Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neuroscience and Neurobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

4,730 Full-Text Articles 8,957 Authors 969,315 Downloads 208 Institutions

All Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Faceted Search

4,730 full-text articles. Page 180 of 191.

Orbitofrontal Cortex Provides Cross-Modal Valuation Of Self-Generated Stimuli, William A. Cunningham, Ingrid J. Haas, Ashley S. Waggoner 2011 University of Toronto

Orbitofrontal Cortex Provides Cross-Modal Valuation Of Self-Generated Stimuli, William A. Cunningham, Ingrid J. Haas, Ashley S. Waggoner

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Prior research has shown that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays an important role in the representation of the evaluation of stimuli, regardless of stimulus modality. Based on these findings, researchers have proposed that the OFC serves a common currency function, allowing for the direct comparison of different types of perceptual stimuli (e.g. food, drink, money). The present study was designed to extend this research and investigate whether these same regions of OFC that have been identified in previous research are involved in evaluating imagined stimuli. Specifically, we asked participants to draw on prior attitudinal knowledge to generate internal representations ...


Psychiatric Disorders As Potential Predictors In Medical Disease Development, Linda Kay Taliaferro 2011 Walden University

Psychiatric Disorders As Potential Predictors In Medical Disease Development, Linda Kay Taliaferro

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Millions of individuals suffer disability or death from immune-based inflammatory diseases. If psychiatric disorders could be empirically linked to the prediction of immune-based inflammatory diseases, there would be a basis for promoting disease prevention measures for individuals diagnosed with one of four psychiatric disorders. Psychoneuroimmunology provided the theoretical base for understanding emotionally induced medical disease development. In this quantitative study, a parallel archival research design was used to investigate the degree to which generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression recurrent, and dysthymic disorder predicted the presence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and type II diabetes ...


Effects Of Neurofeedback On Neuropsychological Functioning In An Adult With Autism, Michael J. Lucido 2011 Walden University

Effects Of Neurofeedback On Neuropsychological Functioning In An Adult With Autism, Michael J. Lucido

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Autism spectrum condition (ASC) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts physiological processes, cognition, functional behaviors, social-communication, and often has comorbidities. One approach gaining empirical support for ASC treatment is neurofeedback. Neurofeedback uses operant conditioning to normalize cerebral activity through auditory and visual reinforcement. Live Z-score Training (LZT) has become the latest advancement in neurofeedback. There is no published research to date on LZT neurofeedback in adulthood ASC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LZT's impact on neuropsychological measures in an adult with ASC. A multiple baseline single-case research design was used with a convenience sample of ...


The Guidance Of Olfactory Sensory Axons To Identifiable Protoglomeruli In The Larval Zebrafish Olfactory Bulb, Vanisha Lakhina 2011 University of Pennsylvania

The Guidance Of Olfactory Sensory Axons To Identifiable Protoglomeruli In The Larval Zebrafish Olfactory Bulb, Vanisha Lakhina

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

During development, sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium extend axons into the olfactory bulb. The earliest axons to enter the bulb terminate onto distinct neuropilar condensations called protoglomeruli. Protoglomeruli are thought to segregate into individual glomeruli later in development. The three day old larval zebrafish olfactory bulb contains 12 stereotyped, identifiable protoglomeruli, rendering it a good system to investigate mechanisms of initial axonal targeting in the bulb. In this thesis, I describe the generation of transgenic zebrafish lines in which neurons expressing odorant receptors along with the olfactory marker protein (OMP), V2R vomeronasal receptors along with the transient receptor potential ...


Return To Work After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: The Mediating Role Of Illness Perception, Catherine C. Harris 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Return To Work After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: The Mediating Role Of Illness Perception, Catherine C. Harris

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a type of stroke that affects women and men with a mean age of 50 years. Return to work (RTW) has been cited as a strategic goal of patients after injury, however, success rates are low in multiple studies. Illness perception is known to impede recovery after illness in older adults, yet its role after injury in the aSAH population has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of illness perception in RTW after aSAH. This study used mixed methods with a cross sectional design to assess work status ...


