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Behavioral Neurobiology Commons

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686 full-text articles. Page 5 of 25.

The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to function as CSs by acquiring the capacity to activate the same mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons activated by primary rewards, producing conditioned activation of these neurons and their associated motivational states. This model stipulates that CSs activate mesocorticolimbic DA systems through the activation of glutamate receptors on DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We tested the hypothesis that glutamate receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the expression of conditioned approach. Rats were tested in a conditioned approach protocol that consisted of 7 consecutive conditioning sessions (light presentations and food were paired), one ...


The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The role of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc core) continues to be redefined with newly acquired data on neurochemical mechanisms mediating the learning and performance of behavior. Previous empirical data showed that dopamine transmission at the D1 receptor (D1R) plays a transient role in the expression of learned Pavlovian approach behavior. Here we show that, prior to overtraining, dopamine activity at D1Rs specifically within the NAc core is critical for the performance of approach behavior elicited by the recently-acquired reward-paired cue. Blockade of D1Rs in the NAc core, but not the dorsomedial striatum or NAc shell, disrupted approach responses during ...


Song Rhythm Development In Zebra Finches, Julia Hyland Bruno 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Song Rhythm Development In Zebra Finches, Julia Hyland Bruno

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation investigates song-rhythm learning in songbirds. Songbirds have been studied extensively in mechanistic investigations into the sensorimotor underpinnings of the cultural transmission of learned vocalizations. While several studies identified forebrain song-system neurons that generate rhythmic song patterns, we know little about how song rhythms are learned. The first part of the dissertation describes methods for detecting and analyzing birdsong rhythm patterns, and demonstrates their utility for identifying the role of song rhythms in social interactions. Results suggest that rhythm plasticity in zebra finch song may provide a potential vehicle for communication. Controlled song-learning experiments further found that developing zebra ...


Modulation Of Spasticity By Trans-Spinal Direct Current Stimulation In Animals With Spinal Cord Injury, Wagdy Mekhael 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Modulation Of Spasticity By Trans-Spinal Direct Current Stimulation In Animals With Spinal Cord Injury, Wagdy Mekhael

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Central nervous system injuries usually produce motor impairments that are exacerbated by pathologically altered muscle tone. Abnormal muscle tone interferes with voluntary movement and is associated with loss of dexterity. Prior work in our laboratory demonstrated that 30-second trans-spinal direct current (DC) stimulation can temporarily modify muscle tone in anesthetized spastic mice after spinal cord injury (SCI). These experiments described DC-induced muscle tone responses to be polarity-dependent. That is, anodal stimulation (current passed from the lumbar spine to sciatic nerve) decreased muscle tone, and cathodal stimulation (current passed from the sciatic nerve to the lumbar spine) increased it. The present ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Early Life Immune And Physical Stress Directly Influences Anxiety-Like Behaviour In Adolescent Rats: Examining Sex Differences, Jordan M. Ward 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Early Life Immune And Physical Stress Directly Influences Anxiety-Like Behaviour In Adolescent Rats: Examining Sex Differences, Jordan M. Ward

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examined the effects of neonatal acute immune activation with the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal days 3 and 5 on adolescent anxiety-like behaviour in rats before and after a stress period. Previous research has shown that adults rats exposed to LPS during the neonatal stage show anxiety-like behaviour following a period of stress. This thesis investigated this effect in adolescence. The present results showed significantly higher anxiety-like behaviour in saline controls, and a potential neuroprotective effect of low dose LPS (15 µg/kg) contrary to what was reported in adult rats. As well, a phase of stressful, aversive ...


Mechanisms Underlying Executive Function Deficits, Sagar Jayawantrao Desai 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Underlying Executive Function Deficits, Sagar Jayawantrao Desai

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In our daily life, we come across situations where we meet unanticipated challenges, we must take certain decisions, pay attention, be flexible and inhibit impulsive actions to achieve goal directed behaviour. During these processes, we unknowingly use sets of interdependent cognitive processes collectively called ‘executive function’. Executive function is mainly regulated by the frontal lobe. Impaired executive function is associated with disorders such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

In this thesis, we investigated neurotransmitters and interactions among them regulating executive function. Further, we investigated mechanisms underlying those interactions mediating executive function in rats ...


Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Environmental conditions imposed onto organisms during certain phases of their life cycles such as embryogenesis or puberty can not only impact the organisms’ own health, but also affect subsequent generations. The underlying mechanisms causing intergenerational phenotypes are not encoded in the genome, but the result of reversible epigenetic modifications. This work investigates in a mouse model the impact of paternal nicotine exposure on the next generation regarding addictive behavior modulation, metabolic changes, and molecular mechanisms. It provides evidence that male offspring from nicotine-exposed fathers (NIC offspring) is more resistant to lethal doses of nicotine. This phenotype is gender-specific and depends ...


A Touchscreen Assay To Probe The Role Of The Serotonergic System In Learning And Visual Information Processing, Jeffrey M. Dorsch, Alexandr Pak, Alexander A. Chubykin 2017 Purdue University

A Touchscreen Assay To Probe The Role Of The Serotonergic System In Learning And Visual Information Processing, Jeffrey M. Dorsch, Alexandr Pak, Alexander A. Chubykin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in numerous processes in the brain such as behavior, learning, memory, mood, and neurodevelopment. Serotonin signaling is regulated by the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), which maintains normal serotonin levels. Mutations in the SERT gene are known to correlate with cognitive and behavioral deficits seen in psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders, depression, and autism spectrum disorder. Researchers study these deficits using SERT knockout (KO) mice, a model that lacks functional SERT and displays changes in anxiety, learning, and motivation. We are interested in how the absence of SERT affects visual processing and learning. A popular ...


