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Utility Of The Sensewear Pro 3 Armband Monitor And The Weight Management System For Evaluating Energy Balance In Adults, Annette Sarah Mcguire 2010 Iowa State University

Utility Of The Sensewear Pro 3 Armband Monitor And The Weight Management System For Evaluating Energy Balance In Adults, Annette Sarah Mcguire

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The progression of the obesity epidemic stems directly from the inability of individuals to achieve a balance between energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake (EI). To enhance research on obesity prevention it is important to develop and validate instruments that can facilitate monitoring of energy balance (EB) under free-living conditions. The SenseWear Pro 3 armband (SWA) monitor and associated weight management system (WMS) offer promise as a non-invasive method suitable for energy balance research. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the utility of the SWA and WMS to assess EB during a week of free-living activity. A ...


Assessing Prebiotic Effects Of Resistant Starch On Modulating Gut Microbiota With An In Vivo Animal Model And An In Vitro Semi-Continuous Fermentation Model, Li Li 2010 Iowa State University

Assessing Prebiotic Effects Of Resistant Starch On Modulating Gut Microbiota With An In Vivo Animal Model And An In Vitro Semi-Continuous Fermentation Model, Li Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resistant starch (RS) is the starch that escapes human digestion system and will be delivered to the lower gut for fermentation by gut microbiota. Five types of resistant starch have been described, including 1) physically amylase-inaccessible type 1 RS, 2) native high amylose type 2 RS, 3) retrograded type 3 RS, 4) chemically modified type 4 RS, and 5) fatty acid complexed type 5 RS. RS has been shown to lower postprandial glycemic index (including plasma glucose and insulin levels), indicating effects of RS in reducing risk of type II diabetes and possible obesity as well, In addition, RS fermentation ...


Resistant-Starch Formation In High-Amylose Maize Starch, Hongxin Jiang 2010 Iowa State University

Resistant-Starch Formation In High-Amylose Maize Starch, Hongxin Jiang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A new public high-amylose maize line, GEMS-0067, has been developed by USDA-ARS Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project. GEMS-0067 maize line is a homozygous mutant of amylose-extender (ae) gene and high-amylose modifier (HAM) gene(s). GEMS-0067 starches consist of 83.1-85.6% apparent amylose and 39.4%-43.2% resistant starch (RS), which are larger than the ae single-mutant starches (61.7-67.7% and 11.5%-19.1%, respectively) and normal maize starch (~30% and <1%, respectively). Maize ae-mutant starches consisted of spherical and elongated granules (up to 32%), which differed from normal maize starch, consisting of spherical and angular granules. The objectives of this study were to understand the mechanism of the RS formation in the maize ae-mutant starches, the crystalline structures of the maize ae-mutant starches, the formation of RS and elongated starch granules during the kernel development, and how dosage of the HAM gene(s) affected the structures and properties of endosperm starch of maize ae-mutant. We analyzed the structures and properties of the RS residues that remained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the maize ae-mutant starches at 95-100C (AOAC method 991.43). The RS residues consisted of mainly partially hydrolyzed amylose and intermediate component (IC) and were more concentrated in the elongated starch granules and the outer layer of the spherical granules. The RS residues displayed the B-type polymorph and had gelatinization temperatures above 100C. These results suggested that long-chain double-helical crystallites of amylose/IC were present in the native maize ae-mutant starches. The amylose/IC crystallites maintained the semi-crystalline structures at 95-100C and were resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis at 95-100C.

To understand the crystalline structures of the maize ae-mutant starches, we prepared Naegeli dextrins of the starches using sulfuric acid (15.3%, v/v) hydrolysis ...


Protective Effects Of Polydimethylsiloxane In Soybean Oil At Frying Temperatures, Jose Arnaldo Gerde 2010 Iowa State University

Protective Effects Of Polydimethylsiloxane In Soybean Oil At Frying Temperatures, Jose Arnaldo Gerde

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The impact of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on oxidation of soybean oil at frying temperatures was investigated. At concentrations of PDMS greater than that calculated to be necessary for a compact monolayer on the oil surface, the rates of degradation of linoleate (18:2) and gamma- and delta-tocopherols were slower than in untreated oil. Degradation rates of 18:2 increased after a certain time at frying temperatures, likely caused by a reduction of the tocopherols and/or the PDMS to levels at which they were no longer protective. PDMS decreased oxygen transfer to the oil at temperatures close to frying temperatures. The ...


