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Behavioral Neurobiology Commons

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Spatial Learning And Memory In Brain-Injured And Non-Injured Mice: Investigating The Roles Of Diacylglycerol Lipase-Α And -Β., Lesley D. Schurman 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Spatial Learning And Memory In Brain-Injured And Non-Injured Mice: Investigating The Roles Of Diacylglycerol Lipase-Α And -Β., Lesley D. Schurman

Theses and Dissertations

A growing body of evidence implicates the importance of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) in memory regulation. The biosynthesis of 2-AG occurs primarily through the diacylglycerol lipases (DAGL-α and -β), with 2-AG serving as a bioactive lipid to both activate cannabinoid receptors and as a rate limiting precursor for the production of arachidonic acid and subsequent pro-inflammatory mediators. Gene deletion of DAGL-α shows decrements in synaptic plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis suggesting this biosynthetic enzyme may be important for processes of normal spatial memory. Additionally, 2-AG is elevated in response to pathogenic events such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting ...


Only The Human Brain Has The Cognitive Capacity For Jealousy, Donatella Marazziti 2018 University of Pisa

Only The Human Brain Has The Cognitive Capacity For Jealousy, Donatella Marazziti

Animal Sentience

Jealousy is exclusively a human phenomenon because nonhuman animals lack the brain structures regulating the higher processes underlying jealousy.


The Role Of Personality In Successful Aging, Yousun Baek 2018 Iowa State University

The Role Of Personality In Successful Aging, Yousun Baek

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the role of personality as a predictor of successful aging. Three studies are presented and discussed using the data from the Georgia Centenarian Study (Study 1 and 3) and the data from the Midlife in the United States study (Study 3). Study 1 suggested an alternative approach for measuring the Big Five personality domains, Digman’s (1997) two higher-order personality factors (i.e., Alpha and Beta), and found a positive association between personality and each component of successful aging (i.e., cognitive functioning, physical functioning, physical health, and social engagement). Study 2 ...


Using Values To Communicate Agricultural Science: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach, Allison Arp 2018 Iowa State University

Using Values To Communicate Agricultural Science: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach, Allison Arp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study explored how preexisting values influence attitudes about GMOs and if aligning messages about GMOs with these values would lead to a greater chance of central processing, and subsequently, greater alignment with message-congruent attitudes. Utilizing the Elaboration Likelihood Model as a theoretical foundation, an online experiment was used to measure several values of participants, including altruistic, biospheric and egoistic value orientations as well as agricultural identity. Attitude accessibility and pre- and post-opinions were also measured in order to determine how much of an effect the presented stimuli had on the participants. All participants were presented with a stimulus that ...


Investigation Of Aversion Associated With Gas Inhalants In Pigs Using Cognitive Paradigms, Luna KC 2018 Iowa State University

Investigation Of Aversion Associated With Gas Inhalants In Pigs Using Cognitive Paradigms, Luna Kc

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is commonly used for stunning and euthanasia of pigs, but the practice is restricted in some countries due to concerns about pain and distress that appear to occur prior to loss of consciousness when pigs are immersed in CO2. Argon-induced hypoxia is suggested as an alternative, but is associated with prolonged induction of unconsciousness during which pigs display behaviors suggestive of distress. The aim of this thesis was to assess pigs’ aversion to inhalant euthanasia gases using approach-avoidance (AA) and conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms. A preference-testing device was designed with two identical chambers: a control chamber ...


Investigating Consumer Motivations For Sustainable Hotel Practices And The Effect On Satisfaction And Attitudinal Loyalty, Magnus Thorsson 2018 Iowa State University

Investigating Consumer Motivations For Sustainable Hotel Practices And The Effect On Satisfaction And Attitudinal Loyalty, Magnus Thorsson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sustainable hotel practices focus on minimizing the negative impact of hospitality operations on the environment and the global climate. Hotels are resource demanding utilizing more water and electricity and generating more solid waste per person than in a residential setting. Public concern over environmental degradation is growing in step with consumer demand for sustainable business practices. This study employed the theory of planned behavior to understand better the underlying motivations of hotel guests to engage in the sustainable efforts of hotel practitioners. Structural equation modeling was used to empirically investigate what drives guest motivations toward participation in sustainable hotel practices ...


