnancy a steady supply of n-3 fatty acids is required to support positive fetal development (1-4) and maternal health (5-9). Over the past decade, extensive clinical research has focused on the role of DHA during pregnancy because it is incorporated into fetal brain grey matter and retina cell membranes more than any other n-3 ...


Reduction In Mucosal Barrier Markers With Soy Protein Diet But Not Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Gg In Dss-Treated Mice, Huanyi Jiang 2010 Iowa State University

Reduction In Mucosal Barrier Markers With Soy Protein Diet But Not Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Gg In Dss-Treated Mice, Huanyi Jiang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) increased recently. Within the colon, the family of mucins and trefoil factors (TFF) facilitate mucosal protection. Our objective was to determine if diet and/or administration of LGG would attenuate DSS-induced colitis by altering expression of the MUC and TFF genes. C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing casein, soy, or whey protein with or without LGG for 12 days. Seven days after LGG, the mice were given 2% DSS for 4 days. One day after DSS treatment the colonic and cecal tissues and fecal samples were collected and analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR ...


Resistant-Starch Formation In High-Amylose Maize Starch, Hongxin Jiang 2010 Iowa State University

Resistant-Starch Formation In High-Amylose Maize Starch, Hongxin Jiang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A new public high-amylose maize line, GEMS-0067, has been developed by USDA-ARS Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project. GEMS-0067 maize line is a homozygous mutant of amylose-extender (ae) gene and high-amylose modifier (HAM) gene(s). GEMS-0067 starches consist of 83.1-85.6% apparent amylose and 39.4%-43.2% resistant starch (RS), which are larger than the ae single-mutant starches (61.7-67.7% and 11.5%-19.1%, respectively) and normal maize starch (~30% and <1%, respectively). Maize ae-mutant starches consisted of spherical and elongated granules (up to 32%), which differed from normal maize starch, consisting of spherical and angular granules. The objectives of this study were to understand the mechanism of the RS formation in the maize ae-mutant starches, the crystalline structures of the maize ae-mutant starches, the formation of RS and elongated starch granules during the kernel development, and how dosage of the HAM gene(s) affected the structures and properties of endosperm starch of maize ae-mutant. We analyzed the structures and properties of the RS residues that remained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the maize ae-mutant starches at 95-100C (AOAC method 991.43). The RS residues consisted of mainly partially hydrolyzed amylose and intermediate component (IC) and were more concentrated in the elongated starch granules and the outer layer of the spherical granules. The RS residues displayed the B-type polymorph and had gelatinization temperatures above 100C. These results suggested that long-chain double-helical crystallites of amylose/IC were present in the native maize ae-mutant starches. The amylose/IC crystallites maintained the semi-crystalline structures at 95-100C and were resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis at 95-100C.

To understand the crystalline structures of the maize ae-mutant starches, we prepared Naegeli dextrins of the starches using sulfuric acid (15.3%, v/v) hydrolysis ...


Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly 2010 Iowa State University

Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 (GH44) protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli.The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2.2-Å resolution revealed a triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-like structure with additional Greek key and β-sandwich folds, similar to other GH44 crystal structures. The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is ...


Cell Adhesion Property Affected By Cyclooxygenase And Lipoxygenase: Opto-Electric Approach (With Chang Kyoung Choi, Mugdha Sukhthankar, Chul-Ho Kim, Seong-Ho Lee, Anthony English, Kenneth D. Kihm., Seung Baek 2009 The University of Tennessee

Cell Adhesion Property Affected By Cyclooxygenase And Lipoxygenase: Opto-Electric Approach (With Chang Kyoung Choi, Mugdha Sukhthankar, Chul-Ho Kim, Seong-Ho Lee, Anthony English, Kenneth D. Kihm., Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed-time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed-time point experiment, only COX-1- ...


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