Exercise Prevents Hyperhomocysteinemia In A Folate-Deficient Mouse Model, Joshua Charles Neuman 2010 Iowa State University

Exercise Prevents Hyperhomocysteinemia In A Folate-Deficient Mouse Model, Joshua Charles Neuman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Normal folate, homocysteine, and methyl group metabolism is critical for maintaining optimum health, and perturbations in these mechanisms may lead to a number of pathological conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neural tube defects, and cancer. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a condition that occurs when blood plasma concentrations of homocysteine exceed 15μM and has been implicated as an independent risk factor in cardiovascular disease. Specifically, populations with genetic polymorphisms in folate-dependent remethylation or poor B-vitamin status are at risk for this condition. This study was conducted in order to determine the influence of exercise on homocysteine and methyl group metabolism in a ...


The Dose-Response Effects Of The Amount Of Oil In Salad Dressing On The Bioavailability Of Carotenoids And Fat-Soluble Vitamins In Salad Vegetables, Agatha Agustiana 2010 Iowa State University

The Dose-Response Effects Of The Amount Of Oil In Salad Dressing On The Bioavailability Of Carotenoids And Fat-Soluble Vitamins In Salad Vegetables, Agatha Agustiana

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of the study were to define the dose-response relation of the amount of added oil and: 1) the absorption of carotenoids, phylloquinone and tocopherols in salad vegetables and 2) the absorption of retinyl palmitate formed from the ingested provitamin A carotenoids, ¦Á- and ¦Â-carotene. Women (n = 12) each consumed 5 salads containing equivalent amounts of carrot, cherry tomato, romaine lettuce and spinach. The salads with salad dressings containing 0, 2, 4, 8 or 32 g tocopherol-stripped soybean oil were ingested in random order separated by ¡Ý 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 2, 3.5 ...


Improving Feed Quality By Proper Processing Of Raw Materials, Stephen Setiawan 2010 Iowa State University

Improving Feed Quality By Proper Processing Of Raw Materials, Stephen Setiawan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objectives of my research were 1) to understand effects of drying temperature and storage of corn kernels at an elevated humidity on starch structure and functions, and 2) to develop a method to produce cassava-based feed that resembles a commercially available corn-based feed product. Corn kernels with 32.5% moisture (db) dried at higher temperatures (80yC or 120/80yC) had higher starch digestibility than that dried at a low temperature (37yC). Starch isolated from the corn kernels dried at the higher temperatures had higher gelatinization temperature and lower gelatinization enthalpy-changes than that from corn kernels dried at the lower temperature ...


The Role Of Adiponectin On Body Composition, Adipocyte Differenetiation, Preadipocyte Proliferation And Its Modulation Of Inflammation With High Fat Diets, Douglas Robert Braucher 2010 Iowa State University

The Role Of Adiponectin On Body Composition, Adipocyte Differenetiation, Preadipocyte Proliferation And Its Modulation Of Inflammation With High Fat Diets, Douglas Robert Braucher

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing attributes of high circulating adiponectin concentrations in the mouse were recently suggested to occur as a result of subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion. Although there is a plethora of data describing the affects adiponectin has on metabolism and inflammation, there are limited data on its role in the growth of adipose tissue. Our data in adiponectin null mice indicate, the consumption of a high fat diet does not significantly change body composition from that of diet matched wild type mice. Furthermore, there was no observable difference in the inflammatory profile of our adiponectin null mice fed ...


Deactivation Of Soybean Agglutinin By Enzyme Hydrolysis And Identification Of Active Peptides From Soy Proteins, Yating Ma 2010 Iowa State University

Deactivation Of Soybean Agglutinin By Enzyme Hydrolysis And Identification Of Active Peptides From Soy Proteins, Yating Ma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A series of experiments was conducted to eliminate activity of SBA. Deglycosylation decreased activity of SBA by 21%, but not as much as denaturation (23-53%). Single enzymes did not hydrolyze native SBA, but hydrolyzed heat- or organic solutes-denatured SBA. Even after hydrolysis, activity of SBA still was not fully eliminated (44-62% residual). A combination of multiple enzymes with thermolysin fully deactivated heat- or organic solutes-treated SBA. Tea polyphenols, metal ions, chelating agents were also tested and had no significant effect on deactivating SBA. N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc)-agrose beads specifically removed SBA from a protein mixture, but not fully and activity of ...