Effects Of Adolescent Caffeine Consumption On Impulsivity Control During Adulthood, Maria Jose Navarro 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Effects Of Adolescent Caffeine Consumption On Impulsivity Control During Adulthood, Maria Jose Navarro

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Many people consume a variety of beverages like coffee, tea and sodas that contain caffeine as one of their principal ingredients. In recent years, adolescent caffeine consumption has increased significantly, reason why it is important to recognize and understand its effects in behaviors displayed later in adulthood. Little is known about the effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on impulsivity modulatory processes, which can play a crucial role in the development of several mental disorders. In this experiment, a rat model was used to explore the effects of adolescent caffeine consumption in a behavioral test of impulsive action during adulthood. Exposure ...


Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, Vishnu Iyer 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, Vishnu Iyer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

NREM and REM sleep have shown an exceptional importance in controlling various cognitive functions (Brown et al, 2012), and disruption of such sleep states can cause mental and physical impairments (Christie et al, 2008). Disruptions in sleep stages (Wakefulness, REM, NREM) can be identified via EEG recordings in mice without much interference (Mckenna et al, 2008). Circadian Rhythm, hormonal markers, and stress all affect the duration, intensity and timing of these sleep stages (Brown et al, 2004; Veasey et al 2004; Christie et al, 2008). One cohort of mice (n=7) underwent a baseline condition (BL), a nicotine administration condition ...


Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Clinical research studies show that chronic pain is a prevalent, difficult affliction to manage. The most common management for chronic pain is opioids, which research is showing to paradoxically induce persistent, worsened pain states as well as potentially having negative effects on memory. The necessity for understanding chronic pain and drug management options is apparent, and research is aiming to do just that. Exercise is one potential preventative measure or post hoc treatment possibility for chronic pain, as abundant research has shown. Knowledge of the interactions between exercise, morphine dosing, and peripheral nerve injury is nonexistent. As such, we desired ...


Validating The Use Of Dreadds In The Study Of The Paraventricular Thalamus (Pvt) And Its Role As In Interface Of Circadian Information, Luke Millisor 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Validating The Use Of Dreadds In The Study Of The Paraventricular Thalamus (Pvt) And Its Role As In Interface Of Circadian Information, Luke Millisor

Undergraduate Honors Theses

How the brain and body coordinate the phase of their internal clocks has remained elusive despite years of study. The discovery of clock genes showed how individual cells can keep time. The establishment of the suprachiasmatic nucleus as the master clock showed that in normal circumstances the brain relies on one nucleus to communicate time of day information to the rest of the body and brain. By what method the SCN accomplishes this is largely unknown. Glucocorticoid hormones are known to have a role in this communication, but evidence remains for a neuronal pathway between the SCN and extra SCN ...


Sentience In Fishes: More On The Evidence, Michael L. Woodruff 2018 East Tennessee State University

Sentience In Fishes: More On The Evidence, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

In my target article, I argued that the brains of ray-finned fishes of the teleost subclass (Actinopterygii) are sufficiently complex to support sentience — that these fishes have subjective awareness of interoceptive and exteroceptive sense experience. Extending previous theories centered on the tectum, I focused on the organization of the fish pallium. In this Response to the commentaries, I clarify that I do not propose that the fish pallium is, or must be, homologous to the mammalian neocortex to play a role in sentience. Some form of a functionalist approach to explaining the neural basis of sentience across taxa is probably ...


Potential Candidates For Treating Deficits Associated With Developmental Ethanol Exposure In A Rodent Model: Solidago Nemoralis & Dimethoxybenzylidene-Anabasine, Logan James Fields 2018 University of Kentucky

Potential Candidates For Treating Deficits Associated With Developmental Ethanol Exposure In A Rodent Model: Solidago Nemoralis & Dimethoxybenzylidene-Anabasine, Logan James Fields

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Prenatal alcohol exposure (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome [FAS] and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders [FASD’s]) represents the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilities in the western world, with FASDs estimated to affect approximately 2-5% of live births in the United States at an approximate annual cost of $3.6 billion (CDC, 2015; May et al., 2009). Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during development can lead to a variety of long-term behavioral impairments including problems with executive functioning, motor coordination, spatial learning, attention, and hyperactivity (Jones, 2011; Mattson & Riley, 1998). Much research has been conducted to develop pharmacological and/or environmental interventions to reduce ...


Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy 2017 University of New Orleans

Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The model of basal ganglia function proposed by Albin, Young and Penney (1989) describes two anatomically independent motor pathways, the direct and indirect. However, under normal conditions striatal dopamine (DA) is required for the expression of motor behavior, and DAergic control of the two pathways (via D1 and D2 receptors, respectively) is dependent on co-activation. We tested for a possible breakdown of D1/D2 synergism using transgenic R6/1 mice bearing the human huntingtin allele (Htt). Motor stereotypy, observed prior to the onset of HD-related symptoms, was rated on a 5-point scale following activation of: A) D1 receptors alone, B ...


Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer 2017 Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center

Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Lack of adequate physical activity in children is an epidemic that can result in obesity and other poor health outcomes across the lifespan. Physical activity interventions focused on motor skill competence continue to be developed, but some interventions, such as neuromuscular training (NMT), may be limited in how early they can be implemented due to dependence on the child’s level of cognitive and perceptual-motor development. Early implementation of motor-rich activities that support motor skill development in children is critical for the development of healthy levels of physical activity that carry through into adulthood. Virtual reality (VR) training may be ...


Characterizing Mekk1: Candidate Behavioural Isolation Gene, Caryn Dooner 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing Mekk1: Candidate Behavioural Isolation Gene, Caryn Dooner

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Behavioural isolation can occur due to divergence in aspects of courtship and mating, and can contribute to reproductive isolation. The purpose of this study is to determine how a gene, Mekk1, contributes to female rejection behaviour between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Unique polymorphisms were identified within D. simulans Mekk1 that could contribute to behaviour, most of which are non-coding. Both transcripts of Mekk1 appear to be expressed at similar levels in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. These data also indicate that Mekk1 may be expressed in a specific region of the brain called the mushroom body, which has previously ...


Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman

Psychology and Neuroscience Undergraduate Contributions

Traumatic spinal cord injury affects 282,000 people in the United States alone. Individuals often suffer from partial paralysis and chronic pain along with physiological impairments, such as abnormal thermoregulation, decreased motor function, and poor sleep quality. Current clinical therapies focus on symptomatic treatments. Despite extensive research, all of the physiologic effects and the molecular mechanism underlying spinal cord injury, and how they affect each other, remains elusive. Here, we tested whether spinal cord injury disrupted circadian rhythms, which could prolong the recovery process. We used implanted transmitters in male and female rats to measure a marker, body temperature, and ...


The Neural Mechanisms Underlying The Perception And Production Of Learned Vocalizations In Songbirds, Shannon Katie Mischler 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Neural Mechanisms Underlying The Perception And Production Of Learned Vocalizations In Songbirds, Shannon Katie Mischler

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Songbirds produce a wide array of vocalizations, including song, and learned and innate calls. Songs and calls can be functionally defined. Songs are typically used to attract potential mates and defend one’s territory, whereas calls are used for everything else, such as advertising the presence of a predator, or location of a food source, and maintaining contact with members of one’s flock. The purpose of this thesis was to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying call production and perception in two songbird species; the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). My objectives were to ...


Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist 2017 Cedarville University

Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

This paper will attempt to address God's grace towards those with mental illnesses. It also attempts to provide direction in response to historical church views towards this population. Through scripture, this paper seeks to emphasize the importance of seeing a person as more than what they physically appear capable of - seeing people through God's eyes.


Machine Learning Analysis Identifies Drosophila Grunge/Atrophin As An Important Learning And Memory Gene Required For Memory Retention And Social Learning, Balint Kacsoh 2017 Illinois State University

Machine Learning Analysis Identifies Drosophila Grunge/Atrophin As An Important Learning And Memory Gene Required For Memory Retention And Social Learning, Balint Kacsoh

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Inflammation plays a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Investigating how specific mediators of inflammation contribute to neurodegeneration in AD is crucial. Our studies focused on cyclooxygenases, which are key enzymes in inflammation and highly relevant to AD. Cyclooxygenases (COX -1, constitutive; COX-2, inducible) have emerged as important determinants of AD pathogenesis and progression. COX-2 is highly induced in AD, correlating with AD severity, and COX-1 is also involved in AD. Cyclooxygenases are the rate-limiting enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs), the principal mediators of CNS neuroinflammation.

The overall GOAL of these studies was to address the ...


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