The Role Of Epac Signaling In Memory Consolidation And Sleep Deprivation, Nan Ma 2011 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of Epac Signaling In Memory Consolidation And Sleep Deprivation, Nan Ma

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories. cAMP has three targets, protein kinase A (PKA), hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels, and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). Studies have revealed that both PKA and HCN channels are important for long-term memory formation. However, little is known about the role of Epac in this process. Epac is a cAMP- dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G proteins including Rap1.The Epac2 isoform is highly expressed in the forebrain. This dissertation examines the role of Epac in memory ...


Association Of Plasma Aß Peptides With Blood Pressure In The Elderly, Jean C. Lambert, Jean Dallongeville, Kathryn A. Ellis, Susanna Schraen-Maschke, James Lui, Simon M. Laws, Julie Dumont, Florence Richard, Dominique C. Cottel, Claudine Berr, David Ames, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Cassandra Szoeke, Christophe Tzourio, Jean-Francois Dartigues, Luc Buee, Ralph N. Martins, Phillippe Amouyel 2011 Australian Catholic University

Association Of Plasma Aß Peptides With Blood Pressure In The Elderly, Jean C. Lambert, Jean Dallongeville, Kathryn A. Ellis, Susanna Schraen-Maschke, James Lui, Simon M. Laws, Julie Dumont, Florence Richard, Dominique C. Cottel, Claudine Berr, David Ames, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Cassandra Szoeke, Christophe Tzourio, Jean-Francois Dartigues, Luc Buee, Ralph N. Martins, Phillippe Amouyel

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Aß peptides are often considered as catabolic by-products of the amyloid ß protein precursor (APP), with unknown physiological functions. However, several biological properties have been tentatively attributed to these peptides, including a role in vasomotion. We assess whether plasma Aß peptide levels might be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (SBP and DBP, respectively). Methodology/Principal Findings: Plasma Aß1-40 and Aß1-42 levels were measured using an xMAP-based assay in 1,972 individuals (none of whom were taking antihypertensive drugs) from 3 independent studies: the French population-based 3C and MONA-LISA (Lille) studies (n = 627 and n = 769, respectively ...


Testing Multiple Coordination Constraints With A Novel Bimanual Visuomotor Task, Helene M. Sisti, Monique Geurts, Rene´ Clerckx, Jolien Gooijers, James P. Coxon, Marcus H. Heitger, Karen Caeyenberghs, Iseult A. Beets, Leen Serbruyns, Stephen P. Swinnen 2011 Australian Catholic University

Testing Multiple Coordination Constraints With A Novel Bimanual Visuomotor Task, Helene M. Sisti, Monique Geurts, Rene´ Clerckx, Jolien Gooijers, James P. Coxon, Marcus H. Heitger, Karen Caeyenberghs, Iseult A. Beets, Leen Serbruyns, Stephen P. Swinnen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The acquisition of a new bimanual skill depends on several motor coordination constraints. To date, coordination constraints have often been tested relatively independently of one another, particularly with respect to isofrequency and multifrequency rhythms. Here, we used a new paradigm to test the interaction of multiple coordination constraints. Coordination constraints that were tested included temporal complexity, directionality, muscle grouping, and hand dominance. Twenty-two healthy young adults performed a bimanual dial rotation task that required left and right hand coordination to track a moving target on a computer monitor. Two groups were compared, either with or without four days of practice ...


Fatal Familial Insomnia: An Overview, Eric Schools 2011 Liberty University

Fatal Familial Insomnia: An Overview, Eric Schools

Senior Honors Theses

Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) is an insidious prion disorder that tends to manifest itself as a patient reaches middle age following a pattern consistent with autosomal dominance. A wide range of symptoms are represented, many related to motor function and autonomic regulation, but degeneration of certain areas of the thalamus is present in every case. Genetically, the condition is transmitted only within families, but it has been demonstrated by Jackson et al. (2009) that FFI can be transmitted by exposure to/ingestion of infected material. A number of groundbreaking studies are discussed. These include the initial documentation of FFI as ...


