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Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Commons

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Damage-Induced Inflammation And Nociceptive Hypersensitivity In Drosophila Larvae, Daniel T. Babcock 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Damage-Induced Inflammation And Nociceptive Hypersensitivity In Drosophila Larvae, Daniel T. Babcock

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Mounting an effective response to tissue damage requires a concerted effort from a number of systems, including both the immune and nervous systems. Immune-responsive blood cells fight infection and clear debris from damaged tissues, and specialized pain receptors become hypersensitive to promote behavior that protects the damaged area while it heals. To uncover the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, we have developed a genetically tractable invertebrate model of damage-induced inflammation and pain hypersensitivity using Drosophila larvae.

To study wound-induced inflammation, we generated transgenic larvae with fluorescent epidermal cells and blood cells (hemocytes). Using live imaging, we monitored the ...


Protein-Protein Interactions That Regulate Neurotransmitter Release From Retinal Ribbon Synapses, (Leigh) Beth T. Latham 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Protein-Protein Interactions That Regulate Neurotransmitter Release From Retinal Ribbon Synapses, (Leigh) Beth T. Latham

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Protein-Protein Interactions That Regulate Neurotransmitter Release from Retinal Ribbon Synapses Photoreceptors and bipolar cells in the retina form specialized chemical synapses called ribbon synapses. This type of synapse differs physiologically from “conventional” chemical synapses. While “conventional” synapses exocytose neurotransmitter-filled vesicles in an all-or-none fashion in response to an action potential, a retinal ribbon synapse can release neurotransmitter tonically (sustained) in response to graded changes in membrane potential or phasically (transient) in response to a large change in membrane potential.

Synaptic vesicle exocytosis is a tightly controlled process involving many protein-protein interactions. Therefore, it is likely that the dissimilarity in the ...


The Expression And Cellular Localization Of Cc-Chemokine Receptor 5 (Ccr5) After Traumatic Brain Injury, Vuvi H. Nguyen 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Expression And Cellular Localization Of Cc-Chemokine Receptor 5 (Ccr5) After Traumatic Brain Injury, Vuvi H. Nguyen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Traumatic brain injury results from a primary insult and secondary events that together result in tissue injury. This primary injury occurs at the moment of impact and damage can include scalp laceration, skull fraction, cerebral contusions and lacerations as well as intracranial hemorrhage. Following the initial insult, a delayed response occurs and is characterized by hypoxia, ischemia, cerebral edema, and infection. During secondary brain injury, a series of neuroinflammatory events are triggered that can produce additional damage but may also help to protect nervous tissue from invading pathogens and help to repair the damaged tissue. Brain microglia and astrocytes become ...


The Expression And Cellular Localization Of Cc-Chemokine Receptor 5 (Ccr5) After Traumatic Brain Injury, Vuvi H. Nguyen 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Expression And Cellular Localization Of Cc-Chemokine Receptor 5 (Ccr5) After Traumatic Brain Injury, Vuvi H. Nguyen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Traumatic brain injury results from a primary insult and secondary events that together result in tissue injury. This primary injury occurs at the moment of impact and damage can include scalp laceration, skull fraction, cerebral contusions and lacerations as well as intracranial hemorrhage. Following the initial insult, a delayed response occurs and is characterized by hypoxia, ischemia, cerebral edema, and infection. During secondary brain injury, a series of neuroinflammatory events are triggered that can produce additional damage but may also help to protect nervous tissue from invading pathogens and help to repair the damaged tissue. Brain microglia and astrocytes become ...


Developmental Changes In The Structure And Composition Of The Postsynaptic Density, Matthew T. Swulius 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Developmental Changes In The Structure And Composition Of The Postsynaptic Density, Matthew T. Swulius

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The development of the brain and its underlying circuitry is dependent on the formation of trillions of chemical synapses, which are highly specialized contacts that regulate the flow of information from one neuron to the next. It is through these synaptic connections that neurons wire together into networks capable of performing specific tasks, and activity-dependent changes in their structural and physiological state is one way that the brain is thought to adapt and store information. At the ultrastructural level, developmental and activity-dependent changes in the size and shape of dendritic spines have been well documented, and it is widely believed ...


