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Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady 2020 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight three segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention.


Effects Of Novel Tool Use: Cortical And Functional Measures In Children Using A Prosthetic Simulator, Chris Copeland 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Novel Tool Use: Cortical And Functional Measures In Children Using A Prosthetic Simulator, Chris Copeland

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

As of 2005, there were a total of 1.6 million people living with the loss of a limb, with this population projected to double to 3.6 million by 2050 [1]. While prostheses aim to enhance the function of these individuals, it is estimated that 45% of pediatric prosthetic users reject their prosthesis [2]. The literature which describes the neurological control mechanisms of prosthetic use is sparse and often low-powered due to an inadequate number of participants. However, prosthetic simulators may be a solution to chronically low-powered prosthetic-centric studies by serving as functional homologues, though this has yet to be tested. …


Antagonistic Regulation Of Circadian Output And Synaptic Development By Jetlag And The Dyschronic-Slowpoke Complex, Angelique Lamaze, James E.C. Jepson, Oghenerukevwe Akpoghiran, Kyunghee Koh 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Antagonistic Regulation Of Circadian Output And Synaptic Development By Jetlag And The Dyschronic-Slowpoke Complex, Angelique Lamaze, James E.C. Jepson, Oghenerukevwe Akpoghiran, Kyunghee Koh

Department of Neuroscience Faculty Papers

Circadian output genes act downstream of the clock to promote rhythmic changes in behavior and physiology, yet their molecular and cellular functions are not well understood. Here we characterize an interaction between regulators of circadian entrainment, output, and synaptic development in Drosophila that influences clock-driven anticipatory increases in morning and evening activity. We previously showed the JETLAG (JET) E3 ubiquitin ligase resets the clock upon light exposure, whereas the PDZ protein DYSCHRONIC (DYSC) regulates circadian locomotor output and synaptic development. Surprisingly, we find that JET and DYSC antagonistically regulate synaptic development at the larval neuromuscular junction, and reduced JET activity …


Thyroxine-Dependent And -Independent Effects On Premature Aging And Myelination In Atrx Mutant Mice, Megan E. Rowland 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Thyroxine-Dependent And -Independent Effects On Premature Aging And Myelination In Atrx Mutant Mice, Megan E. Rowland

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ATRX is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler required to safeguard genomic integrity. Conditional deletion of Atrx in the mouse embryonic forebrain and anterior pituitary in AtrxFoxg1Cre mice phenocopies mouse models of progeria which display increased DNA damage, coupled with reduced lifespan, growth and subcutaneous fat. These mice also have severely low circulating levels of insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and (T4) which have been reported in models of premature aging. Based on evidence that Igf1 is activated by the ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor, I tested whether T4 supplementation could restore IGF-1 levels and ameliorate premature aging phenotypes in Atrx …


Using An Internal Auditory Stimulus To Activate The Developing Primary Auditory Cortex: A Fetal Fmri Study, Estee Goldberg 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Using An Internal Auditory Stimulus To Activate The Developing Primary Auditory Cortex: A Fetal Fmri Study, Estee Goldberg

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Insight into the rapidly developing brain in utero is scarce. Fetal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique used to gain awareness into the developmental process. Previous auditory task-based fMRI studies employed an external sound stimulus directly on the maternal abdomen. However, there has since been recommendation to cease doing so. We sought to investigate a reliable paradigm to study the development of fetal brain networks and postulate that by using an internal stimulus, such as the mother singing, it would result in activation of the fetal primary auditory cortex. Volunteers carrying singleton fetuses with a gestational age of …


Neurodevelopment Outcome Of Neonates Treated With Intraventricular Colistin For Ventriculitis Caused By Multiple Drug-Resistant Pathogens-A Case Series, Kashif Hussain, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Gul Ambreen, Javaid Iqbal 2020 Aga Khan University

Neurodevelopment Outcome Of Neonates Treated With Intraventricular Colistin For Ventriculitis Caused By Multiple Drug-Resistant Pathogens-A Case Series, Kashif Hussain, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Gul Ambreen, Javaid Iqbal