Cell Adhesion Property Affected By Cyclooxygenase And Lipoxygenase: Opto-Electric Approach (With Chang Kyoung Choi, Mugdha Sukhthankar, Chul-Ho Kim, Seong-Ho Lee, Anthony English, Kenneth D. Kihm., Seung Baek 2009 The University of Tennessee

Cell Adhesion Property Affected By Cyclooxygenase And Lipoxygenase: Opto-Electric Approach (With Chang Kyoung Choi, Mugdha Sukhthankar, Chul-Ho Kim, Seong-Ho Lee, Anthony English, Kenneth D. Kihm., Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed-time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed-time point experiment, only COX-1- ...


Nsaid-Activated Gene-1 As A Molecular Target For Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis Through A Novel Molecular Mechanism Involving Gsk3beta, C/Ebpbeta And Atf3, Seung Baek, Seong-Ho Lee, Chutwadee Krisanapun 2009 The University of Tennessee

Nsaid-Activated Gene-1 As A Molecular Target For Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis Through A Novel Molecular Mechanism Involving Gsk3beta, C/Ebpbeta And Atf3, Seung Baek, Seong-Ho Lee, Chutwadee Krisanapun

Seung J Baek

Capsaicin, a natural product of the Capsicum species of red peppers, is known to induce apoptosis and suppress growth. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a cytokine associated with pro-apoptotic and antitumorigenic property in colorectal and lung cancer. Our data demonstrate that capsaicin leads to induction of apoptosis and up-regulates NAG-1 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) caused a significant increase of basal and capsaicin-induced NAG-1 promoter activity. We subsequently identified C/EBPbeta binding sites in the NAG-1 promoter responsible for capsaicin-induced NAG-1 transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation ...


A Potential Proliferative Gene, Nudt6, Is Down-Regulated By Green Tea Catechins At The Posttranscriptional Level, Seung Baek, Mugdha Sukthankar, CK Choi, A English, JS Kim 2009 The University of Tennessee

A Potential Proliferative Gene, Nudt6, Is Down-Regulated By Green Tea Catechins At The Posttranscriptional Level, Seung Baek, Mugdha Sukthankar, Ck Choi, A English, Js Kim

Seung J Baek

The main aims of this study were to elucidate the effect of green tea catechins on Nudix-type motif 6 (NUDT6) suppression and to characterize NUDT6's biological activity. Our microarray data showed that the green tea component epicatechin-3-gallate suppressed NUDT6 expression, and this was confirmed by RT-PCR. Subsequently, the use of different catechins showed that the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was stronger than that of other catechins. At the posttranscriptional level, EGCG decreased the RNA stability of NUDT6, indicating it as a potential mechanism of NUDT6 suppression. Further cloning of the 3' untranslated region of human NUDT6 mRNA resulted in ...


Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviors: Children's And Parents' Attitudes, Motivations, And Practices, Meizi He, Leonard Piche, Charlene Beynon, Stewart Harris 2009 The University of Western Ontario - Brescia University College

Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviors: Children's And Parents' Attitudes, Motivations, And Practices, Meizi He, Leonard Piche, Charlene Beynon, Stewart Harris

Leonard Piché

OBJECTIVE: To investigate school-aged children's and parents' attitudes, social influences, and intentions toward excessive screen-related sedentary behavior (S-RSB).

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using a survey methodology.

SETTING: Elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada.

PARTICIPANTS: All grades 5 and 6 students, their parents, and their teachers in the participating schools were invited to voluntarily participate; 508 student-parent pairs completed the surveys.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Children's screen-related behaviors.

ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed using the Independent Student t test to compare differences of continuous variables and the chi-square test to test for differences of categorical variables.

RESULTS: Children spent 3.3 ...


Restaurants In London, On, Lenoard Piche, Elena Usdenski 2009 University of Western Ontario

Restaurants In London, On, Lenoard Piche, Elena Usdenski

Leonard Piché

Brescia professor, Dr. Len Piché, and Foods and Nutrition Masters student, Elena Usdenski, provide information about the features of London's restaurants and the nutritional analysis of their signature dishes.


In Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity Of Alcoholic Stem Extract Of Coscinium Fenestratum In Human Colorectal Cancer Cells, P Rojsanga, M Sukthankar, C Krisanapun, W Gritsanapan, D Lawson, Seung Baek 2009 The University of Tennessee

In Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity Of Alcoholic Stem Extract Of Coscinium Fenestratum In Human Colorectal Cancer Cells, P Rojsanga, M Sukthankar, C Krisanapun, W Gritsanapan, D Lawson, Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr. is traditionally used for the treatment of cancer, arthritis and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms by which this plant shows beneficial effects. An 80% ethanolic extract of C. fenestratum (80ET) was separated by its polarity into dichloromethane (DCM) and aqueous fractions (WF), and the anti-proliferative effects of 80ET, DCM and WF were investigated. Berberine, one of the major components of C. fenestratum, was used as a control. The 80ET, DCM, WF and berberine showed anti-proliferative activity as assessed by cell growth assay. Subsequently, the pro-apoptotic proteins NAG-1 and ...