Optogenetic Interrogation Of Primary Visual Cortex And Its Impact On Neural Coding And Behavior, Ariana R. Andrei 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Optogenetic Interrogation Of Primary Visual Cortex And Its Impact On Neural Coding And Behavior, Ariana R. Andrei

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Understanding the mechanism by which the brain transforms simple sensory inputs into rich perceptual experiences is one of the great mysteries of systems neuroscience. Undoubtedly this involves the activity of large populations of interconnected neurons, but while the responses of individual neurons to a variety of sensory stimuli have been well-characterized, how populations of such neurons organize their activity to create our sensory perceptions is almost entirely unknown. To investigate this complex circuitry requires the ability to causally manipulate the activity of neural populations and monitor the resultant effects. Here we focus on primary visual cortex (V1), which has been ...


Dopamine Receptors Differentially Control Binge Alcohol Drinking-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity Of The Core Nucleus Accumbens Direct And Indirect Pathways, Xincai Ji, Sucharita Saha, Jenya Kolpakova, Melissa Guildford, Andrew R. Tapper, Gilles E. Martin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dopamine Receptors Differentially Control Binge Alcohol Drinking-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity Of The Core Nucleus Accumbens Direct And Indirect Pathways, Xincai Ji, Sucharita Saha, Jenya Kolpakova, Melissa Guildford, Andrew R. Tapper, Gilles E. Martin

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Binge alcohol drinking, a behavior characterized by rapid repeated alcohol intake, is most prevalent in young adults and is a risk factor for excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence. Although the alteration of synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to this behavior, there is currently little evidence that this is the case. We used drinking in the dark (DID) as a model of binge alcohol drinking to assess its effects on spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the core nucleus accumbens (NAc) by combining patch-clamp recordings with calcium imaging and optogenetics. After 2 weeks of daily ...


Effects Of Sleep-Deprivation On Decision-Making And Action Selection, Shalin N. Shah 2017 University of San Diego

Effects Of Sleep-Deprivation On Decision-Making And Action Selection, Shalin N. Shah

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis addresses neuroscience research focusing on the brain’s mechanisms underlying behavioral choice, or prioritization, and decision-making. The research has been conducted with Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly – a good model from both the behavioral and neural perspectives. This project specifically observes the co-regulation of sleep with two other behaviors – courtship and oviposition. The overlap between the sleep and courtship circuits in the brain should provide a good model for behavioral prioritization, and the interaction between sleep and ovipositional preference should provide a model for understanding the effects of sleep on decision-making. All three of these adaptive behaviors are ...


Examining The Neuronal Dopaminergic Pathway Underlying Sleep Behavior And Related Dopamine Sleep Disorders, Mary Beth Putz 2017 University of San Diego

Examining The Neuronal Dopaminergic Pathway Underlying Sleep Behavior And Related Dopamine Sleep Disorders, Mary Beth Putz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The human brain is an extremely complex organ with approximately 100 billion different neurons that are constantly sending and receiving messages. These messages are sent using the chemical messengers of the brain: neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Mechanisms of neural control of sleep are substantially conserved across species. Evidence from multiple animal models including flies, zebrafish, and mice shows that the arousal, or wake phase, is regulated by conserved neuromodulators such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Since these neurotransmitter systems are distributed throughout the brain and sub-serve many functions in addition to sleep, the precise circuit mechanisms by which these neurotransmitters regulate ...


Central And Peripheral Difference In Perceptual Bias In Ambiguous Perception Using Dichoptic Stimuli --- Implications For The Analysis-By-Synthesis Process In Visual Recognition, Li Zhaoping Prof 2017 University College London

Central And Peripheral Difference In Perceptual Bias In Ambiguous Perception Using Dichoptic Stimuli --- Implications For The Analysis-By-Synthesis Process In Visual Recognition, Li Zhaoping Prof

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Applying Fmri Complexity Analyses To The Single-Subject: A Case Study For Proposed Neurodiagnostics, Anca R. Radulescu, Emily R. Hannon 2017 State University of New York at New Paltz

Applying Fmri Complexity Analyses To The Single-Subject: A Case Study For Proposed Neurodiagnostics, Anca R. Radulescu, Emily R. Hannon

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Comparing Diverse V1 Models On The Same Platform: Virtual V1sion, Cheryl Olman 2017 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Comparing Diverse V1 Models On The Same Platform: Virtual V1sion, Cheryl Olman

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Anandamide Administration On Components Of Reward Processing, Howard C. Cromwell 2017 Bowling Green State University

Effects Of Anandamide Administration On Components Of Reward Processing, Howard C. Cromwell

Howard Casey Cromwell

Previous research has implicated the positive modulation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid neurotransmitter,on feeding behavior. Anandamide is particularly noteworthy as it acts as an endogenous ligand of the CB1receptor, the same receptor that is activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component in Cannabis sativa. Cannabis legalization in North America has presented with a need to study endocannabinoid agonists and their effects on behavior. Much has yet to be determined in terms of the role of the endocannabinoid system in decision-making scenarios. The research presented here tested the hypothesis that anandamide wouldaugment motivation and reward processing via appetitive and ...


An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings 2017 University of Maine

An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...


Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith 2017 Abilene Christian University

Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

More than 40% of nurses reported experiencing significant burnout. Burnout is characterized by disengagement, cynicism, negative views of personal accomplishment and ability, and emotional exhaustion. The healthcare providers that experience burnout can possibly expect a decrease in ability to recognize/report errors, increase of negative feelings toward the patient, and decrease levels of patient satisfaction (Ernest, 2014). One of the ways Schub (2015) suggested to regulate burnout for employees was to provide psychosocial support to colleagues to reduce stress. This study is one of the first attempts to bridge the gap between the unknown correlation between qualitative and quantitative benefits ...


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