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Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Commons

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Nuclear Encoded Proteins Important In Mitochondrial Genome Stability, Luke Krembs 2012 The College at Brockport

Nuclear Encoded Proteins Important In Mitochondrial Genome Stability, Luke Krembs

Senior Honors Theses

The mitochondrion is widely known to be the site of cellular respiration and the factory of cellular energy. Similar to the nucleus, mitochondria house genetic material (mtDNA), which is responsible for the production of proteins essential to mechanisms required for cellular respiration. Furthermore, if there is a mutation or deletion in the mtDNA there can be ramifications in terms of energy production, which will hinder cell viability. Additionally, mutations in the mtDNA are associated with certain neuromuscular diseases as well as contributing to the aging process. The focus of this research is to identify genes that contribute to the maintenance ...


Structural Analysis Of The Drosophila Innexin Shakb: Role Of The N-Terminus In Rectifying Electrical Synapses, William Marks 2012 SUNY College at Buffalo

Structural Analysis Of The Drosophila Innexin Shakb: Role Of The N-Terminus In Rectifying Electrical Synapses, William Marks

Biology Theses

Gap junction channels mediate direct intercellular communication in all multicellular animals. They are comprised of the connexin family of proteins in vertebrates and the innexin family in prechordates. Connexins and innexins share many functional and structural similarities as orthologous proteins. Both types are capable of forming electrical synapses. Rectifying junctions are specialized electrical synapses found in neural systems that control escape responses. It has been shown that heterotypic gap junction channels mediate asymmetric properties of rectifying junctions. Shaking B N+16 and Shaking B lethal are variants of the ShakB locus in Drosophila and the organization of these innexins into ...


Effects Of Maternal Low Protein Diet On Expression Of Drug Transporters In The Blood-Brain Barrier Of Adult Offspring, Bonnie L. Hastings 2012 Linfield College

Effects Of Maternal Low Protein Diet On Expression Of Drug Transporters In The Blood-Brain Barrier Of Adult Offspring, Bonnie L. Hastings

Senior Theses

Adverse uterine environment, manifested as low birth weight (LBW), has been shown to predispose individuals to hypertension, diabetes, and obesity by mechanisms that are just beginning to be understood. One of the mechanisms is the dysregulation of the expression or function of drug transport proteins, such as the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, which are crucial for the transport of various endogenous and exogenous compounds into and out of all organs, especially the brain. Hence, we examined the status of select drug transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), using a LBW rat model. Maternal low protein diet (LPD) during gestation ...


Parkinson’S Disease: Molecular Mechanisms And Treatments, Delia Vahey 2012 Liberty University

Parkinson’S Disease: Molecular Mechanisms And Treatments, Delia Vahey

Senior Honors Theses

Parkinson’s disease is a motor system disorder that is caused primarily by the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The most affected brain structure is the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. This area of the brain is essential to the control of voluntary movement, and so its impairment leads to symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and impaired balance. The neuronal protein alpha-synuclein has been shown to be heavily involved in the pathogenesis of the disease at the cellular level. The currently available treatments for PD mainly target dopamine regulation, and there been no cure developed for the disease at ...


Detection Of Sk2 Channels On Hippocampal Neurons, Jamie L. Maciaszek 2012 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Detection Of Sk2 Channels On Hippocampal Neurons, Jamie L. Maciaszek

Master's Theses

Calcium-activated small conductance potassium channels (SK) are crucial for synaptic plasticity, sleep, and learning and memory (Hammond, Bond et al. 2006; Cueni, Canepari et al. 2008; Lin, Lujan et al. 2008). Despite the recent progress on SK channel physiology, the precise spatial organization of SK channels in neurons has remained unknown. Such knowledge is critical as the subcellular distribution of SK channels is an important determinant of neuronal excitability. Currently, there are no techniques to image ion channel distribution quantitatively at the nanometer scale in living cells. Here, it is demonstrated that integration of natural toxins with single molecule atomic ...


