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Glycine Receptor Expression Across Identified Retinal Ganglion Cell Types., Ian Scot Pyle 2019 University of Louisville

Glycine Receptor Expression Across Identified Retinal Ganglion Cell Types., Ian Scot Pyle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) represent the culmination of all retinal signaling and their output forms the substrate for vision throughout the rest of the brain. About 40 different RGC types have been defined by differences in their visually evoked responses, morphology, and genetic makeup. These responses arise from interactions between inhibition and excitation throughout the retinal circuit (Franke et al., 2017; Masland, 2012; Sanes & Masland, 2015; Werblin, 2011). Unlike most other areas of the central nervous system (CNS), the retina utilizes both GABA and glycine inhibitory neurotransmitters to refine glutamatergic excitatory signals (Franke & Baden, 2017; Werblin, 2011; C. Zhang, Nobles, & McCall, 2015). Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are heteromers composed of a single β subunit and one of four α subunits, with a stoichiometry of 3β:2α (Grudzinska et al., 2005; Heinze, Harvey, Haverkamp, & Wassle, 2007; Lynch ...


Interhemispheric Communication And Lateralization In The Mouse Hippocampus, Jake Jordan 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Interhemispheric Communication And Lateralization In The Mouse Hippocampus, Jake Jordan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The hippocampus is essential for memory and spatial navigation. Many theories have been proposed to explain how the hippocampus contributes to cognition; however, none has fully explained relevant neurophysiological and behavioral data. Hemispheric lateralization of hippocampal function has been reported in humans and in rodents, and lateralization of hippocampal neural circuitry has been reported in rodents. Most theories of hippocampal function fail to consider the hippocampus as a bilateral structure with hemispheric differences. Further, proposed theories of hippocampal lateralization have their own limitations in explaining empirical data concerning left/right function. Little is known about communication between the hippocampi across ...


A Novel Kinesin Adapter Directly Mediates Dendritic Mrna Localization During Synapse Development, Hao Wu 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Novel Kinesin Adapter Directly Mediates Dendritic Mrna Localization During Synapse Development, Hao Wu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cytoskeleton based active transport with motor proteins is essential for mRNA localization and local protein translation in animal cells, yet how mRNA granules interact with motor proteins remains poorly understood. Using an unbiased screen for interaction between mRNA binding proteins (RBP) and motor proteins, we identified protein interacting with APP tail 1 (PAT1) as a potential direct adapter between the β-actin mRNA Zipcode-binding protein 1 (ZBP1) and Kinesin-1 motor complex.

Mouse PAT1 is similar to the Kinesin Light Chain (KLC) in amino acid sequence and binds directly to KLC. High-resolution images from structured illumination microscopy (SIM) indicates that synaptic stimulation ...


Notch Inhibitors And The Bet Inhibitor Jq-1 Decrease The Growth Of Primary Tumor Cells Derived From A Novel Mouse Model Of C11orf95-Rela Induced Brain Tumor, Ericka Randazzo, Jesse Dunnack, Justin Fang, Joseph LoTurco PhD 2019 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Notch Inhibitors And The Bet Inhibitor Jq-1 Decrease The Growth Of Primary Tumor Cells Derived From A Novel Mouse Model Of C11orf95-Rela Induced Brain Tumor, Ericka Randazzo, Jesse Dunnack, Justin Fang, Joseph Loturco Phd

University Scholar Projects

Brain tumors are the most common childhood solid malignancy, and because of remarkable advances in treating many cancers outside of the brain, they have become the leading cause of cancer mortality in children. Ependymomas are a class of brain tumors which can be further subdivided into three groups based upon their location and genetic features. Of the three classes, supratentorial ependymomas are the only subgroup known to be marked by an oncogenic driver gene, which consists of a fusion mutation between the C11orf95 and RELA genes. C11orf95-RELA positive tumors are the most aggressive and lethal of ...


The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety affects nearly twice as many women as it affects men across all cultures and economic groups. Importantly, girls have a higher chance of inheriting anxiety disorders than boys, and many anxiety disorders appear at a very young age. However, little is known about sex differences in brain and behavioral development and how they relate to anxiety in adulthood. Serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) mediated signaling has been implicated in depression and anxiety, however most studies that focus on the involvement of the 5-HT1A-R have been conducted in adults. Little is known about how the 5-HT1A ...