Circadian And Homeostatic Regulation Of Sleep In Cast/Eij And C57bl/6j Mice, Peng Jiang 2011 University of Kentucky

Circadian And Homeostatic Regulation Of Sleep In Cast/Eij And C57bl/6j Mice, Peng Jiang

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Sleep is essential for mammals and possibly for all animals. Advancing our knowledge of sleep regulation is crucial for the development of interventions in sleep-related health and social problems. With this aim, this study utilizes laboratory mice to explore sleep regulatory mechanisms at behavioral, molecular, and genetic levels.

Sleep is regulated by the interaction of circadian and homeostatic processes. The circadian clock facilitates sleep to occur at a favorable time of the day. Normal mice, such as the C57BL/6J (B6) strain, sleep mostly during the day and initiate activities at dark onset. Here, I show mice of the CAST ...


Motor Demand-Dependent Improvement In Accuracy Following Low-Frequency Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Of Left Motor Cortex., Cathrin Buetefisch, Benjamin Hines, Linda Shuster, Paola Pergami, Adam Mathes 2010 West Virginia University

Motor Demand-Dependent Improvement In Accuracy Following Low-Frequency Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Of Left Motor Cortex., Cathrin Buetefisch, Benjamin Hines, Linda Shuster, Paola Pergami, Adam Mathes

Linda Shuster

No abstract provided.


Neural Regulation Of Feed Intake: Modification By Hormones, Fasting, And Disease, James Sartin, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel 2010 Berry College

Neural Regulation Of Feed Intake: Modification By Hormones, Fasting, And Disease, James Sartin, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Appetite is a complex process that results from the integration of multiple signals at the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus receives neural signals; hormonal signals such as leptin, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin; and nutrient signals such as glucose, FFA, AA, and VFA. This effect is processed by a specific sequence of neurotransmitters beginning with the arcuate nucleus and orexigenic cells containing neuropeptide Y or agouti-related protein and anorexigenic cells containing proopiomelanocortin (yielding the neurotransmitter α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) or cells expressing cocaine amphetamine-related transcript. These socalled first-order neurons act on second-order orexigenic neurons (containing either melanin-concentrating hormone or orexin) or act on anorexigenic neurons (e ...


Differentiable Cortical Networks For Inferences Concerning People’S Intentions Versus Physical Causality, Robert Mason, Marcel Just 2010 Carnegie Mellon University

Differentiable Cortical Networks For Inferences Concerning People’S Intentions Versus Physical Causality, Robert Mason, Marcel Just

Marcel Adam Just

No abstract provided.


Task-Invariant Brain Responses To The Social Value Of Faces., Alex Todorov, Chris Said, Nicholas Oosterhof, Andrew Engell 2010 Kenyon College

Task-Invariant Brain Responses To The Social Value Of Faces., Alex Todorov, Chris Said, Nicholas Oosterhof, Andrew Engell

Andrew Engell

n/a


Treatment Of Infantile Spasms: Emerging Insights From Clinical And Basic Science Perspectives, Carl Stafstrom, Barry Arnason, Tallie Baram, Anna Catania, Miguel Cortez, Tracy Glauser, Michael Pranzatelli, Raili Riikonen, Michael Rogawski, Shlomo Shinnar, John Swann 2010 University of Wisconsin - Madison

Treatment Of Infantile Spasms: Emerging Insights From Clinical And Basic Science Perspectives, Carl Stafstrom, Barry Arnason, Tallie Baram, Anna Catania, Miguel Cortez, Tracy Glauser, Michael Pranzatelli, Raili Riikonen, Michael Rogawski, Shlomo Shinnar, John Swann

Michael A. Rogawski

Infantile spasms is an epileptic encephalopathy of early infancy with specific clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) features, limited treatment options, and a poor prognosis. Efforts to develop improved treatment options have been hindered by the lack of experimental models in which to test prospective therapies. The neuropeptide adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is effective in many cases of infantile spasms, although its mechanism(s) of action is unknown. This review describes the emerging candidate mechanisms that can underlie the therapeutic effects of ACTH in infantile spasms. These mechanisms can ultimately help to improve understanding and treatment of the disease. An overview of current ...