Flatbed Scanner Report - Optical Density Dynamic Range, George McNamara 2012 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Flatbed Scanner Report - Optical Density Dynamic Range, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

George McNamara (now at University of Miami) report for Hua Yu and Richard Jove, City of Hope National Medical Center, on optical density dynamic range of several flatbed scanners.


Integration Of Subthreshold And Suprathreshold Excitatory Barrages Along The Somatodendritic Axis Of Pyramidal Neurons, Hysell V. Oviedo, Alex D. Reyes 2012 Watson School of Biological Sciences, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; Department of Biology, City College of New York

Integration Of Subthreshold And Suprathreshold Excitatory Barrages Along The Somatodendritic Axis Of Pyramidal Neurons, Hysell V. Oviedo, Alex D. Reyes

Publications and Research

Neurons integrate inputs arriving in different cellular compartments to produce action potentials that are transmitted to other neurons. Because of the voltage- and time-dependent conductances in the dendrites and soma, summation of synaptic inputs is complex. To examine summation of membrane potentials and firing rates, we performed whole-cell recordings from layer 5 cortical pyramidal neurons in acute slices of the rat’s somatosensory cortex. We delivered subthreshold and suprathreshold stimuli at the soma and several sites on the apical dendrite, and injected inputs that mimic synaptic barrages at individual or distributed sites. We found that summation of subthreshold potentials differed ...


Selective Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons, Daniel Avesar, Allan T. Gulledge 2012 Dartmouth College

Selective Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons, Daniel Avesar, Allan T. Gulledge

Open Dartmouth: Published works by Dartmouth faculty

Serotonin (5-HT) acting as a neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex is critical for cognitive function, yet how 5-HT regulates information processing in cortical circuits is not well understood. We tested the serotonergic responsiveness of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and found three distinct response types: long-lasting 5-HT1A (1A) receptor-dependent inhibitory responses (84% of L5PNs), 5-HT2A (2A) receptor-dependent excitatory responses (9%), and biphasic responses in which 2A-dependent excitation followed brief inhibition (5%). Relative to 5-HT-inhibited neurons, those excited by 5-HT had physiological properties characteristic of callosal/commissural (COM) neurons that project to ...


Roles Of The Ion Channel Nalcn In Neuronal Excitability Control, Boxun Lu 2012 University of Pennsylvania

Roles Of The Ion Channel Nalcn In Neuronal Excitability Control, Boxun Lu

Boxun Lu

The resting membrane potential (RMP) of a neuron is set by a complex balance between charged ions, ion channels and transporters. Many of the ion channels have been identified at the molecular level. Missing from the molecular identification has been the voltage-insensitive background sodium ‘‘leak’’ conductance that depolarizes the RMP from the equilibrium potential of potassium and provides a crucial contribution to neuronal excitability One candidate for the molecular identity of this conductance is the protein NALCN. NALCN is a previously uncharacterized orphan member in the sodium/calcium channel family. It is widely expressed in the nervous system. My thesis ...


Introduction To Nanoscopy Nano-Talk, George McNamara 2012 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Introduction To Nanoscopy Nano-Talk, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

T7-1 is the designation for the LMRG Nanoscopy session at ABRF in Orlando, FL, on March 20, 2012. The PDF file here is a draft of my presentation.

May not be very helpful since (1) would probably help to know what is in my head and each slide will [hopefully] prompt me to say, and (2) 10 minute talk so I am going to push the "next slide" button after saying very little.

__________________

Publisher statement:

The T7-1 Introduction to Nanoscopy Nano Talk is copyrighted (c) George McNamara, 2012. Except for (1) screenshots from research articles (which are copyrighted by ...


