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Comparison Of Affective Analgesia And Conditioned Place Preference Following Cholinergic Activation Of, Elena Schifirnet 2010 Wayne State University

Comparison Of Affective Analgesia And Conditioned Place Preference Following Cholinergic Activation Of, Elena Schifirnet

Wayne State University Dissertations

Activation of the dopaminergic mesolimbic reward circuitry that originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is postulated to preferentially suppress affective reactions to noxious stimuli (affective analgesia, AA). VTA dopamine neurons are activated via cholinergic inputs, and we have observed that microinjections of the acetylcholine agonist carbachol suppressed vocalizations of rats that occur following administration of brief (1 sec) tail-shocks (vocalization afterdischarges = VAD). VADs are a validated rodent model of pain affect. In addition, the capacity of carbachol to support reinforcement appears to be regionally dependent within VTA. Ikemoto and Wise (2002) reported that carbachol was self-administered in the posterior ...


Metabolic Targeting Of Malignant Glioma: Modulation Of Glycolytic Flux By Erythropoietic Factors, Todd Brendon Francis 2010 Wayne State University

Metabolic Targeting Of Malignant Glioma: Modulation Of Glycolytic Flux By Erythropoietic Factors, Todd Brendon Francis

Wayne State University Dissertations

Introduction: Malignant glioma display a highly glycolytic phenotype where the tumors flux glucose to lactic acid independent of oxygen concentration ("aerobic glycolysis"). This altered phenotype is facilitated by expression of primarily fetal enzyme isoforms in these malignant tumors. The end-product lactic acid is rapidly expelled from the cytosol by selective monocarboxylate transporters expressed on the plasma membrane. GATA response element islands are present on the promoter of glioma lactate transporter genes, and GATA-1 has been shown to be over-expressed in glioblastoma. Our long-term goal is to inhibit glioma proliferation by indirectly down-regulating GATA-1 to inhibit glycolysis. (Colen et al., 2006 ...


Role Of Kappa-Opioid Receptors In The Effects Of Salvinorin A And Ketamine On Attention Behavior In Rats, Christina L. Nemeth, Tracie A. Paine, Joseph E. Rittiner, Cécile Béguin, F. Ivy Carroll, Bryan L. Roth, Bruce M. Cohen, William A. Carlezon Jr. 2010 Oberlin College

Role Of Kappa-Opioid Receptors In The Effects Of Salvinorin A And Ketamine On Attention Behavior In Rats, Christina L. Nemeth, Tracie A. Paine, Joseph E. Rittiner, Cécile Béguin, F. Ivy Carroll, Bryan L. Roth, Bruce M. Cohen, William A. Carlezon Jr.

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Background: Disruptions in perception and cognition are characteristic of psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia. Studies of pharmacological agents that alter perception and cognition in humans might provide a better understanding of the brain substrates of these complex processes. One way to study these states in rodents is with tests that require attention and visual perception for correct performance. Methods: We examined the effects of two drugs that cause disruptions in perception and cognition in humans—the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist salvinorin A (salvA; 0.125–4.0 mg/kg) and the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine (0.63–20 mg ...


Circadian Wheel-Running Activity During Withdrawal From Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure In Mice, Joseph Seggio 2009 Bridgewater State College

Circadian Wheel-Running Activity During Withdrawal From Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure In Mice, Joseph Seggio

Joseph A. Seggio

Alcohol withdrawal is associated with affective–behavioral disturbances in both human alcoholics and in animal models. In general, these phenomena are potentiated by increased alcohol exposure duration and by prior withdrawal episodes. Previous studies have also reported locomotor hypoactivity during ethanol withdrawal in rats and mice, but only in novel test environments and not in the home cage. In the present study, we examined the effects of withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure on the level and circadian periodicity of wheel-running activity in C57BL/6J mice. CIE treatment resulted in reductions in wheel-running activity compared with plain-air controls ...


Review Of Pregnancy Diagnosis Techniques In Cattle And Small Ruminants, Brian Whitlock, Elizabeth Coffman 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Review Of Pregnancy Diagnosis Techniques In Cattle And Small Ruminants, Brian Whitlock, Elizabeth Coffman

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Pregnancy diagnosis is a common management practice for ruminants and there are a number of methods available, with each having advantage(s) and/or disadvantage(s). A brief review of pregnancy diagnosis techniques in cattle, goats, and sheep is provided.


Update On Heritable Congenital Defects In Cattle, Brian Whitlock 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Update On Heritable Congenital Defects In Cattle, Brian Whitlock

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection. In some breeds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Veterinarians, animal scientists, and cattle breeders should be aware of inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal phenotypes. This review will describe the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of testing for selected (newly described) heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.


