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Development Of An Intrahippocampal Kindling Model Of Epilepsy, Carter F. Jones 2019 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

Development Of An Intrahippocampal Kindling Model Of Epilepsy, Carter F. Jones

Senior Theses and Projects

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects about 1% of the global population. This debilitating condition is associated with overexcitation and ineffective inhibition of neuronal pathways in the brain causing serious and a diverse set of symptoms, most prominently seizures. While some antiepileptic drug (AED) regimes have been proven to be effective in treating this condition, there are many cases where the drugs do not do enough. The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used for decades as an effective anticonvulsant. Its powerful and natural processes result in some patients becoming seizure-free. Sometimes, these patients remain free of seizures even after ...


Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Neurotransmitter systems are important in regulating the stress response. If a behavioral response is disproportional to a stressor it is characterized as anxiety-like behavior. Many anxiolytic compounds, such as ethanol, increase stressor engagement, but how these compounds interact with an organism on a neurogenetic level is less understood. In this study, I assessed the impact of chronic ethanol treatment on behavior and gene expression of GABAAreceptors subunits on two strains of zebrafish. Each strain was selectively bred to display the proactive or reactive stress coping style where proactive individuals will actively engage a stressor more than reactive individuals ...


Investigating Comt Influence On The Proactive-Reactive Stress Coping Axis In Zebrafish, Sean T. Bresnahan, Ryan Y. Wong 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Investigating Comt Influence On The Proactive-Reactive Stress Coping Axis In Zebrafish, Sean T. Bresnahan, Ryan Y. Wong

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Individuals of the same species often display differences in correlated suites of behaviors which are made conspicuous when challenges – stressful, fear-inducing, etc. – are presented. In many species, a specific suite of behaviors (risk-aversion, aggression, exploration, learning, and memory) characterize an alternative set of stress coping styles (proactive and reactive). Such behaviors are regulated in the brain by specific neurotransmitters along with proteins that regulate them. One neurotransmitter regulator protein, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) shows higher baseline whole-brain expression in proactive relative to reactive animals. However, it is not known whether its expression is a cause or a consequence of the stress coping ...


The Integration Of Multiple Sources Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Spinal Cord Contribute To The Production Of First-Born Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Which Become Critical For Synapse Remodeling In Response To Adult Motor Neuron Injury, Lev Starikov 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Integration Of Multiple Sources Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Spinal Cord Contribute To The Production Of First-Born Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Which Become Critical For Synapse Remodeling In Response To Adult Motor Neuron Injury, Lev Starikov

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) arise sequentially first from a ventral and then from a dorsal precursor domain during spinal cord development. Whether the sequential production of OPCs is of physiological significance has not been examined. Here I show that interrupting Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling originating from nascent ventricular zone derivatives (VZD), motor neurons and the lateral floor plate, almost completely blocks ventral but not dorsal oligodendrogenesis without noticeably affecting early tissue patterning and embryonic development. In the absence of ventral OPCs, dorsal OPCs increase proliferation and populate the entire spinal cord with increased density. In these mutant mice, dOPCs take ...


Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada 2019 Iowa State University

Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this study, gelatin and graphene-based nerve regeneration conduits/scaffolds possessing tailored 3D microstructures and mechanical properties were fabricated using 3D printing. The effect of 3D conduit microstructure and mechanical properties along with the applied electrical stimuli on mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) behavior and transdifferentiation into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes were investigated. The results indicated that the gelatin conduits/scaffolds had favorable 3D microstructural and mechanical properties for MSC attachment and growth. Immunocytochemistry results demonstrated that the application of electrical stimuli through the conductive graphene within the gelatin-based 3D microstructure had a profound effect on the differentiation of MSCs ...


Absence Of Endothelial Α5Β1 Integrin Triggers Early Onset Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Due To Reduced Vascular Remodeling And Compromised Vascular Integrity, Ravi Kant, Sebok K. Halder, Gregory J. Bix, Richard Milner 2019 The Scripps Research Institute

Absence Of Endothelial Α5Β1 Integrin Triggers Early Onset Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Due To Reduced Vascular Remodeling And Compromised Vascular Integrity, Ravi Kant, Sebok K. Halder, Gregory J. Bix, Richard Milner

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Early in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), vascular integrity is compromised. This is accompanied by a marked vascular remodeling response, though it is currently unclear whether this is an adaptive vascular repair mechanism or is part of the pathogenic process. In light of the well-described angiogenic role for the α5β1 integrin, the goal of this study was to evaluate how genetic deletion of endothelial α5 integrin (α5-EC-KO mice) impacts vascular remodeling and repair following vascular disruption during EAE pathogenesis, and how this subsequently influences clinical progression and inflammatory demyelination. Immunofluorescence staining ...