Pubspectra - Open Data Access Fluorescence Spectra, George McNamara 2012 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Pubspectra - Open Data Access Fluorescence Spectra, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

The Internet is enabling greater access to spectral imaging publications, spectral graphs, and data than that was available a generation ago. The spectral imaging systems discussed in this issue of Cytometry work because reagent and hardware spectra are reproducible, reusable, and provide input to spectral unmixing and spectral components recognition algorithms. These spectra need to be readily available in order to determine what to purchase, how to use it, and what the output means. We refer to several commercially sponsored and academic spectral web sites and discuss our spectral graphing and data sites. Sites include fluorescent dye graph servers from ...


Mcnamara 2011 Feature Extraction (Image Analysis), George McNamara 2012 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Mcnamara 2011 Feature Extraction (Image Analysis), George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Feature Extraction presentation and movies in a ZIP file from a presentation I gave at ISAC 2011 in Baltomore, Md.

Feature extraction is one phrase for image analysis.


Rogers Pmn Movie - Background Information, George McNamara 2012 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Rogers Pmn Movie - Background Information, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Please see

http://mdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/18689/~/metamatters-newsletters

for my series of MetaMorph MetaMatters articles in volume 2, numbers 3 through 6, on the Rogers PMN Panorama data set.

http://mdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/18689/~/metamatters-newsletters

Brief summary (for more, see the Word doc)


Pten Regulation Of Local And Long-Range Connections In Mouse Auditory Cortex, Qiaojie Xiong, Hysell V. Oviedo, Lloyd C. Trotman, Anthony M. Zador 2012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Pten Regulation Of Local And Long-Range Connections In Mouse Auditory Cortex, Qiaojie Xiong, Hysell V. Oviedo, Lloyd C. Trotman, Anthony M. Zador

Publications and Research

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable developmental disorders caused by a heterogeneous collection of genetic lesions. Here we use a mouse model to study the effect on cortical connectivity of disrupting the ASD candidate gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10). Through Cre-mediated recombination, we conditionally knocked out PTEN expression in a subset of auditory cortical neurons. Analysis of long-range connectivity using channelrhodopsin-2 revealed that the strength of synaptic inputs from both the contralateral auditory cortex and from the thalamus onto PTEN-cko neurons was enhanced compared with nearby neurons with normal PTEN expression. Laser-scanning photostimulation showed ...


Domain Architecture Of A Calcium-Permeable Ampa Receptor In A Ligand-Free Conformation, Charles R. Midgett, Avinash Gill, Dean R. Madden 2012 Dartmouth College

Domain Architecture Of A Calcium-Permeable Ampa Receptor In A Ligand-Free Conformation, Charles R. Midgett, Avinash Gill, Dean R. Madden

Open Dartmouth: Published works by Dartmouth faculty

Ligand-gated ion channels couple the free energy of agonist binding to the gating of selective transmembrane ion pores, permitting cells to regulate ion flux in response to external chemical stimuli. However, the stereochemical mechanisms responsible for this coupling remain obscure. In the case of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the modular nature of receptor subunits has facilitated structural analysis of the N-terminal domain (NTD), and of multiple conformations of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Recently, the crystallographic structure of an antagonist-bound form of the receptor was determined. However, disulfide trapping of this conformation blocks channel opening, suggesting that channel activation involves ...


Investigating The Role Of Prion Protein Polymorphisms On Prion Pathogenesis, Eri Saijo 2012 University of Kentucky

Investigating The Role Of Prion Protein Polymorphisms On Prion Pathogenesis, Eri Saijo

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are lethal and infectious neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. The misfolding of the normal, or cellular isoform of the prion protein (PrPC) into the abnormal disease-associated isoform of PrP (PrPSc) could change the properties of PrP, consequently, PrPSc has lethal infectivity to transmit diseases. The proteinaceous infectious particle consisting mainly of PrPSc is called prion. Transmissibility of prions is strongly influenced by multiple factors including PrP polymorphisms, species barriers (PrP sequence specificity) and prion strains (conformational specificity) by unknown mechanisms. Even though the ability of prions ...