Signaling Mechanisms That Control Gap Junctional Coupling Between Retinal Neurons, Wade Kothmann 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Signaling Mechanisms That Control Gap Junctional Coupling Between Retinal Neurons, Wade Kothmann

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Gap junctions between neurons form the structural substrate for electrical synapses. Connexin 36 (Cx36, and its non-mammalian ortholog connexin 35) is the major neuronal gap junction protein in the central nervous system (CNS), and contributes to several important neuronal functions including neuronal synchronization, signal averaging, network oscillations, and motor learning. Connexin 36 is strongly expressed in the retina, where it is an obligatory component of the high-sensitivity rod photoreceptor pathway. A fundamental requirement of the retina is to adapt to broadly varying inputs in order to maintain a dynamic range of signaling output. Modulation of the strength of electrical coupling ...


Genes Involved In Mushroom Body Development And Behavior In Drosophila, Christine Nicole Serway 2010 University of Nevada Las Vegas

Genes Involved In Mushroom Body Development And Behavior In Drosophila, Christine Nicole Serway

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mushroom bodies (MBs) are the site of multi modal sensory integration critical for associative conditioning in Drosophila. They have been central to research on the structure function relationship in the brain for over one hundred years due to their unique shape and readily accessible physiology. This dissertation incorporates three different approaches to further elucidate the genetic and molecular nature of this structure function relationship.

First, the suite of genetic and molecular tools available in Drosophila melanogaster, facilitated the molecular mapping of a 25-year old MB structural mutant called mushroom body miniature B (mbmB) to the gene Pendulin [Pen, also known ...


Effect Of Membrane Cholesterol Levels And Allelic Variation On Prion Conversion, Ross Hartman 2010 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Effect Of Membrane Cholesterol Levels And Allelic Variation On Prion Conversion, Ross Hartman

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is caused by an accumulation of misfolded prion proteins (PrPsc) and subsequent plaque formation in the central nervous system. CWD is horizontally transferable; misfolded prions from one animal can enter another and cause normal prion proteins (PrPc) to misfold. This misfolding process is termed prion conversion. In natural deer populations an allelic variation in the prion gene is thought to confer resistance to CWD. Wild type mule deer are serine (S) homozygotes at codon 225. Mule deer that are Serine/ Phenyalanine (S/F) heterozygotes exhibit resistance to prion infection. In this study the F encoding allele ...


Dynamics Of The Rapsyn Scaffolding Protein At The Neuromuscular Junction Of Live Mice, Emile Bruneau, Mohammed Akaaboune 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Dynamics Of The Rapsyn Scaffolding Protein At The Neuromuscular Junction Of Live Mice, Emile Bruneau, Mohammed Akaaboune

Departmental Papers (ASC)

The efficacy of synaptic transmission depends on the maintenance of a high density of neurotransmitter receptors and their associated scaffold proteins in the postsynaptic membrane. While the dynamics of receptors has been extensively studied, the dynamics of the intracellular scaffold proteins that make up the postsynaptic density are largely unknown in vivo. Here, we focused on the dynamics of rapsyn, a protein required for the clustering and maintenance of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) density at postsynaptic sites. Using time-lapse imaging, we demonstrated that rapsyn is remarkably dynamic compared to AChRs at functional synapses, turning over 4–6 times more rapidly than ...


Metastability And Plasticity In A Conceptual Model Of Neurons, Bo Deng 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Metastability And Plasticity In A Conceptual Model Of Neurons, Bo Deng

Faculty Publications, Department of Mathematics

For a new class of neuron models we demonstrate here that typical membrane action potentials and spike-bursts are only transient states but appear to be asymptotically stable; and yet such metastable states are plastic — being able to dynamically change from one action potential to another with different pulse frequencies and from one spike-burst to another with different spike-per-burst numbers. The pulse and spike-burst frequencies change with individual ions’ pump currents while their corresponding metastable-plastic states maintain the same transmembrane voltage and current profiles in range. It is also demonstrated that the plasticity requires two one-way ion pumps operating in opposite ...


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