Lifestyle, Anthropometric, And Obesity-Related Physiologic Determinants Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 In The Third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994).Pdf, Niyati Parekh, Calpurnyia B. Roberts, Maya Vadiveloo, Thanusha Puvananayagam, Jeanine Albu, Grace L. Lu-Yao 2009 University of Rhode Island

Lifestyle, Anthropometric, And Obesity-Related Physiologic Determinants Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 In The Third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994).Pdf, Niyati Parekh, Calpurnyia B. Roberts, Maya Vadiveloo, Thanusha Puvananayagam, Jeanine Albu, Grace L. Lu-Yao

Maya Vadiveloo

PURPOSE: Epidemiologic studies suggest that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is associated with obesity and, more recently, cancer. This study investigates multiple lifestyle, physiologic, and anthropometric determinants of circulating IGF-1 concentrations.
METHODS: Nationally representative data were used from the cross-sectional Third National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES III, 1988–1994) survey, which measured IGF-1 concentrations in blood, from a subsample of participants who were examined in the morning. After exclusion of persons with missing data, 6,058 men and women 20 years of age or older were included in the study.
RESULTS: The mean IGF-1 concentrations were 260 ng/mL in ...


Obesity And Food Choices Among Faculty And Staff At A Large Urban University, Marjorie R. Freedman, Rebecca J. Rubinstein 2009 San Jose State University

Obesity And Food Choices Among Faculty And Staff At A Large Urban University, Marjorie R. Freedman, Rebecca J. Rubinstein

Marjorie R. Freedman

Objective: In order to address increasing health care costs associated with obesity, this study sought to determine prevalence of overweight and obesity and examine eating behaviors, food choices, health beliefs, and attitudes of university employees. Participants and Methods: An online survey was distributed to > 3,800 faculty and staff at a large public metropolitan university in Winter 2008. Results: Almost half (48%) of 806 respondents were classified as overweight or obese. Compared to those with normal weights, overweight and obese respondents consumed fewer fruits and vegetables (p < .05), were less confident in making healthful food choices (p < .001), and were ...


The Carboxyl-Terminal Segment Of Apolipoprotein A-V Undergoes A Lipid-Induced Conformational Change, Kasuen Mauldin, B. L. Lee, M. Oleszczuk, B. D. Sykes, R. O. Ryan 2009 University of California - Berkeley

The Carboxyl-Terminal Segment Of Apolipoprotein A-V Undergoes A Lipid-Induced Conformational Change, Kasuen Mauldin, B. L. Lee, M. Oleszczuk, B. D. Sykes, R. O. Ryan

Kasuen Mauldin

Apolipoprotein (apo) A-V is a 343-residue, multidomain protein that plays an important role in regulation of plasma triglyceride homeostasis. Primary sequence analysis revealed a unique tetraproline sequence (Pro293-Pro296) near the carboxyl terminus of the protein. A peptide corresponding to the 48-residue segment beyond the tetraproline motif was generated from a recombinant apoA-V precursor wherein Pro295 was replaced by Met. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of the precursor protein, followed by negative affinity chromatography, yielded a purified peptide. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis verified that apoA-V(296-343) solubilizes phospholipid vesicles, forming a relatively heterogeneous population of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein with Stokes’ diameters>17 nm ...


Nutrient Analysis Of Varying Socioeconomic Status Home Food Environments In New Jersey State, Scott D. Schefske, Cara L. Cuite, Anne C. Bellows, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Teresa Vivar, Holly Rapport, William K. Hallman 2009 Syracuse University

Nutrient Analysis Of Varying Socioeconomic Status Home Food Environments In New Jersey State, Scott D. Schefske, Cara L. Cuite, Anne C. Bellows, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Teresa Vivar, Holly Rapport, William K. Hallman

Anne Bellows

Home food inventories of Oaxacan Mexican-American and African-American families of low-socioeconomic status living in an urban area in New Jersey with at least one child under the age of 12 were conducted using Universal Product Code scanning. The African-American and Oaxacan household food supplies were compared with a sample of White households, also with at least one child under the age of 12, not of low-socioeconomic status. Nutrient Adequacy Ratios for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, sugar, dietary fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron were used to quantify the adequacy of household food supplies ...


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