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Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Commons

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Data Collection Curated With An Application Ontology Describes The Methods And Results Upon Performing An Ex-Vivo Voltage-Clamp Assay On Outer Hair Cells Of The Mammalian Cochlea, Brenda Farrell, Jason Bengtson 2019 Kansas State University

Data Collection Curated With An Application Ontology Describes The Methods And Results Upon Performing An Ex-Vivo Voltage-Clamp Assay On Outer Hair Cells Of The Mammalian Cochlea, Brenda Farrell, Jason Bengtson

BCM Research Data

This data collection describes the electrical properties of outer hair cells isolated from the mammalian cochlea of the domestic guinea pig. This data was obtained by performing whole-cell patch clamp voltage clamp assay on cells and monitoring the electrical admittance during a DC voltage ramp. The membrane capacitance was then calculated at each membrane potential from this admittance, and the voltage-independent and voltage-dependent membrane capacitance was determined upon further analysis. In some case the DC conductance was also measured by interrogation of the cell with voltage-step function which was calculated from the change in the mean steady-state current with respect ...


M1 Melanopsin Ganglion Cells In The ​Mus Musculus​ Retina Are Similar In Shape And Size, Geoffrey K. Sarpong 2019 University of Akron

M1 Melanopsin Ganglion Cells In The ​Mus Musculus​ Retina Are Similar In Shape And Size, Geoffrey K. Sarpong

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

An M1 melanopsin retinal ganglion cell (mRGC) is a subtype of the five melanopsin ganglion cells. The M1-type mRGC is distributed on the dorsal retina of a mouse and has an extensively overlapping dendritic network in both the sublamina a (OFF) and sublamina b (ON) layers of the inner plexiform layer. In the dorsal retina, the M1-type mRGCs are distinct and asymmetric.

The aim of this study was to examine the morphological similarity (shape and size) of M1-type mRGCs. The study traced 20 neurons in the first four months of a glaucoma retina of a DBA mouse, made measurements of ...


Spag17 Deficiency Impairs Neuronal Cell Differentiation In Developing Brain, Olivia J. Choi 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Spag17 Deficiency Impairs Neuronal Cell Differentiation In Developing Brain, Olivia J. Choi

Theses and Dissertations

The development of the nervous system is a multi-level, time-sensitive process that relies heavily on cell differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms that control brain development remain poorly understood. We generated a knockout (KO) mouse for the cilia associated gene Spag17. These animals develop hydrocephalus and enlarged ventricles consistent with the role of Spag17 in the motility of ependymal cilia. However, other phenotypes that cannot be explained by this role were also present. Recently, a mutation in Spag17 has been associated with brain malformations and severe intellectual disability in humans. Therefore, we hypothesized that Spag17 plays a crucial role in nervous ...


Glial Cell Mechanisms Regulate Alcohol Sedation In Drosophila Melanogaster, Kristen M. Lee 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Glial Cell Mechanisms Regulate Alcohol Sedation In Drosophila Melanogaster, Kristen M. Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 16 million people in America are diagnosed with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) but no efficacious medical treatments exist. Alcohol-related behaviors can be studied in model organisms, and changes in these behaviors can be correlated with either (i) a risk for alcohol dependence or (ii) a symptom/feature of AUD itself. Although AUD is a disease of the central nervous system, a majority of research has focused on the neuronal underpinnings, leaving glial contributions largely undescribed. We used Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) to identify genes whose expression in glia regulates alcohol sedation. Mammals and Drosophila have conserved behavioral responses to ...


Biochemical Approaches For The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lafora Disease, Mary Kathryn Brewer 2019 University of Kentucky

Biochemical Approaches For The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lafora Disease, Mary Kathryn Brewer

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Glycogen is the sole carbohydrate storage molecule found in mammalian cells and plays an important role in cellular metabolism in nearly all tissues, including the brain. Defects in glycogen metabolism underlie the glycogen storage diseases (GSDs), genetic disorders with variable clinical phenotypes depending on the mutation type and affected gene(s). Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy and a non-classical GSD. LD typically manifests in adolescence with tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonus, and a rapid, insidious progression. Patients experience increasingly severe and frequent epileptic episodes, loss of speech and muscular control, disinhibited dementia, and severe cognitive decline ...


Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Synthetic Cathinones And Related Agents, Rachel A. Davies 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Synthetic Cathinones And Related Agents, Rachel A. Davies

Theses and Dissertations

Synthetic cathinones and related agents represent an international drug abuse problem, and at the same time an important class of clinically useful compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies are needed to elucidate molecular features underlying the pharmacology of these agents. Illicit methcathinone (i.e., MCAT), the prototype of the synthetic cathinone class, exists as a racemic mixture. Though the differences in potency and target selectivity between the positional and optical isomers of synthetic cathinones and related agents have been demonstrated to have important implications for abuse and therapeutic potential, the two MCAT isomers have never been directly compared at their molecular targets ...


Autologous Peripheral Nerve Grafts To The Brain For The Treatment Of Parkinson's Disease, Andrew Welleford 2019 University of Kentucky

Autologous Peripheral Nerve Grafts To The Brain For The Treatment Of Parkinson's Disease, Andrew Welleford

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disorder of the nervous system that causes problems with movement (motor symptoms) as well as other problems such as mood disorders, cognitive changes, sleep disorders, constipation, pain, and other non-motor symptoms. The severity of PD symptoms worsens over time as the disease progresses, and while there are treatments for the motor and some non-motor symptoms there is no known cure for PD. Thus there is a high demand for therapies to slow the progressive neurodegeneration observed in PD. Two clinical trials at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (NCT02369003, NCT01833364) are currently underway ...


Neuroprotective Strategies Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury: Lipid Peroxidation-Derived Aldehyde Scavenging And Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition, Jacqueline Renee Kulbe 2019 University of Kentucky

Neuroprotective Strategies Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury: Lipid Peroxidation-Derived Aldehyde Scavenging And Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition, Jacqueline Renee Kulbe

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a significant health crisis. To date there are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies available to prevent the neurologic deficits caused by TBI. Following TBI, dysfunctional mitochondria generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, initiating lipid peroxidation (LP) and the formation of LP-derived neurotoxic aldehydes, which bind mitochondrial proteins, exacerbating dysfunction and opening of the mitochondrial permeability pore (mPTP), resulting in extrusion of mitochondrial sequestered calcium into the cytosol, and initiating a downstream cascade of calpain activation, spectrin degradation, neurodegeneration and neurologic impairment.

As central mediators of the TBI secondary injury cascade, mitochondria and LP-derived neurotoxic aldehydes make promising ...


Evidence-Based Probiotic Intervention For Behavioral And Social Deficits In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Allisen To 2019 Scripps College

Evidence-Based Probiotic Intervention For Behavioral And Social Deficits In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Allisen To

Scripps Senior Theses

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a heterogeneous neurological condition characterized by repetitive and restrictive behaviors and social communication deficits. ASD diagnoses are at a record high, at approximately 1 in 59 children according to the US Center for Disease Control. Currently, there are no available interventions that effectively treat the core symptoms of ASD. All pharmaceutical options address comorbid side effects of ASD but not core deficits and are particularly associated with negative side effects. Additionally, there are economic and geographic barriers that can prevent families of individuals with ASD from seeking or receiving effective interventions. Many of the ...


Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, Layne Wells 2019 Claremont Colleges

Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, Layne Wells

Scripps Senior Theses

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive amyloid plaque aggregation, neurofibrillary tangles, and cortical tissue death. As the prevalence of AD is projected to climb in coming years, there is a vested interest in identifying endophenotypes by which to improve diagnostics and direct clinical interventions. The risk for complex disorders, such as AD, is influenced by multiple genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Significant strides have been made in identifying genetic variants linked to AD through the genome-wide association study (GWAS). It has been estimated in more recent years, however, that GWAS-identified variants account for ...


A Composite Review Of The Proposed Molecular Mechanisms And Genetic Components Underlying Parkinson’S Disease, Paige Brodrick 2019 Claremont Colleges

A Composite Review Of The Proposed Molecular Mechanisms And Genetic Components Underlying Parkinson’S Disease, Paige Brodrick

Scripps Senior Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons present in the substantia nigra. The clinical presentation of PD includes tremors, slowed movement (bradykinesia), muscle and limb rigidity, and difficulty with walking and balancing. While many environmental factors can affect the onset and progression of the disease, genetic mutations have a large influence. Of the identified PD-linked genetic mutations, mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are one of the most common genetic causes of PD. Located in endosomes, LRRK2 has been shown to play a role in the sorting and ...


Behavioral And Molecular Analysis Of Memory In The Dwarf Cuttlefish, Jessica M. Bowers 2019 Georgia Southern University

Behavioral And Molecular Analysis Of Memory In The Dwarf Cuttlefish, Jessica M. Bowers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Complex memory has evolved because it benefits animals in all areas of life, such as remembering the location of food or conspecifics, and learning to avoid dangerous stimuli. Advances made by studying relatively simple nervous systems, such as those in gastropod mollusks, can now be used to study mechanisms of memory in more complex systems. Cephalopods offer a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms of memory in a complex invertebrates. The dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, is a useful memory model because its fast development and small size allows it to be reared and tested in large numbers. However, primary literature ...


Toward Genome Editing In X-Linked Rp-Development Of A Mouse Model With Specific Treatment Relevant Features, J. Schlegel, J. Hoffmann, D. Roll, B. Muller, S. Gunther, Wei Zhang, A. Janise, C. Vossing, B. Fuhler, J. Neidhardt, Hemant Khanna, B. Lorenz, K. Stieger 2019 University of Giessen

Toward Genome Editing In X-Linked Rp-Development Of A Mouse Model With Specific Treatment Relevant Features, J. Schlegel, J. Hoffmann, D. Roll, B. Muller, S. Gunther, Wei Zhang, A. Janise, C. Vossing, B. Fuhler, J. Neidhardt, Hemant Khanna, B. Lorenz, K. Stieger

Open Access Articles

Genome editing represents a powerful tool to treat inherited disorders. Highly specific endonucleases induce a DNA double strand break near the mutant site, which is subsequently repaired by cellular DNA repair mechanisms that involve the presence of a wild type template DNA. In vivo applications of this strategy are still rare, in part due to the absence of appropriate animal models carrying human disease mutations and knowledge of the efficient targeting of endonucleases. Here we report the generation and characterization of a new mouse model for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) carrying a point mutation in the mutational hotspot exon ORF15 ...


Regulator Of G Protein Signaling-12 (Rgs12) In Dopaminergic And Kappa Opioid Receptor-Dependent Signaling And Behavior, Joshua David Gross 2019 West Virginia University

Regulator Of G Protein Signaling-12 (Rgs12) In Dopaminergic And Kappa Opioid Receptor-Dependent Signaling And Behavior, Joshua David Gross

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Dopaminergic neurotransmission is critically involved in the etiology and treatment of many psychiatric and neurological disorders. One modulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission is the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) -- a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is densely expressed within dopaminergic neurons and circuits. GPCRs are tightly regulated by a variety of intracellular signaling molecules, including Regulator of G Protein Signaling (RGS) proteins. Canonically, RGS proteins act as GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs) on GTP-bound Ga subunits following GPCR activation, thereby hastening the rate at which GPCR-mediated G protein signaling is terminated. However, some RGS proteins exhibit more complex mechanisms of action on cellular ...


Identifying Dopamine Receptor Genes And Transcription Marbled Crayfish, Wolfgang Stein, Saisupritha Talasu 2019 Illinois State University

Identifying Dopamine Receptor Genes And Transcription Marbled Crayfish, Wolfgang Stein, Saisupritha Talasu

Faculty Publications – Biological Sciences

Modulatory transmitters are major contributors to nervous system plasticity and behavioral flexibility, they determine motivational states and are involved in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Neuromodulators act through a variety of distinct receptors and due to the diversity in receptor subtypes and distribution, a single neuromodulator can exert many different actions. A prerequisite to understand the ways modulators work is thus to identify which receptors are expressed in an animal.

I studied which Dopamine receptors are present in the Procambarus virginalis, a highly invasive species of all female genetic clones with high quality genome and transcriptomes. Their broad behavioral repertoire makes ...


Mechanisms Of Microglia Mediated Apolipoprotien E Neurotoxicity, Pardeep Singh 2019 CUNY City College

Mechanisms Of Microglia Mediated Apolipoprotien E Neurotoxicity, Pardeep Singh

Dissertations and Theses

No abstract provided.


Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra

Theses and Dissertations

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs that exert their characteristic effects through agonist activity at the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2A). In this study, I aimed to characterize the modulatory role of the metabotropic glutamate subtype 2 receptor (mGluR2) in the 5-HT2A-specific rodent model of hallucinogenic action, head-twitch response (HTR). Secondly, I aimed to explore if 5-HT2A agonist-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, an additional model of hallucinogenic action, could be produced in mice. Though 5-HT2A agonist-induced PPI deficits, which represent interruptions in normal sensorimotor gating, have been described in both ...


Investigating The Role Of Neuronal Aging In Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome, Katlin Marie Hencak 2019 University of Central Florida

Investigating The Role Of Neuronal Aging In Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome, Katlin Marie Hencak

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is an X-linked late-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by a noncoding trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene. This gene produces fragile x mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA binding protein whose targets are involved in brain development and synaptic plasticity. One of the proposed mechanisms of FXTAS pathogenesis is an RNA gain-of-function in which the repeat expansion causes toxic mRNA that sequesters important proteins in the cell, interfering with their functions. Another suggested method of pathogenesis is through a mutant protein called FMRpolyG. This protein results from repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation, in which the ...


The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback 2019 University of Kentucky

The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The ketogenic diet is commonly used to control epilepsy, especially in cases when medications cannot. The diet typically consists of high fat, low carb, and adequate protein and produces a metabolite called acetoacetate. Seizure activity is characterized by glutamate excitotoxicity and therefore glutamate regulation is a point of research for control of these disorders. Acetoacetate is heavily implicated as the primary molecule responsible for decreasing glutamate in the synapse; it is believed that acetoacetate interferes with the transport of glutamate into the synaptic vesicles. The effects on synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses was studied in relation to the ketogenic diet ...


The Role Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration, Yongchao Wang 2019 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration, Yongchao Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Heavy ethanol use causes neurodegeneration manifested by neuronal loss and dysfunction. It is becoming imperative to delineate the underlying mechanism to promote the treatment of ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark and an underlying mechanism of many neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to investigate the role of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. In experimental design, adult mice were exposed to binge ethanol drinking by daily gavage for 1, 5, or 10 days and the response of ER stress was examined. We found the induction of ER stress appeared at 5 days and remained at 10 days. Moreover ...


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