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Vascular Cognitive Impairment And Dementia: The Importance Of Mixed Pathologies From Mouse Models To Humans, Alex Marian Helman 2018 University of Kentucky

Vascular Cognitive Impairment And Dementia: The Importance Of Mixed Pathologies From Mouse Models To Humans, Alex Marian Helman

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Age-related neurologic disease is a significant and growing burden on our society. Although the largest share of research effort has typically been devoted to the common neurodegenerative illnesses (such as Alzheimer’s disease, or AD), the reality is that nearly all cases of neurodegenerative disease possess elements of mixed pathology. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a complex form of dementia, combining aspects of vascular disease and other forms of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease. This pathology is heterogeneous and can include cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), hemorrhages, white matter infarcts, and changes to the neurovascular unit ...


Understanding Huntington's Disease Using Machine Learning Approaches, Sonali Lokhande 2017 Keck Graduate Institute

Understanding Huntington's Disease Using Machine Learning Approaches, Sonali Lokhande

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder with a complex pathophysiology. Despite extensive studies to study the disease, the sequence of events through which mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) protein executes its action still remains elusive. The phenotype of HD is an outcome of numerous processes initiated by the mHtt protein along with other proteins that act as either suppressors or enhancers of the effects of mHtt protein and PolyQ aggregates. Utilizing an integrative systems biology approach, I construct and analyze a Huntington’s disease integrome using human orthologs of protein interactors of wild type and mHtt protein. Analysis of ...


Astrocytic Regulation Of Seizure-Like Behavior, Sukhee Cho 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Astrocytic Regulation Of Seizure-Like Behavior, Sukhee Cho

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Astrocytes are emerging as important regulators of neural circuit function and behavior in the healthy and diseased nervous system. In a screen for astrocyte molecules that modulate neuronal hyperexcitability we identified multiple components of focal adhesion complexes (FAs) as potent suppressors of genetically- or pharmacologically-induced seizure-like activity. Depletion of astrocytic Tensin, b-integrin, Talin, Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or matrix metalloproteinase 1 (Mmp1), which degrades extracellular matrix to activate b-integrin receptors, resulted in enhanced recovery from, or resistance to seizure activity. Reciprocally, promoting FA signaling by overexpression of Mmp1 in astrocytes led to enhanced-seizure severity. Blockade of FA signaling in astrocytes ...


The Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, Jonathan E. Farley 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, Jonathan E. Farley

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Neurons establish complex networks within the nervous system allowing for rapid cell-cell communication via their long, thin axonal processes. These wire-thin projections are susceptible to a number of insults or injuries, and axonal damage can lead to disruption in signal propagation and an overall dysfunction of the neural network. Recent research focused on investigating the underlying mechanisms of injury-induced axon degeneration led to the discovery of a number of endogenous, pro-degenerative molecules such as dSarm/Sarm1, Highwire/Phr1, and Axundead. These signaling molecules are thought to execute axon degeneration in response to injury locally within the distal severed axon, but ...


Molecular Players In Preserving Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance In The Brain, Wenjie Mao 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Molecular Players In Preserving Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance In The Brain, Wenjie Mao

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Information processing in the brain relies on a functional balance between excitation and inhibition, the disruption of which leads to network destabilization and many neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders. One of the homeostatic mechanisms that maintains the excitatory and inhibitory balance is called synaptic scaling: Neurons dynamically modulate postsynaptic receptor abundance through activity-dependent gene transcription and protein synthesis. In the first part of my thesis work, I discuss our findings that a chromatin reader protein L3mbtl1 is involved in synaptic scaling. We observed that knockout and knockdown of L3mbtl1 cause a lack of synaptic downscaling of glutamate receptors ...