Amygdala And Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex Responses To Appearance-Based And Behavior-Based Person Impressions., Sean Baron, M Gobinni, Andrew Engell, Alex Todorov 2009 Kenyon College

Amygdala And Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex Responses To Appearance-Based And Behavior-Based Person Impressions., Sean Baron, M Gobinni, Andrew Engell, Alex Todorov

Andrew Engell

n/a


The Biology Of Reality Testing - Implications For Cognitive Education, Neil Greenberg 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

The Biology Of Reality Testing - Implications For Cognitive Education, Neil Greenberg

Neil Greenberg

• This report explores the proposition that teaching effectiveness can be enhanced by accommodating the key differences between two complementary and deeply engrained modes of reality testing, each predominantly centered in different hemispheres of the brain. • (1) Correspondence involves “reality-testing” of a percept, the cerebral representation of an experience in the world. • (2) Coherence involves “textualizing”, that is, reality-testing of a percept by how easily it relates to previous and ongoing parallel and collateral experiences. • Confidence in the validity of any percept throughout development is related to the interplay of these key processes. • As organisms develop, the “reference base” of previous ...


Distributed Representations Of Dynamic Facial Expressions In The Superior Temporal Sulcus., Chris Said, Chris Moore, Andrew Engell, Alex Todroov, James Haxby 2009 Kenyon College

Distributed Representations Of Dynamic Facial Expressions In The Superior Temporal Sulcus., Chris Said, Chris Moore, Andrew Engell, Alex Todroov, James Haxby

Andrew Engell

n/a


Influence Of Perinatal Exposure To A Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture On Learning And Memory, Hippocampal Size, And Estrogen Receptor-Beta Expression, Howard Cromwell 2009 Bowling Green State University

Influence Of Perinatal Exposure To A Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture On Learning And Memory, Hippocampal Size, And Estrogen Receptor-Beta Expression, Howard Cromwell

Howard Casey Cromwell

Abstract. Perinatal exposure to PCB has been reported to cause a variety of health effects including endocrine disruption, and immunologic, reproductive, neurologic, and behavioral deficits. In the present study, a mixture of two PCB congeners, one non-coplanar (PCB 47) and one coplanar (PCB 77), were administered to young female Sprague-Dawley rats by route of maternal dietary consumption (either 12.5 ppm or 25.0 ppm, w/w). Impact on learning and memory were examined by radial arm maze on postnatal day 24-27. After behavioral tests were completed, the rats were transcardially perfused, and brains were excised. Immunohistochemistry for ER- β ...


Ganaxolone Suppression Of Behavioral And Electrographic Seizures In The Mouse Amygdala Kindling Model, Doodipala S. Reddy, Michael A. Rogawski 2009 University of California - Davis

Ganaxolone Suppression Of Behavioral And Electrographic Seizures In The Mouse Amygdala Kindling Model, Doodipala S. Reddy, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Ganaxolone (3alpha-hydroxy-3alpha-methyl-5alpha-pregnan-20-one), a synthetic analog of the endogenous neurosteroid allopregnanolone and a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors, may represent a new treatment approach for epilepsy. Here we demonstrate that pretreatment with ganaxolone (1.25—20 mg/kg, s.c.) causes a dose-dependent suppression of behavioral and electrographic seizures in fully amygdala-kindled female mice, with nearly complete seizure protection at the highest dose tested. The ED50 for suppression of behavioral seizures was 6.6 mg/kg. The seizure suppression produced by ganaxolone was comparable to that of clonazepam (ED50, 0.1 mg/kg, s.c.). To the extent that amygdala ...


Functional Organization Of A Neural Network For Aversive Olfactory Learning In Caenorhabditis Elegans, H Ha, M Hendricks, Y Shen, C V. Gabel, Christopher Fang-Yen, Y Qin, D Colon-Ramos, K Shen, A D.T. Samuel 2009 Harvard University

Functional Organization Of A Neural Network For Aversive Olfactory Learning In Caenorhabditis Elegans, H Ha, M Hendricks, Y Shen, C V. Gabel, Christopher Fang-Yen, Y Qin, D Colon-Ramos, K Shen, A D.T. Samuel

Christopher Fang-Yen

No abstract provided.


Cortical Underconnectivity Coupled With Preserved Visuospatial Cognition In Autism: Evidence From An Fmri Study Of An Embedded Figures Task, Saudamini Damarla, Timothy A. Keller, Rajesh K. Kana, Vladimir L. Cherkassky, Diane L. Williams, Nancy J. Minshew, Marcel Adam Just 2009 Carnegie Mellon University

Cortical Underconnectivity Coupled With Preserved Visuospatial Cognition In Autism: Evidence From An Fmri Study Of An Embedded Figures Task, Saudamini Damarla, Timothy A. Keller, Rajesh K. Kana, Vladimir L. Cherkassky, Diane L. Williams, Nancy J. Minshew, Marcel Adam Just

Marcel Adam Just

No abstract provided.


Neurosteroids On The Epilepsy Chessboard — Keeping Seizures In Check, Michael A. Rogawski 2009 University of California - Davis

Neurosteroids On The Epilepsy Chessboard — Keeping Seizures In Check, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

No abstract provided.