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Multiple-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB)-associated neonatal ventriculitis is a life-threatening complication that needs timely diagnosis and effective treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobials in critical-care settings. Inadequate penetration of antibiotics through the blood-brain barrier also demands an intraventricular (IVT) route of administration. This study reports mortality and neurodevelopmental sequelae of neonates till 18 months of age, who received IVT-colistin for treating MDR-GNB associated ventriculitis.
Methods: In a case series of seven neonates with ventriculitis due to MDR-GNB at NICU of Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan, between June 2015 and 2018, we reviewed IVT-colistin therapy in critically ill neonates. Treatment outcomes were assessed …


Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Pnmt By Intron Retention During Neural Development, Meeti Mehta 2020 University of Central Florida

Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Pnmt By Intron Retention During Neural Development, Meeti Mehta

Digital Repository: Showcase of Undergraduate Research Excellence

No abstract provided.


Impact Of A Multimodal Exercise Program On Tibial Bone Health In Adolescents With Development Coordination Disorder: An Examination Of Feasibility And Potential Efficacy, Jocelyn L. Tan, Aris Siafarikas, Timo Rantalainen, Nicolas H. Hart, Fleur McIntyre, Beth Hands, Paola Chivers 2020 Edith Cowan University

Impact Of A Multimodal Exercise Program On Tibial Bone Health In Adolescents With Development Coordination Disorder: An Examination Of Feasibility And Potential Efficacy, Jocelyn L. Tan, Aris Siafarikas, Timo Rantalainen, Nicolas H. Hart, Fleur Mcintyre, Beth Hands, Paola Chivers

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© 2020, International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. All rights reserved. Objectives: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compromises bone health purportedly due to lower levels of physical activity. The potential of an exercise intervention to improve bone health parameters in adolescents with DCD has not previously been studied. This study thus aimed to determine the impact of a multimodal exercise intervention on bone health in this population at-risk of secondary osteoporosis. Methods: Twenty-eight adolescents (17 male, 11 female) aged between 12-17 years (Mage =14.1) with DCD participated in a twice weekly, 13-week generalised multimodal exercise intervention. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography …


Effects Of Gestational Ozone Exposure On Privileged Placental And Brain Barrier Integrity, Alexander I. Hamm 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Effects Of Gestational Ozone Exposure On Privileged Placental And Brain Barrier Integrity, Alexander I. Hamm

Theses and Dissertations

Ambient outdoor ozone, a common of component of photochemical smog and urban air pollution, is linked to various neurological and vascular pathologies. Its immediate reaction with lung surfactant after inhalation results in complete reactivity of the gas, with no active ozone passing into circulation. This indicates the presence of secondary and tertiary mediators in ozone-related systemic pathologies after pulmonary insult. In vasculature, ozone exposure is associated with an acute hypertensive phenotype apparent at least 24 hours after dose, such as experienced on a hot summer afternoon in a large metropolitan area like Los Angeles or Mexico City. However, the effects …


Cis-Regulatory Analysis Of Onecut1 Expression In Fate-Restricted Retinal Progenitor Cells, Sruti Patoori, Nathalie Jean-Charles, Ariana Gopal, Sacha Sulaiman, Sneha Gopal, Brian Wang, Benjamin Souferi, Mark Emerson 2020 CUNY City College

Cis-Regulatory Analysis Of Onecut1 Expression In Fate-Restricted Retinal Progenitor Cells, Sruti Patoori, Nathalie Jean-Charles, Ariana Gopal, Sacha Sulaiman, Sneha Gopal, Brian Wang, Benjamin Souferi, Mark Emerson

Publications and Research

Background: The vertebrate retina consists of six major classes of neuronal cells. During development, these cells are generated from a pool of multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) that express the gene Vsx2. Fate-restricted RPCs have recently been identified, with limited mitotic potential and cell fate possibilities compared to multipotent RPCs. One population of fate-restricted RPCs, marked by activity of the regulatory element ThrbCRM1, gives rise to both cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells. These cells do not express Vsx2, but co-express the transcription factors (TFs) Onecut1 and Otx2, which bind to ThrbCRM1. The components of the gene regulatory networks that control …


C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase Signaling Controls Cellular Mechanisms Of Guided Cortical Interneuron Migration, Skye Eleanor Smith 2020 West Virginia University

C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase Signaling Controls Cellular Mechanisms Of Guided Cortical Interneuron Migration, Skye Eleanor Smith

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The cerebral cortex is an intricately organized brain structure responsible for high-level functions including sensory perception, movement, memory, language, and cognition. During corticogenesis, cortical excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons migrate from their respective progenitor zones into the developing cerebral cortex, deposit in the correct cortical layer, and establish connections with their appropriate synaptic partners. The balance between excitation and inhibition is critical for cortical circuitry development and function. Aberrant migration of inhibitory interneurons can alter the formation of cortical circuitry and lead to several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms responsible for inhibitory …


Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett 2020 University of Montana

Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The brain is organized as a complex network of specialized neurons that communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Our brains function to generate movement, control organ function, or direct complex behaviors; all of which requires the ability to regulate the flow of communication between circuits and networks. Work in this thesis addresses two areas of neuron communication: first, how does the release of more than one neurotransmitter from a single neuron impact behavior, and second, are matricellular proteins (MCPs) key contributors to synaptic transmission and neuron function? The conserved CCN family of MCPs have a …


Focal Augmentation Of Somatostatin Interneuron Function And Subsequent Circuit Effects In Developmentally Malformed, Epileptogenic Cortex, Nicole Ekanem 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Focal Augmentation Of Somatostatin Interneuron Function And Subsequent Circuit Effects In Developmentally Malformed, Epileptogenic Cortex, Nicole Ekanem

Theses and Dissertations

Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) is a common clinical sequela of developmental cortical malformations such as polymicrogyria. Unfortunately, much remains unknown about the aberrant GABA-mediated circuit alterations that underlie DRE's onset and persistence in this context. To address this knowledge gap, we utilized the transcranial freeze lesion model in optogenetic mice lines (Somatostatin (SST)-Cre or Parvalbumin (PV)-Cre x floxed channelrhodopsin-2) to dissect features of the SST, PV, and pyramidal neuron microcircuit that are potentially associated with DRE. Investigations took place within developmental microgyria’s known pathological substrate, the adjoined and epileptogenic paramicrogyral region (PMR). As well, microcircuit relationships within the previously unexplored range …


Cholesterol Biosynthesis In The Nervous System With An Emphasis On Desmosterolosis, Luke Allen 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Cholesterol Biosynthesis In The Nervous System With An Emphasis On Desmosterolosis, Luke Allen

Theses & Dissertations

Cholesterol biosynthesis is integral to proper neurodevelopment due to the reliance on de novo synthesis of cholesterol in the brain. Disruptions in this process have devastating outcomes for human life characterized by several phenotypic manifestations concomitant with developmental delay. The cholesterol biosynthesis disorder desmosterolosis is an extremely rare disorder with a severe clinical phenotype, however, the models used to study this disease are not well characterized. In addition to genetic disruptions in cholesterol biosynthesis, pharmacological perturbation is an understudied side effect of many commonly prescribed drugs. Here we present a characterization of the sterol profile of the mouse model of …


A Novel Switch-Like Function Of Delta-Catenin In Dendrite Development, Ryan Baumert 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

A Novel Switch-Like Function Of Delta-Catenin In Dendrite Development, Ryan Baumert

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The formation of neuronal networks in the brain is tightly regulated, and dependent on the morphology of dendrites, the branch-like signal-receiving structures extending from neurons. Disruptions in dendrite development, or dendritogenesis, can lead to the atypical neuronal connectivity associated with multiple neurodevelopmental diseases. My research addresses molecular processes that underlie dendritogenesis via analysis of a pair of novel interactions involving the protein delta-catenin.

In neurons, delta-catenin localizes to dendrites and synapses, where it functions in their development and maintenance. Structurally, delta-catenin possesses a central Armadillo domain and a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. This motif associates with PDZ domain-containing proteins, and is …


In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber 2019 The University of Western Ontario

In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years both philosophers and scientists have asked whether or not our current kinds of mental disorder—e.g., schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder—are natural kinds; and, moreover, whether or not the search for natural kinds of mental disorder is a realistic desideratum for psychiatry. In this dissertation I clarify the sense in which a kind can be said to be “natural” or “real” and argue that, despite a few notable exceptions, kinds of mental disorder cannot be considered natural kinds. Furthermore, I contend that psychopathological phenomena do not cluster together into kinds in the way that paradigmatic natural kinds (e.g., chemical …


Micrornas Are Necessary For Bmp-7-Induced Dendritic Growth In Cultured Rat Sympathetic Neurons, Vidya Chandrasekaran 2019 Saint Mary's College of California

Micrornas Are Necessary For Bmp-7-Induced Dendritic Growth In Cultured Rat Sympathetic Neurons, Vidya Chandrasekaran

Vidya Chandrasekaran

Neuronal connectivity is dependent on size and shape of the dendritic arbor. However, mechanisms controlling dendritic arborization, especially in the peripheral nervous system, are not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important initiators of dendritic growth in peripheral neurons. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that post-transcriptional regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is necessary for BMP-7-induced dendritic growth in these neurons. To examine the role of miRNAs in BMP-7-induced dendritic growth, microarray analyses was used to profile miRNA expression in cultured sympathetic neurons from the superior cervical ganglia of embryonic day 21 rat pups at 6 and 24 h after treatment with BMP-7 (50 ng/mL). Our data showed that BMP-7 significantly …


The Association Of Late-Life Depression, Cognitive Functioning, And Sleep Disorder In Aging, Jessica B. Aronis 2019 University of Maine

The Association Of Late-Life Depression, Cognitive Functioning, And Sleep Disorder In Aging, Jessica B. Aronis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The continuing growth in the demographic of aging individuals in the United States creates concern for diseases of aging that are chronic, notably unipolar depressive disorders. The high rates of depression in the aging population are a concern because of the strong association between late-life depression and cognitive impairment. Poor cognitive functioning is a hallmark of aging related neurological disorders, the most prevalent being Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Sleep disorder is a core symptom of depression, and is definitively associated with the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the prodrome of AD. MCI is also characterized by similar types of sleep …


Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Of Infantile Hydrocephalus: An Fmri Case Study, Ikhlas Ahmed Hashi 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Of Infantile Hydrocephalus: An Fmri Case Study, Ikhlas Ahmed Hashi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ventricle dilatation caused by infantile hydrocephalus may result in extensive damage of the posterior cortex (parietal and occipital lobes). We hypothesize that pathological changes in the development of the posterior cortex can be linked to non-verbal learning disabilities in children with previous infantile hydrocephalus. This case study will investigate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 3 treated hydrocephalus patients, when compared to a group of healthy control children (n = 12). Within the hydrocephalus group, patients displayed differences in non-verbal test performance as well as parietal brain activation during an fMRI number comparison task. We associated these differences with clinical variables such …


Relationship Of Maternal And Infant Cortisol Matrices With Later Infant Behavior And Temperament, Anastasia Perris 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Relationship Of Maternal And Infant Cortisol Matrices With Later Infant Behavior And Temperament, Anastasia Perris

Anastasia Perris

 Prenatal stress has been correlated with adverse developmental outcomes affecting infant cognition and behavior. Previous studies have shown that prenatal stress can lead to increased susceptibility to adult disease but few studies have looked at the physiological stress response system by measuring the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Cortisol, the output of the HPA axis can be secreted in many different matrices (saliva, blood, urine, feces and hair). Most studies that do, only look at one measure of hormone production instead of examining multiple matrices. Additionally these studies do not look at the relationship between matrices. Hair provides a …


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