Methylglyoxal Requires Ac1 And Trpa1 To Produce Pain And Spinal Neuron Activation, Ryan B. Griggs, Don E. Laird, Renee R. Donahue, Weisi Fu, Bradley K. Taylor 2017 Wright State University

Methylglyoxal Requires Ac1 And Trpa1 To Produce Pain And Spinal Neuron Activation, Ryan B. Griggs, Don E. Laird, Renee R. Donahue, Weisi Fu, Bradley K. Taylor

Physiology Faculty Publications

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a metabolite of glucose that may contribute to peripheral neuropathy and pain in diabetic patients. MG increases intracellular calcium in sensory neurons and produces behavioral nociception via the cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). However, rigorous characterization of an animal model of methylglyoxal-evoked pain is needed, including testing whether methylglyoxal promotes negative pain affect. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether methylglyoxal is sufficient to activate neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn, whether this requires TRPA1, and if the calcium-sensitive adenylyl cyclase 1 isoform (AC1) contributes to MG-evoked pain. We administered intraplantar methylglyoxal and then evaluated ...


Disc1 Modulates Neuronal Stress Responses By Gate-Keeping Er-Mitochondria Ca(2+) Transfer Through The Mam, Sung Jin Park, Su Been Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Su-Jeong Kim, Namgyu Lee, Ji-Ho Hong, Cana Park, Youngsik Woo, Koko Ishizuka, Joung-Hun Kim, Per-Olof Berggren, Akira Sawa, Sang Ki Park 2017 Pohang University of Science and Technology

Disc1 Modulates Neuronal Stress Responses By Gate-Keeping Er-Mitochondria Ca(2+) Transfer Through The Mam, Sung Jin Park, Su Been Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Su-Jeong Kim, Namgyu Lee, Ji-Ho Hong, Cana Park, Youngsik Woo, Koko Ishizuka, Joung-Hun Kim, Per-Olof Berggren, Akira Sawa, Sang Ki Park

Open Access Articles

A wide range of Ca(2+)-mediated functions are enabled by the dynamic properties of Ca(2+), all of which are dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a scaffold protein that is involved in the function of intracellular organelles and is linked to cognitive and emotional deficits. Here, we demonstrate that DISC1 localizes to the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). At the MAM, DISC1 interacts with IP3R1 and downregulates its ligand binding, modulating ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) transfer through the MAM. The disrupted regulation of Ca(2+) transfer caused by DISC1 dysfunction leads to abnormal Ca ...


Mitochondrial Fission After Traumatic Brain Injury, Tara Fischer 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Mitochondrial Fission After Traumatic Brain Injury, Tara Fischer

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central feature in the pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Loss of mitochondrial function disrupts normal cellular processes in the brain, as well as impedes the ability for repair and recovery, creating a vicious cycle that perpetuates damage after injury. To maintain metabolic homeostasis and cellular health, mitochondria constantly undergo regulated processes of fusion and fission and functionally adapt to changes in the cellular environment. An imbalance of these processes can disrupt the ability for mitochondria to functionally meet the metabolic needs of the cell, therefore resulting in mitochondrial damage and eventual cell death. Excessive fission ...


Circulating Autoantibodies In Human Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Subjects And Their Relationship To The Development Of Neuropathic Pain, Georgene Hergenroeder 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Circulating Autoantibodies In Human Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Subjects And Their Relationship To The Development Of Neuropathic Pain, Georgene Hergenroeder

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background:

Approximately 17,500 spinal cord injuries (SCI) occur yearly in the U.S. causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Neuropathic pain (NP) ensues in 40-70% of SCI. An autoimmune response resulting from disruption of the blood-spinal cord-barrier may be a contributor to NP. However, the relationship between autoantibodies and NP after SCI in humans has not been thoroughly characterized nor have autoantigens been identified. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and collapsin response mediator protein2 (CRMP2) were identified as candidate autoantigens. The hypothesis is that proteins from the injured spinal cord released by SCI trigger autoantibody production which can lead to ...


Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, sahily reyes 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation and deposition into extracellular plaques is a hallmark of the most common forms of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. The Aβ-containing plaques result from pathogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases resulting in intracellular production of Aβ peptides that are secreted and accumulate extracellularly. Despite considerable progress towards understanding APP processing and Aβ aggregation, the mechanisms underlying endosomal production of Aβ peptides and their secretion remain unclear. Using endosomes isolated from cultured primary neurons, we determined that the trafficking of APP from the endosomal membrane into internal vesicles of late endosome/multivesicular bodies (MVB) is ...


A Neuroprotective Role For Mir-1017, A Non-Canonical Mirna, Matthew de Cruz 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

A Neuroprotective Role For Mir-1017, A Non-Canonical Mirna, Matthew De Cruz

Master's Theses

miRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with numerous being involved in neurobiology. Within the human genome a quarter of the identified miRNA loci derive from a class of miRNAs termed tailed mirtrons. Despite the identification of this large population of miRNA, no functional studies have been conducted to identify their role. In this study we examined the highly expressed and deeply conserved Drosophila 3’ tail mirtron, miR-1017, as a candidate to elucidate tailed mirtron functionality. We identified acetylcholine receptor transcripts, Da5 and Da2, as bona fide targets for miR-1017. Interestingly, Da2 is also the host transcript for miR-1017. We ...


Analytical Modeling Of A Communication Channel Based On Subthreshold Stimulation Of Neurobiological Networks, Alireza Khodaei 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Analytical Modeling Of A Communication Channel Based On Subthreshold Stimulation Of Neurobiological Networks, Alireza Khodaei

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The emergence of wearable and implantable machines manufactured artificially or synthesized biologically opens up a new horizon for patient-centered health services such as medical treatment, health monitoring, and rehabilitation with minimized costs and maximized popularity when provided remotely via the Internet. In particular, a swarm of machines at the scale of a single cell down to the nanoscale can be deployed in the body by the non-invasive or minimally invasive operation (e.g., swallowing and injection respectively) to perform various tasks. However, an individual machine is only able to perform basic tasks so it needs to exchange data with the ...


A Customized Quantitative Pcr Microrna Panel Provides A Technically Robust Context For Studying Neurodegenerative Disease Biomarkers And Indicates A High Correlation Between Cerebrospinal Fluid And Choroid Plexus Microrna Expression, Wang-Xia Wang, David W. Fardo, Gregory A. Jicha, Peter T. Nelson 2017 University of Kentucky

A Customized Quantitative Pcr Microrna Panel Provides A Technically Robust Context For Studying Neurodegenerative Disease Biomarkers And Indicates A High Correlation Between Cerebrospinal Fluid And Choroid Plexus Microrna Expression, Wang-Xia Wang, David W. Fardo, Gregory A. Jicha, Peter T. Nelson

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

MicroRNA (miRNA) expression varies in association with different tissue types and in diseases. Having been found in body fluids including blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), miRNAs constitute potential biomarkers. CSF miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases; however, there is a lack of consensus about the best candidate miRNA biomarkers and there has been variability in results from different research centers, perhaps due to technical factors. Here, we sought to optimize technical parameters for CSF miRNA studies. We examined different RNA isolation methods and performed miRNA expression profiling with TaqMan® miRNA Arrays. More specifically, we developed a customized ...


P2x2 Dominant Deafness Mutations Have No Negative Effect On Wild-Type Isoform: Implications For Functional Rescue And In Deafness Mechanism, Yan Zhu, Juline Beudez, Ning Yu, Thomas Grutter, Hong-Bo Zhao 2017 University of Kentucky

P2x2 Dominant Deafness Mutations Have No Negative Effect On Wild-Type Isoform: Implications For Functional Rescue And In Deafness Mechanism, Yan Zhu, Juline Beudez, Ning Yu, Thomas Grutter, Hong-Bo Zhao

Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery Faculty Publications

The P2X2 receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel, assembled by three subunits. Recently, it has been found that heterozygous mutations of P2X2 V60L and G353R can cause autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The fact that heterozygous mutations cause deafness suggests that the mutations may have dominant-negative effect (DNE) on wild-type (WT) P2X2 isoforms and/or other partners leading to hearing loss. In this study, the effect of these dominant deafness P2X2 mutations on WT P2X2 was investigated. We found that sole transfection of both V60L and G353R deafness mutants could efficiently target to the ...