Modeling Changes In Cellular Micro-Environment In Mild To Moderate Head Trauma, XiangFu Zhang, Subhendra N. Sarkar PhD, RT 2019 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Modeling Changes In Cellular Micro-Environment In Mild To Moderate Head Trauma, Xiangfu Zhang, Subhendra N. Sarkar Phd, Rt

Publications and Research

Our work aims to connect and model multiple small, inter-related tissue injuries as a consequence of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI). It has been shown that frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable regions for brain traumatic injury. A brain injury from a blow or high-speed impact can cause undersurface of the frontal and temporal lobes to deform against the anterior and cranial fossae. This deformation can often trigger damage to the cerebral vasculature, which is ill-understood and can result in chronic damage to larger vessels over time. These physiological injuries can be manifested psychologically; such as patients’ sleep-wake disturbances. The ...


Circadian Rhythmicity And Neurodevelopment Of Disco And Grim Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Patrick Story 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Circadian Rhythmicity And Neurodevelopment Of Disco And Grim Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Patrick Story

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The death gene grim and its pathway for apoptosis has been studied extensively in Drosophila Melanogaster. The effects of grim mutations on circadian neurodevelopment and locomotor assays have yet to be investigated. Mutations in the gene disconnected (disco) has been shown to disrupt the normal development of the circadian circuitry, specifically the small ventro-lateral neurons (s-LNv’s). Which has shown to severely decrease rhythmicity during free-running periods. Alternatively, we have observed an increase in rhythmicity during free-running periods in grim mutations. Our goal is to investigate the neurodevelopment of the circadian circuitry and their associated locomotor activities in these Drosophila ...


Neural Bursting Activity Mediates Subtype-Specific Neural Regeneration By An L-Type Calcium Channel, Kendra Takle Ruppell 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Neural Bursting Activity Mediates Subtype-Specific Neural Regeneration By An L-Type Calcium Channel, Kendra Takle Ruppell

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Axons are injured after stroke, spinal cord injury, or neurodegenerative disease such as ALS. Most axons do not regenerate. A recent report suggests that not all neurons are poor regenerators, but rather a small subset can regenerate robustly. What intrinsic property of these regenerating neurons allows them to regenerate, but not their neighbors, remains a mystery. This subtype-specific regeneration has also been observed in Drosophila larvae sensory neurons. We exploited this powerful genetic system to unravel the intrinsic mechanism of subtype-specific neuron regeneration. We found that neuron bursting activity after axotomy correlates with regeneration ability. Furthermore, neuron bursting activity is ...


Development Of An Intrahippocampal Kindling Model Of Epilepsy, Carter F. Jones 2019 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

Development Of An Intrahippocampal Kindling Model Of Epilepsy, Carter F. Jones

Senior Theses and Projects

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects about 1% of the global population. This debilitating condition is associated with overexcitation and ineffective inhibition of neuronal pathways in the brain causing serious and a diverse set of symptoms, most prominently seizures. While some antiepileptic drug (AED) regimes have been proven to be effective in treating this condition, there are many cases where the drugs do not do enough. The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used for decades as an effective anticonvulsant. Its powerful and natural processes result in some patients becoming seizure-free. Sometimes, these patients remain free of seizures even after ...


Gene Therapy For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Aav Mediated Rnai Approach For Autosomal Dominant C9orf72 Associated Als, Gabriela Toro 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gene Therapy For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Aav Mediated Rnai Approach For Autosomal Dominant C9orf72 Associated Als, Gabriela Toro

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness and respiratory failure. In 2011, the presence of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion within chromosome 9 open reading frame 72(C9ORF72) was identified in ALS patient samples, becoming the major known genetic cause for ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Carriers of this mutation present reduced levels of C9ORF72 mRNA, RNA foci produced by the aggregating expansion and toxic dipeptides generated through repeat-associated non-ATG translation. These findings have led to multiple hypotheses on the pathogenesis of C9ORF72: 1) Haploinsufficiency, 2) RNA gain-of-function, 3) RAN Translation ...


The Drosophila Neuroblasts: A Model System For Human Ribosomopathies, Sonu Shrestha Baral 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Drosophila Neuroblasts: A Model System For Human Ribosomopathies, Sonu Shrestha Baral

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes the use of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) to model human ribosomopathies; the overall goal is to understand why specific stem cell and progenitor cell populations are the primary targets in nucleolar stress as seen in the ribosomopathies. Chapter 1 provides an overview of relevant literature. Chapter 2 describes nucleolar stress in Drosophila neuroblasts as a model for human ribosomopathies. For this, we induce nucleolar stress by using the UAS-GAL4 system to express RNAi that depletes Nopp140 transcripts, and we also employ homozygous, CRISPR-Cas9-generated Nopp140 gene disruptions with a systemic null phenotype (Nopp140-/-). Embryonic lethality was observed under RNAi ...


Role Of Withaferin A As A Neuroprotectant Against Beta Amyloid Induced Toxicity And Associated Mechanism, Sneham Tiwari 2019 Florida International University

Role Of Withaferin A As A Neuroprotectant Against Beta Amyloid Induced Toxicity And Associated Mechanism, Sneham Tiwari

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neurological disorders are the biggest concern globally and ageing contributes in worsening the disease scenarios. In AD or AD like diseases, there is abnormal accumulation of extracellular amyloid beta produced due to abnormal processing of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein, by β and γ-secretases. It spreads in the cortical and limbic regions of the brain leading to neuronal toxicity, impairment in memory and neurological functions. Aβ deposition in the CNS is common in aging HIV patients. Neurotoxic protein Tat, results in increased Aβ in combination with drugs of abuse cocaine. We examined the role of Withaferin A, against Aβ induced ...


Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Neurotransmitter systems are important in regulating the stress response. If a behavioral response is disproportional to a stressor it is characterized as anxiety-like behavior. Many anxiolytic compounds, such as ethanol, increase stressor engagement, but how these compounds interact with an organism on a neurogenetic level is less understood. In this study, I assessed the impact of chronic ethanol treatment on behavior and gene expression of GABAAreceptors subunits on two strains of zebrafish. Each strain was selectively bred to display the proactive or reactive stress coping style where proactive individuals will actively engage a stressor more than reactive individuals ...


Investigating Comt Influence On The Proactive-Reactive Stress Coping Axis In Zebrafish, Sean T. Bresnahan, Ryan Y. Wong 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Investigating Comt Influence On The Proactive-Reactive Stress Coping Axis In Zebrafish, Sean T. Bresnahan, Ryan Y. Wong

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Individuals of the same species often display differences in correlated suites of behaviors which are made conspicuous when challenges – stressful, fear-inducing, etc. – are presented. In many species, a specific suite of behaviors (risk-aversion, aggression, exploration, learning, and memory) characterize an alternative set of stress coping styles (proactive and reactive). Such behaviors are regulated in the brain by specific neurotransmitters along with proteins that regulate them. One neurotransmitter regulator protein, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) shows higher baseline whole-brain expression in proactive relative to reactive animals. However, it is not known whether its expression is a cause or a consequence of the stress coping ...


The Integration Of Multiple Sources Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Spinal Cord Contribute To The Production Of First-Born Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Which Become Critical For Synapse Remodeling In Response To Adult Motor Neuron Injury, Lev Starikov 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Integration Of Multiple Sources Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Spinal Cord Contribute To The Production Of First-Born Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Which Become Critical For Synapse Remodeling In Response To Adult Motor Neuron Injury, Lev Starikov

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) arise sequentially first from a ventral and then from a dorsal precursor domain during spinal cord development. Whether the sequential production of OPCs is of physiological significance has not been examined. Here I show that interrupting Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling originating from nascent ventricular zone derivatives (VZD), motor neurons and the lateral floor plate, almost completely blocks ventral but not dorsal oligodendrogenesis without noticeably affecting early tissue patterning and embryonic development. In the absence of ventral OPCs, dorsal OPCs increase proliferation and populate the entire spinal cord with increased density. In these mutant mice, dOPCs take ...