Structure-Function Analysis Of Nel, A Thrombospondin-1-Like Glycoprotein Involved In Neural Development And Functions, Masaru Nakamoto 2012 Valparaiso University

Structure-Function Analysis Of Nel, A Thrombospondin-1-Like Glycoprotein Involved In Neural Development And Functions, Masaru Nakamoto

Biology Faculty Publications

Nel (neural epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like molecule) is a multimeric, multimodular extracellular glycoprotein with heparin-binding activity and structural similarities to thrombospondin-1. Nel is predominantly expressed in the nervous system and has been implicated in neuronal proliferation and differentiation, retinal axon guidance, synaptic functions, and spatial learning. The Nel protein contains an N-terminal thrombospondin-1 (TSP-N) domain, five cysteine-rich domains, and six EGF-like domains. However, little is known about the functions of specific domains of the Nel protein. In this study, we have performed structure-function analysis of Nel, by using a series of expression constructs for different regions of the Nel ...


The Cellular Nucleic Acid Binding Protein Regulates The Alzheimer’S Disease Β-Secretase Protein Bace1, Christopher J. Holler 2012 University of Kentucky

The Cellular Nucleic Acid Binding Protein Regulates The Alzheimer’S Disease Β-Secretase Protein Bace1, Christopher J. Holler

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly population and is believed to be caused by the overproduction and accumulation of the toxic amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide in the brain. Aβ is produced by two separate enzymatic cleavage events of the larger membrane bound amyloid precursor protein, APP. The first, and rate-limiting, cleavage event is made by beta-secretase, or BACE1, and is thus an attractive therapeutic target. Our lab, as well as many others, has shown that BACE1 protein and activity are increased in late-stage sporadic AD. We have extended these findings to show that ...


Conditioned Response Evoked By Nicotine Conditioned Stimulus Preferentially Induces C-Fos Expression In Medial Regions Of Caudate-Putamen, Sergios Charntikov, Matthew E. Tracy, Changjiu Zhao, Ming Li, Rick A. Bevins 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Conditioned Response Evoked By Nicotine Conditioned Stimulus Preferentially Induces C-Fos Expression In Medial Regions Of Caudate-Putamen, Sergios Charntikov, Matthew E. Tracy, Changjiu Zhao, Ming Li, Rick A. Bevins

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Nicotine has both unconditioned and conditioned stimulus properties. Conditioned stimulus properties of nicotine may contribute to the tenacity of nicotine addiction. The purpose of this experiment was to use neurohistochemical analysis of rapidly developing c-Fos protein to elucidate neurobiological loci involved in the processing of nicotine as an interoceptive conditioned stimulus (CS). Rats were injected (SC) in an intermixed fashion with saline or nicotine (16 sessions of each) and placed in conditioning chambers where they were given one of the three conditions depending on group assignment: (a) nicotine paired 100% of the time with intermittent access to sucrose (nicotine-CS condition ...


Iptakalim Preferentially Decreases Nicotine-Induced Hyperlocomotion In Phencyclidine-Sensitized Rats: A Potential Dual Action Against Nicotine Addiction And Psychosis, Nick Volf, Gang Hu, Ming Li 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Iptakalim Preferentially Decreases Nicotine-Induced Hyperlocomotion In Phencyclidine-Sensitized Rats: A Potential Dual Action Against Nicotine Addiction And Psychosis, Nick Volf, Gang Hu, Ming Li

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Objective: Iptakalim is a putative ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener. It is also a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) blocker and can antagonize nicotine-induced increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Our recent work also shows that iptakalim exhibits a clozapine-like atypical antipsychotic profile, indicating that iptakalim may possess a dual action against nicotine addiction and schizophrenia.

Methods: The present study examined the potential therapeutic effects of iptakalim on nicotine use in schizophrenia. We created an animal model of comorbidity of nicotine addiction and schizophrenia by injecting male Sprague-Dawley rats with nicotine (0.40 mg/kg, subcutaneously[sc]) or ...


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