Utilizing Drosophila Activity Monitors (Dams) In An Undergraduate Teaching And Research Setting, Joseph Seggio 2010 Bridgewater State College

Utilizing Drosophila Activity Monitors (Dams) In An Undergraduate Teaching And Research Setting, Joseph Seggio

Joseph A. Seggio

No abstract provided.


Spearmint Oil (L-Carvone) And Wintergreen Oil (Methyl Salicylate) Emulsion Is An Effective Immersion Anesthetic Of Fishes, Joseph Seggio 2010 Bridgewater State College

Spearmint Oil (L-Carvone) And Wintergreen Oil (Methyl Salicylate) Emulsion Is An Effective Immersion Anesthetic Of Fishes, Joseph Seggio

Joseph A. Seggio

This study evaluates the effects of a spearmint (/-carvone) and wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate) emulsion (CMSE) on age 1 landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar sebago (hereafter salmon). Salmon were immersed in either 257 µl/L CMSE or 75 mg/L tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) to induce anesthesia (stage 4), useful for emersion and noninvasive husbandry procedures, and then salmon were recovered in fresh water. Induction was quicker in the CMSE group; however, recovery was quicker in the MS-222 group. A second experiment was conducted in which salmon were immersed in 257 µl/L CMSE for 8.5 min, or 75 mg ...


Molecular-Genetic Mapping Of Zebrafish Mutants With Variable Phenotypic Penetrance, Roshan Jain, Marc Wolman, Lauren Schmidt, Harold Burgess, Michael Granato 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Molecular-Genetic Mapping Of Zebrafish Mutants With Variable Phenotypic Penetrance, Roshan Jain, Marc Wolman, Lauren Schmidt, Harold Burgess, Michael Granato

Roshan A Jain

Forward genetic screens in vertebrates are powerful tools to generate models relevant to human diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Variability in phenotypic penetrance and expressivity is common in these disorders and behavioral mutant models, making their molecular-genetic mapping a formidable task. Using a ‘phenotyping by segregation’ strategy, we molecularly map the hypersensitive zebrafish houdini mutant despite its variable phenotypic penetrance, providing a generally applicable strategy to map zebrafish mutants with subtle phenotypes.


Autism Spectrum Traits In The Typical Population Predict Structure And Function In The Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus., Elisabeth von dem Hagen, Lauri Nummenmaa, R Yu, Andrew Engell, Michael Ewbank, Andy Calder 2010 Kenyon College

Autism Spectrum Traits In The Typical Population Predict Structure And Function In The Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus., Elisabeth Von Dem Hagen, Lauri Nummenmaa, R Yu, Andrew Engell, Michael Ewbank, Andy Calder

Andrew Engell

n/a


Serotonin Transporter (5-Httlpr) Genotype And Childhood Trauma Are Associated With Individual Differences In Decision Making, Scott Stoltenberg 2010 Selected Works

Serotonin Transporter (5-Httlpr) Genotype And Childhood Trauma Are Associated With Individual Differences In Decision Making, Scott Stoltenberg

Scott F. Stoltenberg

The factors that influence individual differences in decision making are not yet fully characterized, but convergent evidence is accumulating that implicates serotonin (5-HT) system function. Therefore, both genes and environments that influence serotonin function are good candidates for association with risky decision making. In the present study we examined associations between common polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTTLPR and rs25531), the experience of childhood trauma and decision making on the Iowa gambling task (IGT) in 391 (64.5% female) healthy Caucasian adults. Homozygosity for the 5-HTTLPR L allele was associated with riskier decision making in the first block ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress