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The Role Of Olfactory-Nigral Circuitry In Neurodegeneration And Hyposmia In Rodent Model Of Parkinson's Disease, William Bui Tran 2019 Iowa State University

The Role Of Olfactory-Nigral Circuitry In Neurodegeneration And Hyposmia In Rodent Model Of Parkinson's Disease, William Bui Tran

Creative Components

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both motor and non-motor symptoms. The motor symptoms include bradykinesia and resting tremor while the non-motor symptoms associate with sleeping disorders and olfactory dysfunctions. Besides that, patients may experience hyposmia prior being diagnosed with PD. Thus, the present project’s objective is to confirm a new dopaminergic pathway, which contributes to hyposmia link in pre-exposed PD patients. In order to validate the nigro-olfactory pathway, the MitoPark model was set up in the combination of several techniques including cryosectioning, mounting, and fluorescent microscopy. After collecting data, there were ...


Mutations Of Fus Cause Aggregation Of Rna Binding Proteins, Disruptions In Protein Synthesis, And Dysregulation Of Nonsense Mediated Decay, Marisa Elizabeth Kamelgarn 2019 University of Kentucky

Mutations Of Fus Cause Aggregation Of Rna Binding Proteins, Disruptions In Protein Synthesis, And Dysregulation Of Nonsense Mediated Decay, Marisa Elizabeth Kamelgarn

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron death and subsequent muscle atrophy. Approximately 15% of ALS cases are inheritable, and mutations in the Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) gene contribute to approximately 5% of these cases, as well as about 2% of sporadic cases. FUS performs a diverse set of cellular functions, including being a major regulator of RNA metabolism. FUS undergoes liquid- liquid phase transition in vitro, allowing for its participation in stress granules and RNA transport granules. Phase transition also contributes to the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions found in the cell bodies of ...


Sodium Channel Distribution In The Apical Dendrites Of Pyramidal Cells Vary In The Hindbrain Of Apteronotus Leptorhynchus., Sree Indrani Motipally 2019 West Virginia University

Sodium Channel Distribution In The Apical Dendrites Of Pyramidal Cells Vary In The Hindbrain Of Apteronotus Leptorhynchus., Sree Indrani Motipally

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Apteronotid weakly electric fish heavily rely on their electrosensory system for behaviors like spatial navigation, communication and prey capture. Since the behaviorally important information about their environment is contained in the spatial and temporal modulations of the electrosensory signal, efficient mechanisms to process this information with great fidelity are of the utmost importance. Efficient sensory processing often involves having multiple parallel processing streams so that each stream can specialize to treat signals with different properties. This strategy requires the response properties and neural dynamic to be adjusted in each pathway to implement different neural coding strategies. One of the neural ...


Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis

Open Access Articles

The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Although the development of dendritic spines is vital for cognitive function, understanding the mechanisms driving their outgrowth and ...


Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Feeding results from the integration of both nutritional and affective states, and is guided by complex neural circuitry in the brain. The hypothalamus is a critical center controlling feeding and motivated behaviors. We found that targeted photostimulation of projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in mice elicited voracious feeding and repetitive self-grooming behavior. GABA neurotransmission in the LH->PVH circuit mediated the evoked feeding behavior, and elicited behavioral approach, whereas glutamate release promoted repetitive self-grooming, which was stress-related in nature. Optogenetic inhibition of LHGABA ->PVH circuit reduced feeding after fasting, whereas photostimulation abruptly stopped ...


Polyglutamine Repeat Proteins Disrupt Actin Structure In Drosophila Photoreceptors., Annie Vu, Tyler Humphries, Sean Vogel, Adam Haberman 2018 University of San Diego

Polyglutamine Repeat Proteins Disrupt Actin Structure In Drosophila Photoreceptors., Annie Vu, Tyler Humphries, Sean Vogel, Adam Haberman

Biology: Faculty Scholarship

Expansions of polygutamine-encoding stretches in several genes cause neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's Disease and Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 3. Expression of the human disease alleles in Drosophila melanogaster neurons recapitulates cellular features of these disorders, and has therefore been used to model the cell biology of these diseases. Here, we show that polyglutamine disease alleles expressed in Drosophila photoreceptors disrupt actin structure at rhabdomeres, as other groups have shown they do in Drosophila and mammalian dendrites. We show this actin regulatory pathway works through the small G protein Rac and the actin nucleating protein Form3. We also find that Form3 ...


Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, Abir Ashfakur Rahman 2018 Boise State University

Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, Abir Ashfakur Rahman

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is an idiopathic disorder with no known cure. With number of cases steadily rising around the world, it is imperative to turn to the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the disease manifestation and neurodegeneration to craft novel modes of therapy. VPS35 is one of the few genes that have identified and definitively linked to familial PD. The particular mutation that has been associated is known to cause dysfunction of a key cellular process known as autophagy. This process is primarily responsible for clearance of unwanted, damaged or misfolded proteins, among other things. Our study reveals ...


White Matter Inflammation And Executive Dysfunction: Implications For Alzheimer Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Alexander Levit 2018 The University of Western Ontario

White Matter Inflammation And Executive Dysfunction: Implications For Alzheimer Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Alexander Levit

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

White matter integrity is crucial to healthy executive function, the cognitive domain that enables functional independence. However, in the ageing brain, white matter is highly vulnerable. White matter inflammation increases with age and Alzheimer disease (AD), which disrupts the normal function of white matter. This may contribute to executive dysfunction, but the relationship between white matter inflammation and executive function has not been directly evaluated in ageing nor AD. White matter is also particularly vulnerable to cerebrovascular disease, corresponding with the common presentation of executive dysfunction in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Thus, white matter may be an important substrate by ...


Hiv Tat And Morphine-Induced Neurodegeneration In A Beclin 1 Hemizygous Mouse Model, Jessica A. Lapierre 2018 Florida International University

Hiv Tat And Morphine-Induced Neurodegeneration In A Beclin 1 Hemizygous Mouse Model, Jessica A. Lapierre

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Early in infection, HIV crosses the blood-brain barrier and induces neuropathology. Viral presence in the CNS coupled with secretion of neurotoxic proteins causes neuroinflammation, glial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neuronal death. Despite advances in combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients present with a spectrum of cognitive and psychomotor deficits collectively referred to as HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). A subset of HAND patients abuses drugs such as opiates like heroin and morphine show an exacerbation and rapid progression of HIV neuropathology; however, the mechanisms of this synergy are not well understood. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative process which eliminates and recycles cytosolic components ...


Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19 2018 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19

Student Publications & Research

Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. The main cause for Parkinson’s Disease is the depletion of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The basal ganglia contains four major nuclei: the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus, and the striatum. These nuclei communicate with each other by the use of neurons.


Mapping A Pup-Responsive Pathway From The Medial Preoptic Area To The Ventral Tegmental Area., Matias Andina 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mapping A Pup-Responsive Pathway From The Medial Preoptic Area To The Ventral Tegmental Area., Matias Andina

Masters Theses

Maternal behavior is the complex array of caregiving behaviors females display towards offspring. In rats, the transition to motherhood depends on the action of various hormones, especially estradiol near parturition, which primes the maternal circuitry to respond to pups upon first encounter at parturition with appropriate maternal behavior. Although virgin rats avoid pups, new mothers are highly motivated to interact with pups, and their maternal behavior depends on the functional interaction between the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, a precise mapping of the VTA-projecting mPOA neurons remains to be elucidated. To determine whether pup-responsive ...


Cannabinoid Transmission In The Basolateral Amygdala Modulates Prefrontal Cortex And Ventral Hippocampal Activity, Brian J. Pereira 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Cannabinoid Transmission In The Basolateral Amygdala Modulates Prefrontal Cortex And Ventral Hippocampal Activity, Brian J. Pereira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cannabinoid system is important for maintaining neuron-to-neuron communication within the mammalian brain. One of the most commonly used substances to alter the cannabinoid system is cannabis. Individuals who are exposed to cannabis report having dissociable effects; both positive and negative. High amounts of THC have been commonly associated with the negative effects of cannabis, whereas CBD can be used to counter these. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that the combination of the two compounds can produce a therapeutic benefit for individuals who are susceptible to the effects of THC. The present study investigates whether the combination of THC+CBD can prevent ...


Hyperphosphorylation Of Tau Associates With Changes In Its Function Beyond Microtubule Stability, Alejandra D. Alonso, Leah S. Cohen, Christopher Corbo, Viktoriya Morozova, Abdeslem Elldrissi, Greg R. Phillips, Frida E. Kleiman 2018 CUNY College of Staten Island

Hyperphosphorylation Of Tau Associates With Changes In Its Function Beyond Microtubule Stability, Alejandra D. Alonso, Leah S. Cohen, Christopher Corbo, Viktoriya Morozova, Abdeslem Elldrissi, Greg R. Phillips, Frida E. Kleiman

Publications and Research

Tau is a neuronal microtubule associated protein whose main biological functions are to promote microtubule self-assembly by tubulin and to stabilize those already formed. Tau also plays an important role as an axonal microtubule protein. Tau is an amazing protein that plays a key role in cognitive processes, however, deposits of abnormal forms of tau are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease (AD), the most prevalent, and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), the most recently associated to abnormal tau. Tau post-translational modifications (PTMs) are responsible for its gain of toxic function. Alonso et al ...


Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Grace Lauren Holloway, Gloria D. Sclar, Reuben Levy-Myers, Richard E. Baker, Munira A. Basrai, Oliver Kerscher 2018 National Institutes of Health

Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Grace Lauren Holloway, Gloria D. Sclar, Reuben Levy-Myers, Richard E. Baker, Munira A. Basrai, Oliver Kerscher

Open Access Articles

Cell viability and gene expression profiles are altered in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's Disease (HD). Using the yeast model system, we show that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 reduces the toxicity and abnormal transcriptional activity associated with a mutant, aggregation-prone fragment of huntingtin (Htt), the causative agent of HD. We demonstrate that expression of an aggregation-prone Htt construct with 103 glutamine residues (103Q), but not the non-expanded form (25Q), results in severe growth defects in slx5Delta and slx8Delta cells. Since Slx5 is a nuclear protein and because Htt expression affects gene transcription, we assessed ...


Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...


Fus And Excitotoxicity Cross Paths In Als: New Insights Into Cellular Stress And Disease, Maeve Tischbein 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Fus And Excitotoxicity Cross Paths In Als: New Insights Into Cellular Stress And Disease, Maeve Tischbein

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron loss. Although pathological mutations exist in >15 genes, the mechanism(s) underlying ALS are unknown. FUS is one such gene and encodes the nuclear RNA-binding protein (RBP), fused in sarcoma (FUS), which actively shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Intriguingly, nearly half of the ALS mutations identified in FUS cause this protein to mislocalize, suggesting that FUS localization is relevant to disease.

Here, we found that excitotoxicity, a neuronal stress caused by aberrant glutamate signaling, induces the rapid redistribution of FUS and additional disease-linked RBPs ...


Synaptic Correlates For Stress Sensitization, Julia KJ Sunstrum 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Synaptic Correlates For Stress Sensitization, Julia Kj Sunstrum

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The stress response is essential for survival, but it can be detrimental when persistently activated during chronic stress. Therefore, the magnitude of the stress response must be finely-tuned in order to be adaptive. Indeed, an animal’s stress response system normally undergoes habituation that decreases responses to a repeated, familiar stressor. Importantly, the same animal still responds normally, or even becomes sensitized, to an unfamiliar (novel) stressor. This indicates that chronic stress simultaneously induces two opposing types of plasticity, one that underlies habituated responses and another that drives sensitized responses. The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis — a hallmark of ...


Integrated Analysis Of Mirna/Mrna Expression In The Neurocircuitry Underlying Nicotine Dependence, Alison P. Casserly 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Integrated Analysis Of Mirna/Mrna Expression In The Neurocircuitry Underlying Nicotine Dependence, Alison P. Casserly

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Nicotine dependence is responsible for perpetuating the adverse health effects due to tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Nicotine is an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are enriched in the mesocorticolimbic and habenulo-interpeduncular circuitries, underlying nicotine reward and withdrawal, respectively. Drugs of abuse, including nicotine, induce stable neuroadaptations, requiring protein synthesis through regulation of transcription factors, epigenetic mechanisms, and non-coding RNAs. It also been shown that miRNAs in brain are regulated by nicotine and that miRNA dysregulation contributes to brain dysfunction, including drug addiction. While much is known about the neurocircuitry responsible for the behaviors associated ...


Tributyltin Inhibits Neural Induction Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Shigeru Yamada, Yusuke Kubo, Daiju Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yoko Nomura, Sachiko Yoshida, Yusunari Kanda 2018 National Institute of Health Sciences

Tributyltin Inhibits Neural Induction Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Shigeru Yamada, Yusuke Kubo, Daiju Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yoko Nomura, Sachiko Yoshida, Yusunari Kanda

Publications and Research

Tributyltin (TBT), one of the organotin compounds, is a well-known environmental pollutant. In our recent study, we reported that TBT induces mitochondrial dysfunction, in human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the degradation of mitofusin1 (Mfn1), which is a mitochondrial fusion factor. However, the effect of TBT toxicity on the developmental process of iPSCs was not clear. The present study examined the effect of TBT on the differentiation of iPSCs into the ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal germ layers. We found that exposure to nanomolar concentration of TBT (50 nM) selectively inhibited the induction of iPSCs into the ectoderm, which is the ...


The Role Of Perivascular Fibrosis In Post-Stroke Glymphatic Impairment And Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Matthew D. Howe 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

The Role Of Perivascular Fibrosis In Post-Stroke Glymphatic Impairment And Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Matthew D. Howe

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In healthy brain tissue, toxic amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins are transported by the pulsatile flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along perivascular drainage pathways. Ischemic stroke may disrupt this process, leading to a perivascular build-up of Aβ, termed cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). I hypothesize that an abnormal pattern of extracellular matrix deposition within the vascular basement membrane, termed fibrosis, impairs Aβ drainage from the aged brain after stroke. I further hypothesize that inhibition of astrocytic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling can reverse these phenotypes. Finally, I also hypothesize that serum biomarkers of perivascular fibrosis can be used to diagnose CAA following intracerebral ...


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