Ck2 Negatively Regulates 5-Ht4 Receptor Signaling In The Prefrontal Cortex And Mediates Depression-Like Behaviors, Julia Castello Saval 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Ck2 Negatively Regulates 5-Ht4 Receptor Signaling In The Prefrontal Cortex And Mediates Depression-Like Behaviors, Julia Castello Saval

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The serotonergic system has been the major candidate in the pathophysiology of mood related disorders such as anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately, current antidepressant drugs are ineffective in 50% of the population and require chronic administration for a period of 3-6 weeks before the onset of therapeutic response. 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) agonists have emerged as potential candidates for fast antidepressant action, since an antidepressant response can be achieved after 3 days of pharmacological administration in rodents.

This dissertation aims to investigate the role of casein kinase 2 (CK2) as a regulator of 5-HT4R expression ...


Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada 2019 Iowa State University

Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this study, gelatin and graphene-based nerve regeneration conduits/scaffolds possessing tailored 3D microstructures and mechanical properties were fabricated using 3D printing. The effect of 3D conduit microstructure and mechanical properties along with the applied electrical stimuli on mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) behavior and transdifferentiation into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes were investigated. The results indicated that the gelatin conduits/scaffolds had favorable 3D microstructural and mechanical properties for MSC attachment and growth. Immunocytochemistry results demonstrated that the application of electrical stimuli through the conductive graphene within the gelatin-based 3D microstructure had a profound effect on the differentiation of MSCs ...


The Leucine-Rich Domain Of Rgnef: A Modifier Of Tdp-43 Toxicity In Drosophila Melanogaster., Benjamin Martin Withers 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Leucine-Rich Domain Of Rgnef: A Modifier Of Tdp-43 Toxicity In Drosophila Melanogaster., Benjamin Martin Withers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange factor (RGNEF) like other RNA-binding proteins, has been observed to form inclusions in the spinal cord motor neurons of both sporadic and familial cases of ALS. RGNEF has been determined to be a pro-survival factor under stress conditions. When comparing expression of different constructs of RGNEF in HEK293T cells, a Leucine-rich domain containing fragment of RGNEF (L-Rich) was found to form aggregates under metabolic stress that co-aggregated with TDP-43, another ALS-linked RNA-binding protein.

In this thesis, I used both ...


The Role Of H3k4 Methyltransferases In Drosophila Memory, Nicholas Raun 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of H3k4 Methyltransferases In Drosophila Memory, Nicholas Raun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gene transcription required for long-term memory requires the modification of histones. However, there are still many uncertainties about the identity and spatial expression of genes regulated by histone modifications during memory related processes. In this project I examined the role of Drosophila melanogaster methyltransferases Set1 and trx in courtship memory. Genetic knockdown of Set1 and trx in the mushroom body (MB) revealed that Set1 was necessary for short- and long-term memory, while trx was only required for long-term memory. Transcriptional profiling of MBs following trx-knockdown revealed expression changes in MB-enriched genes and genes involved in RNA processing. Among the ...


Absence Of Endothelial Α5Β1 Integrin Triggers Early Onset Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Due To Reduced Vascular Remodeling And Compromised Vascular Integrity, Ravi Kant, Sebok K. Halder, Gregory J. Bix, Richard Milner 2019 The Scripps Research Institute

Absence Of Endothelial Α5Β1 Integrin Triggers Early Onset Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Due To Reduced Vascular Remodeling And Compromised Vascular Integrity, Ravi Kant, Sebok K. Halder, Gregory J. Bix, Richard Milner

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Early in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), vascular integrity is compromised. This is accompanied by a marked vascular remodeling response, though it is currently unclear whether this is an adaptive vascular repair mechanism or is part of the pathogenic process. In light of the well-described angiogenic role for the α5β1 integrin, the goal of this study was to evaluate how genetic deletion of endothelial α5 integrin (α5-EC-KO mice) impacts vascular remodeling and repair following vascular disruption during EAE pathogenesis, and how this subsequently influences clinical progression and inflammatory demyelination. Immunofluorescence staining ...


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