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Behavioral Neurobiology Commons

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How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze 2017 University of Wyoming

How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze

Honors Theses AY 16/17

The intent of this project is to gain new insight into the neural circuitry that underlies decision making through understanding the connection between sensory perception and motor action. This investigation further seeks to identify whether optogenetic manipulation of specific neurons results in a change in mate choice. In defining this connection, the end goal is to combat deleterious decision making behavior in humans, such as drug addiction. Female Bengalese finches (BFs) provide an accessible model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms of behavior. Previous studies reveal that activity in the caudal portion of the mesopallium (CM) in the female ...


Neuroscience Underlying Temporal Cue Discrimination In The Auditory Cortex, Samantha D. Rosicke 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Neuroscience Underlying Temporal Cue Discrimination In The Auditory Cortex, Samantha D. Rosicke

Honors Scholar Theses

Animals, including rats and humans, use the auditory cortex to discriminate auditory cues for communication and survival. It has been shown that individual neurons in the A1, ventral auditory field (VAF), and suprarhinal auditory field (SRAF) of the rat auditory cortex respond to different noise burst lengths to help the rat comprehend an auditory stimulus. In this experiment, we demonstrate the behavioral ability of male Long Evans rats to discriminate between noise bursts of different temporal lengths: 12 ms and 66 ms, in a Two-Alternative Forced Choice task. The study of temporal cue discrimination in the auditory cortex can be ...


A Behavioral Prerequisite For The Genetic Analysis Of Auditory Feature Detection Mechanisms In Female Crickets, Rebecca L. Blisko 2017 University of Rhode Island

A Behavioral Prerequisite For The Genetic Analysis Of Auditory Feature Detection Mechanisms In Female Crickets, Rebecca L. Blisko

Senior Honors Projects

Sexual dimorphism is exhibited across all cricket species and is a central aspect of the mating processes of these insects. Only male crickets possess wing structures and pattern generators in the central nervous system that allow them to produce a mating call that is unique to their species in order to attract conspecific females. Conspecific females possess an auditory feature detection circuit in the central nervous system that is capable of detecting the species-specific frequency and temporal pattern of sound pulses within a male call. In order for dimorphic differences in mating behavior to result in successful continuation of a ...


Anxiety-Like Behaviors And C-Fos Expression In Adult Zebrafish: Effects Of Housing Conditions, Alcohol And Caffeine, Adam Douglas Collier 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Anxiety-Like Behaviors And C-Fos Expression In Adult Zebrafish: Effects Of Housing Conditions, Alcohol And Caffeine, Adam Douglas Collier

Dissertations

Alcohol abuse is the third largest risk factor for disease world, responsible for an estimated 3.3 million deaths each year. The concomitant ingestion of alcohol and caffeine is hypothesized to increase risk factors associated with alcohol use alone by reducing subjective effects of intoxication. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently garnered attention from researchers as an effective pre-clinical in-vivo animal model in behavioral pharmacology research, largely due to small size, low-cost and ease of drug delivery. A number of studies have reported the effects of alcohol and caffeine on zebrafish behavior at a variety of doses. However, the combined ...


Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, Aiden L. Ford 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, Aiden L. Ford

Honors Scholar Theses

Aims: This study investigates the nuanced effect of the CACNA1C mutation on neurocognition and neurodevelopment via an extended study of the Timothy Syndrome (TS) mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) mouse model – TS2-neo. It includes: (1) an expanded assessment of the TS2-neo behavioral phenotype, and (2) a comprehensive histological analysis of cortical structural and laminar features.

Methods: 24 age-matched male mice – 12 TS2-neo (B6.Cg-Cacna1ctm2Itl, knock-in G406R mutation), 12 WT (C57BL/6J) – were tested on paradigms examining motor, socio-communicative and cognitive abilities. Neural tissue was processed for either volumetric analysis through Nissl stain (8 TS2-neo, 8 WT) or immunohistochemical ...


Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan

Theses and Dissertations

It is well known that arginine vasotocin (AVT) in birds is involved in physiological homeostasis such as cardiovascular, osmotic regulation as well as reproductive functions. Pertinent to these physiological functions, AVT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the hypothalamus have been found associated with hemorrhage, dehydration, oviposition and other physiological regulation. Evidence, however, suggests that AVT also plays significant roles in modulating behavior, memory, stress, and food intake. This dissertation research addresses the latter two neuroendocrine functions of AVT in detail within the chicken brain. First, the functional role of AVT-ir neurons in conjunction with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-ir neurons in ...


The Role Of Basal Forebrain Orexin-2-Receptors In Attentional Performance In Rattus Norvegicus, Abhya P. Vij 2017 College of William and Mary

The Role Of Basal Forebrain Orexin-2-Receptors In Attentional Performance In Rattus Norvegicus, Abhya P. Vij

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Changes in homeostatic function, including sleep patterns and energy balance, are often predictive of age-related neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The basal forebrain has been implicated in both attentional processing and responses to homeostatic cues, suggesting a possible link between the significantly impaired attention task performance of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients and shifts in their homeostatic regulation. Recent research suggests a possible mechanism: the basal forebrain receives input from hypothalamic neurons that release the excitatory neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B (orexins). Orexins bind with varying affinities to orexin-1- and orexin-2-receptors on cholinergic neurons in ...


Effects Of Medial Prefrontal Cortical Administration Of The Orexin-2 Receptor Antagonist, Tcs-Ox2-29, On Attentional Performance In Rats, Austin R. Tapp 2017 College of William and Mary

Effects Of Medial Prefrontal Cortical Administration Of The Orexin-2 Receptor Antagonist, Tcs-Ox2-29, On Attentional Performance In Rats, Austin R. Tapp

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are excitatory neuropeptides that come in two isoforms, Orexin A and Orexin B, and serve as ligands for the G-protein coupled orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (Ox1R and Ox2R, respectively). Changes in orexinergic transmission are thought to contribute to attentional processing. While several studies have examined the role of Ox1Rs in attention, less research has assessed the contribution of Ox2Rs. Moreover, several lines of evidence suggest that the right medial prefrontal cortex is particularly critical for visual attentional performance. Taking all of this into consideration, the goal of the present experiment was to test the effects Ox2R blockade ...


On The Origin Of Sensory Errors, Jonathan R. Flynn 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

On The Origin Of Sensory Errors, Jonathan R. Flynn

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Estimation of perceptual variables is imprecise and prone to errors. Although the properties of these perceptual errors are well characterized, the physiological basis for these errors is unknown. One previously proposed explanation for these errors is the trial-by-trial variability of the responses of sensory neurons that encode the percept. Initially, it would seem that a complicated electrophysiological experiment would need to be performed to test this hypothesis. However, using a strong theoretical framework, I demonstrate that it is possible to determine statistical characteristics of the physiological mechanism responsible for perceptual errors solely from a behavioral experiment. The basis for this ...


Persistent Neurobehavioral Traits In A Mouse Model Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure, Jill M. Lawrence 2017 Ursinus College

Persistent Neurobehavioral Traits In A Mouse Model Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure, Jill M. Lawrence

Neuroscience Honors Papers

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) effect an estimated 2% of the population, causing a range of symptoms: from craniofacial defects to inhibited cortical growth (May, et al., 2009; Murawski, et al., 2015). Impaired medial forebrain function apparent in FASD is associated with lifelong cognitive behavioral deficits, but these consequences may be avoided with early diagnosis and intervention (Streissguth, et al., 2004). Our goal is to identify early neurobehavioral abnormalities that persist into adulthood that could potentially serve as early indicators for FASD. Mouse models of prenatal ethanol exposure were developed using a voluntary drinking paradigm that introduced a sweetened ethanol ...


Tracking Behavioural And Neuronal Responses To Social Pheromones: Insights From A Drosophila Model, Justin R. Croft 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Tracking Behavioural And Neuronal Responses To Social Pheromones: Insights From A Drosophila Model, Justin R. Croft

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

If eusociality evolved through modification of pre-social mechanisms for regulating personal reproduction, then even insects like Drosophila may be vulnerable to latent effects of 'queen' pheromone. Here, I test if male fruit flies respond to a eusocial queen bee pheromone. I found that male flies were attracted to queen bee pheromone, and pheromone-treated males raised the intensity of their courting towards conspecific females. These novel observations from Drosophila suggest that male flies have the capacity to respond to queen pheromone in a manner that is comparable to the native response from male (drone) bees. I therefore optimized a nuclear factor ...


The Influence Of Estrogen On Sex Differences In Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea And Vomiting (Cinv), Danna L. Zevy 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Influence Of Estrogen On Sex Differences In Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea And Vomiting (Cinv), Danna L. Zevy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most distressing events that affects the quality of life of cancer patients. Evidence suggests that females are more susceptible to CINV than males, but the mechanism remains unknown. The current thesis examined whether higher levels of circulating estrogens in females contributes to this sex difference. CINV was analyzed in a pediatric oncology population, where it was revealed female patients demonstrate increased delayed CINV relative to male patients, in the post-pubertal age group. CINV was also studied by examining the influence of the estrous cycle on anticipatory nausea (AN) in rats. This ...


Effects Of Dietary Emulsifiers On Vasopressin And Oxytocin In Mice, Krishna Mehta 2017 Georgia State University

Effects Of Dietary Emulsifiers On Vasopressin And Oxytocin In Mice, Krishna Mehta

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Systemic Administration Of 8-Oh-Dpat On Agonistic Social Behaviors In Male Syrian Hamsters, Corey Andrews 2017 Georgia State University

Effects Of Systemic Administration Of 8-Oh-Dpat On Agonistic Social Behaviors In Male Syrian Hamsters, Corey Andrews

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Acquisition And Maintenance Of Social Status Results In Difference In Simulated Aggression Between Dominant And Subordinate Green Anole Lizards Independent Of Testing Context, Christofer Brown 2017 Georgia State University

Acquisition And Maintenance Of Social Status Results In Difference In Simulated Aggression Between Dominant And Subordinate Green Anole Lizards Independent Of Testing Context, Christofer Brown

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Soil Copper Contamination On Earthworm Cholinergic Transmission, Locomotion And Muscle Physiology, Tommaso Meregalli 2017 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

The Effects Of Soil Copper Contamination On Earthworm Cholinergic Transmission, Locomotion And Muscle Physiology, Tommaso Meregalli

Senior Theses and Projects

No abstract provided.


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


P32. Altered Sensory Processing In Response To Novel Dreadd-Induced Inactivation Of Gaba In Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus, Niveen Fulcher 2017 Western University

P32. Altered Sensory Processing In Response To Novel Dreadd-Induced Inactivation Of Gaba In Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus, Niveen Fulcher

Western Research Forum

Niveen Fulcher1, Cleusa De Oliveira2, & Susanne Schmid1,2

1Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario

2Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario

Altered sensory processing in response to novel DREADD-induced inactivation of GABA in pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

Background: Sensory processing deficits are associated with certain psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sensory filtering and sensorimotor gating are evolutionarily conserved preattentive responses that filter and block redundant sensory stimuli that would otherwise overwhelm our brains. To date, underlying mechanisms of these deficits are undefined. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ...


P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad 2017 Western University

P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad

Western Research Forum

Background

Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...


Comparing Consistency Of Stress And Anxiety-Related Behaviors Across Time In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Matthew R. Baker, Alex Goodman 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Comparing Consistency Of Stress And Anxiety-Related Behaviors Across Time In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Matthew R. Baker, Alex Goodman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Animals are frequently faced with stressors in their environment that they must overcome to survive and reproduce. Across vertebrates, two distinct stress coping styles or ‘personalities’ have been observed known as proactive (bold) and reactive (shy). Animal personalities may be advantageous by limiting individual variation and balancing different trade-offs in unpredictable environments. When identifying animal personalities, behavioral phenotypes must be consistent and repeatable across contexts and time. Here we use selectively bred lines of shy and bold zebrafish, previously shown to have consistent divergent fear- and anxiety-related behaviors across contexts, to test the repeatability and consistency of these behaviors across ...


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