The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback 2019 University of Kentucky

The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The ketogenic diet is commonly used to control epilepsy, especially in cases when medications cannot. The diet typically consists of high fat, low carb, and adequate protein and produces a metabolite called acetoacetate. Seizure activity is characterized by glutamate excitotoxicity and therefore glutamate regulation is a point of research for control of these disorders. Acetoacetate is heavily implicated as the primary molecule responsible for decreasing glutamate in the synapse; it is believed that acetoacetate interferes with the transport of glutamate into the synaptic vesicles. The effects on synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses was studied in relation to the ketogenic diet ...


Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, Layne Wells 2019 Claremont Colleges

Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, Layne Wells

Scripps Senior Theses

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive amyloid plaque aggregation, neurofibrillary tangles, and cortical tissue death. As the prevalence of AD is projected to climb in coming years, there is a vested interest in identifying endophenotypes by which to improve diagnostics and direct clinical interventions. The risk for complex disorders, such as AD, is influenced by multiple genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Significant strides have been made in identifying genetic variants linked to AD through the genome-wide association study (GWAS). It has been estimated in more recent years, however, that GWAS-identified variants account for ...


Evidence-Based Probiotic Intervention For Behavioral And Social Deficits In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Allisen To 2019 Scripps College

Evidence-Based Probiotic Intervention For Behavioral And Social Deficits In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Allisen To

Scripps Senior Theses

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a heterogeneous neurological condition characterized by repetitive and restrictive behaviors and social communication deficits. ASD diagnoses are at a record high, at approximately 1 in 59 children according to the US Center for Disease Control. Currently, there are no available interventions that effectively treat the core symptoms of ASD. All pharmaceutical options address comorbid side effects of ASD but not core deficits and are particularly associated with negative side effects. Additionally, there are economic and geographic barriers that can prevent families of individuals with ASD from seeking or receiving effective interventions. Many of the ...


A Composite Review Of The Proposed Molecular Mechanisms And Genetic Components Underlying Parkinson’S Disease, Paige Brodrick 2019 Claremont Colleges

A Composite Review Of The Proposed Molecular Mechanisms And Genetic Components Underlying Parkinson’S Disease, Paige Brodrick

Scripps Senior Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons present in the substantia nigra. The clinical presentation of PD includes tremors, slowed movement (bradykinesia), muscle and limb rigidity, and difficulty with walking and balancing. While many environmental factors can affect the onset and progression of the disease, genetic mutations have a large influence. Of the identified PD-linked genetic mutations, mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are one of the most common genetic causes of PD. Located in endosomes, LRRK2 has been shown to play a role in the sorting and ...


Toward Genome Editing In X-Linked Rp-Development Of A Mouse Model With Specific Treatment Relevant Features, J. Schlegel, J. Hoffmann, D. Roll, B. Muller, S. Gunther, Wei Zhang, A. Janise, C. Vossing, B. Fuhler, J. Neidhardt, Hemant Khanna, B. Lorenz, K. Stieger 2019 University of Giessen

Toward Genome Editing In X-Linked Rp-Development Of A Mouse Model With Specific Treatment Relevant Features, J. Schlegel, J. Hoffmann, D. Roll, B. Muller, S. Gunther, Wei Zhang, A. Janise, C. Vossing, B. Fuhler, J. Neidhardt, Hemant Khanna, B. Lorenz, K. Stieger

Open Access Articles

Genome editing represents a powerful tool to treat inherited disorders. Highly specific endonucleases induce a DNA double strand break near the mutant site, which is subsequently repaired by cellular DNA repair mechanisms that involve the presence of a wild type template DNA. In vivo applications of this strategy are still rare, in part due to the absence of appropriate animal models carrying human disease mutations and knowledge of the efficient targeting of endonucleases. Here we report the generation and characterization of a new mouse model for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) carrying a point mutation in the mutational hotspot exon ORF15 ...


Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra

Theses and Dissertations

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs that exert their characteristic effects through agonist activity at the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2A). In this study, I aimed to characterize the modulatory role of the metabotropic glutamate subtype 2 receptor (mGluR2) in the 5-HT2A-specific rodent model of hallucinogenic action, head-twitch response (HTR). Secondly, I aimed to explore if 5-HT2A agonist-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, an additional model of hallucinogenic action, could be produced in mice. Though 5-HT2A agonist-induced PPI deficits, which represent interruptions in normal sensorimotor gating, have been described in both ...