Targeted Genetic Screen In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Reveals Novel Genetic Variants With Synergistic Effect On Clinical Phenotype, Pamela J. Shaw, Kevin P. Kenna, John E. Landers 2017 University of Sheffield

Targeted Genetic Screen In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Reveals Novel Genetic Variants With Synergistic Effect On Clinical Phenotype, Pamela J. Shaw, Kevin P. Kenna, John E. Landers

Open Access Articles

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is underpinned by an oligogenic rare variant architecture. Identified genetic variants of ALS include RNA-binding proteins containing prion-like domains (PrLDs). We hypothesized that screening genes encoding additional similar proteins will yield novel genetic causes of ALS. The most common genetic variant of ALS patients is a G4C2-repeat expansion within C9ORF72. We have shown that G4C2-repeat RNA sequesters RNA-binding proteins. A logical consequence of this is that loss-of-function mutations in G4C2-binding partners might contribute to ALS pathogenesis independently of and/or synergistically with C9ORF72 expansions. Targeted sequencing of genomic DNA encoding either RNA-binding proteins or known ALS ...


Neuronal Degeneration And Short-Term Memory Impairment After Tbi, Obiamaraije Igwe 2017 University of Louisville

Neuronal Degeneration And Short-Term Memory Impairment After Tbi, Obiamaraije Igwe

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with impaired short-term memory with causes of vehicle accidents and falls. Protein plaques containing fibrinogen (Fg), are associated with memory loss. After TBI, Fg in blood was higher than normal (>~2 mg/ml), which resulted in increased Fg in extravascular space. Therefore, Fg bonded to its endothelial receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Fg then interacted with cellular prion protein (PrPC), which had a strong effect on the loss of memory and cognition. Mechanisms of Fg and PrPC complex formation and its functional implication are not known. This present study tested the level of Fg-PrPC ...


Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman

Psychology and Neuroscience Undergraduate Contributions

Traumatic spinal cord injury affects 282,000 people in the United States alone. Individuals often suffer from partial paralysis and chronic pain along with physiological impairments, such as abnormal thermoregulation, decreased motor function, and poor sleep quality. Current clinical therapies focus on symptomatic treatments. Despite extensive research, all of the physiologic effects and the molecular mechanism underlying spinal cord injury, and how they affect each other, remains elusive. Here, we tested whether spinal cord injury disrupted circadian rhythms, which could prolong the recovery process. We used implanted transmitters in male and female rats to measure a marker, body temperature, and ...


Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability , Sahba Seddighi, Matthew A. Cooper 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability , Sahba Seddighi, Matthew A. Cooper

Haslam Scholars Projects

Understanding the cellular mechanisms that control resistance and vulnerability to stress is an important step toward identifying novel targets for the prevention and treatment of stress-related mental illness. Dominant and subordinate animals have been shown to exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to stress, with dominants often showing stress resistance and subordinates often showing stress vulnerability. We have previously found that dominant hamsters exhibit reduced social avoidance following social defeat stress compared to subordinate hamsters, although the extent to which stress resistance in dominants generalizes to non-social stressors is unknown. In this study, dominant, subordinate, and control male Syrian hamsters ...


Machine Learning Analysis Identifies Drosophila Grunge/Atrophin As An Important Learning And Memory Gene Required For Memory Retention And Social Learning, Balint Kacsoh 2017 Illinois State University

Machine Learning Analysis Identifies Drosophila Grunge/Atrophin As An Important Learning And Memory Gene Required For Memory Retention And Social Learning, Balint Kacsoh

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Single-Base Resolution Mapping Of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Modifications In Hippocampus Of Alzheimer's Disease Subjects, Elizabeth M. Ellison, Melissa A. Bradley-Whitman, Mark A. Lovell 2017 University of Kentucky

Single-Base Resolution Mapping Of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Modifications In Hippocampus Of Alzheimer's Disease Subjects, Elizabeth M. Ellison, Melissa A. Bradley-Whitman, Mark A. Lovell

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Epigenetic modifications to cytosine have been shown to regulate transcription in cancer, embryonic development, and recently neurodegeneration. While cytosine methylation studies are now common in neurodegenerative research, hydroxymethylation studies are rare, particularly genome-wide mapping studies. As an initial study to analyze 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) genome, reduced representation hydroxymethylation profiling (RRHP) was used to analyze more than 2 million sites of possible modification in hippocampal DNA of sporadic AD and normal control subjects. Genes with differentially hydroxymethylated regions were filtered based on previously published microarray data for altered gene expression in hippocampal DNA of AD subjects ...


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