Phase-Linking And The Perceived Motion During Off-Vertical Axis Rotation, Jan E. Holly, Scott J. Wood, Gin McCollum 2009 Portland State University

Phase-Linking And The Perceived Motion During Off-Vertical Axis Rotation, Jan E. Holly, Scott J. Wood, Gin Mccollum

Gin McCollum

Human off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) in the dark typically produces perceived motion about a cone, the amplitude of which changes as a function of frequency. This perception is commonly attributed to the fact that both the OVAR and the conical motion have a gravity vector that rotates about the subject. Little-known, however, is that this rotating-gravity explanation for perceived conical motion is inconsistent with basic observations about self-motion perception: (a) that the perceived vertical moves toward alignment with the gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) and (b) that perceived translation arises from perceived linear acceleration, as derived from the portion of the GIA ...


Treatment Of Early And Late Kainic-Acid Induced Status Epilepticus With The Non-Competitive Ampa Receptor Antagonist Gyki 52466, Brita Fritsch, Jeffrey J. Stott, J. Joelle Donofrio, Michael A. Rogawski 2009 University of Minnesota

Treatment Of Early And Late Kainic-Acid Induced Status Epilepticus With The Non-Competitive Ampa Receptor Antagonist Gyki 52466, Brita Fritsch, Jeffrey J. Stott, J. Joelle Donofrio, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Purpose: Benzodiazepines such as diazepam may fail to effectively treat status epilepticus because benzodiazepine-sensitive GABA-A receptors are internalized progressively with continued seizure activity. Ionotropic glutamate receptors, including AMPA receptors, are externalized, so that AMPA receptor antagonists, which are broad-spectrum anticonvulsants, could be more effective treatments for satus epilepticus. We assessed the ability of the non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 to protect against kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in mice. Methods: Groups of animals treated with kainic acid received GYKI 52466 (50 mg/kg followed in 15 min by 50 mg/kg) or diazepam (25 mg/kg followed in 20 min ...


Anticonvulsant And Proconvulsant Actions Of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose, Maciej Gasior, Jessica Yankura, Adam L. Hartman, Amy French, Michael A. Rogawski 2009 University of California - Davis

Anticonvulsant And Proconvulsant Actions Of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose, Maciej Gasior, Jessica Yankura, Adam L. Hartman, Amy French, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Purpose: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glucose analog that accumulates in cells and interferes with carbohydrate metabolism by inhibiting glycolytic enzymes, has anticonvulsant actions. Recognizing that severe glucose deprivation can induce seizures, we sought to determine whether acute treatment with 2-DG can promote seizure susceptibility by assessing its effects on seizure threshold. For comparison, we studied 3-methyl-glucose (3-MG), which like 2-DG accumulates in cells and reduces glucose uptake, but does not inhibit glycolysis. Methods: Mice were treated with 2-DG or 3-MG and the seizure threshold determined in the 6-Hz test, the mouse electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and the intravenous pentylenetetrazol (i ...


Phase-Linking And The Perceived Motion During Off-Vertical Axis Rotation, Jan E. Holly, Scott J. Wood, Gin McCollum 2009 Portland State University

Phase-Linking And The Perceived Motion During Off-Vertical Axis Rotation, Jan E. Holly, Scott J. Wood, Gin Mccollum

Gin McCollum

Human off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) in the dark typically produces perceived motion about a cone, the amplitude of which changes as a function of frequency. This perception is commonly attributed to the fact that both OVAR and the conical motion have a gravity vector that rotates about the subject. Little-known, however, is that this rotating-gravity explanation for perceived conical motion is inconsistent with basic observations about self-motion perception: (a) that the perceived vertical moves toward alignment with the gravitoinertial acceleration (GIA) and (b) that perceived translation arises from perceived linear acceleration, as derived from the portion of the GIA not ...


Symmetries Of The Central Vestibular System: Forming Movements For Gravity And A Three-Dimensional World, Gin McCollum, Douglas A. Hanes 2009 Portland State University

Symmetries Of The Central Vestibular System: Forming Movements For Gravity And A Three-Dimensional World, Gin Mccollum, Douglas A. Hanes

Gin McCollum

Intrinsic dynamics of the central vestibular system (CVS) appear to be at least partly determined by the symmetries of its connections. The CVS contributes to whole-body functions such as upright balance and maintenance of gaze direction. These functions coordinate disparate senses (visual, inertial, somatosensory, auditory) and body movements (leg, trunk, head/neck, eye). They are also unified by geometric conditions. Symmetry groups have been found to structure experimentally-recorded pathways of the central vestibular system. When related to geometric conditions in three-dimensional physical space, these symmetry groups make sense as a logical foundation for sensorimotor coordination.


Farm Focus - Spring 2010, Brian K. Whitlock, Matt Welborn, Maria Prado, Amy Plummer 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Farm Focus - Spring 2010, Brian K. Whitlock, Matt Welborn, Maria Prado, Amy Plummer

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

No abstract provided.


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