Sodium Channel Distribution In The Apical Dendrites Of Pyramidal Cells Vary In The Hindbrain Of Apteronotus Leptorhynchus., Sree Indrani Motipally 2019 West Virginia University

Sodium Channel Distribution In The Apical Dendrites Of Pyramidal Cells Vary In The Hindbrain Of Apteronotus Leptorhynchus., Sree Indrani Motipally

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Apteronotid weakly electric fish heavily rely on their electrosensory system for behaviors like spatial navigation, communication and prey capture. Since the behaviorally important information about their environment is contained in the spatial and temporal modulations of the electrosensory signal, efficient mechanisms to process this information with great fidelity are of the utmost importance. Efficient sensory processing often involves having multiple parallel processing streams so that each stream can specialize to treat signals with different properties. This strategy requires the response properties and neural dynamic to be adjusted in each pathway to implement different neural coding strategies. One of the neural ...


Regulator Of G Protein Signaling-12 (Rgs12) In Dopaminergic And Kappa Opioid Receptor-Dependent Signaling And Behavior, Joshua David Gross 2019 West Virginia University

Regulator Of G Protein Signaling-12 (Rgs12) In Dopaminergic And Kappa Opioid Receptor-Dependent Signaling And Behavior, Joshua David Gross

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Dopaminergic neurotransmission is critically involved in the etiology and treatment of many psychiatric and neurological disorders. One modulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission is the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) -- a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is densely expressed within dopaminergic neurons and circuits. GPCRs are tightly regulated by a variety of intracellular signaling molecules, including Regulator of G Protein Signaling (RGS) proteins. Canonically, RGS proteins act as GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs) on GTP-bound Ga subunits following GPCR activation, thereby hastening the rate at which GPCR-mediated G protein signaling is terminated. However, some RGS proteins exhibit more complex mechanisms of action on cellular ...


Behavioral And Molecular Analysis Of Memory In The Dwarf Cuttlefish, Jessica M. Bowers 2019 Georgia Southern University

Behavioral And Molecular Analysis Of Memory In The Dwarf Cuttlefish, Jessica M. Bowers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Complex memory has evolved because it benefits animals in all areas of life, such as remembering the location of food or conspecifics, and learning to avoid dangerous stimuli. Advances made by studying relatively simple nervous systems, such as those in gastropod mollusks, can now be used to study mechanisms of memory in more complex systems. Cephalopods offer a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms of memory in a complex invertebrates. The dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, is a useful memory model because its fast development and small size allows it to be reared and tested in large numbers. However, primary literature ...


The Role Of Olfactory-Nigral Circuitry In Neurodegeneration And Hyposmia In Rodent Model Of Parkinson's Disease, William Bui Tran 2019 Iowa State University

The Role Of Olfactory-Nigral Circuitry In Neurodegeneration And Hyposmia In Rodent Model Of Parkinson's Disease, William Bui Tran

Creative Components

No abstract provided.


(+)-Naltrexone Effects On Anhedonia-Like Symptoms In A Low-Dose Model Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (Eae), Eric H. Mitten 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

(+)-Naltrexone Effects On Anhedonia-Like Symptoms In A Low-Dose Model Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (Eae), Eric H. Mitten

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The demyelinating and inflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS) primarily causes paralysis. However, MS also causes secondary symptoms, including: chronic pain, memory deficits, and depression. Work in our lab has shown that antagonism of toll-like 2/4 receptors with (+)-naltrexone ([+]-NTX) can reverse chronic pain and memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rat model of MS. We thus hypothesized that (+)-NTX would also reverse the expression of anhedonia, a symptom of depression defined as an inability to experience pleasure, as measured by saccharin preference testing within EAE. Four separate cohorts of male Dark Agouti and Sprague Dawley rats were ...


Developing Novel Methods To Investigate Real-Time In Vivo Dopamine Dynamics In The Monogamous Prairie Vole, Emma Burt 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Developing Novel Methods To Investigate Real-Time In Vivo Dopamine Dynamics In The Monogamous Prairie Vole, Emma Burt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Humans are among a small percentage of mammals that form monogamous relationships. These relationships, along with other strong social bonds, are essential to human well-being. In the absence of strong social relationships, humans experience a variety of detrimental conditions such as depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular disease. Traditional barriers to studying social bonds stem from the use of lab rodents such as mice and rats which do not form selective social attachments. However, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) does form these selective social attachments. The robust social bonds – pair bonds – formed between adult prairie voles may be observed and therefore studied ...


Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis

Open Access Articles

The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Although the development of dendritic spines is vital for cognitive function, understanding the mechanisms driving their outgrowth and ...


Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Feeding results from the integration of both nutritional and affective states, and is guided by complex neural circuitry in the brain. The hypothalamus is a critical center controlling feeding and motivated behaviors. We found that targeted photostimulation of projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in mice elicited voracious feeding and repetitive self-grooming behavior. GABA neurotransmission in the LH->PVH circuit mediated the evoked feeding behavior, and elicited behavioral approach, whereas glutamate release promoted repetitive self-grooming, which was stress-related in nature. Optogenetic inhibition of LHGABA ->PVH circuit reduced feeding after fasting, whereas photostimulation abruptly stopped ...


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