Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

7,550 Full-Text Articles 16,634 Authors 1,174,389 Downloads 215 Institutions

All Articles in Microbiology

Faceted Search

7,550 full-text articles. Page 244 of 245.

Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal III, Jeymohan Joseph 2010 University of North Carolina

Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal Iii, Jeymohan Joseph

Virology Papers

In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda ...


Chronology And Evolution Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Epidemic In Ethiopia, Damien C. Tully, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chronology And Evolution Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Epidemic In Ethiopia, Damien C. Tully, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective—To reconstruct the onset date and evolutionary history of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in Ethiopia - one of the earliest recorded subtype C epidemics in the world.

Design—HIV-1 C env sequences with a known sampling year isolated from HIV-1 positive patients from Ethiopia between 1984 and 2003.

Methods—Evolutionary parameters including origin and demographic growth patterns were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based approach under either strict or relaxed molecular clock models.

Results—Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor date of 1965 with three distinct epidemic growth phases. Regression analysis of root-to-tip distances revealed a highly ...


The Im-9 Cell Line: A Model For Evaluating Tcdd-Induced Modulation Of The Polymorphic Human Hs1,2 Enhancer Within The 3' Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Regulatory Region, Ruth C. Chambers-Turner 2010 Wright State University

The Im-9 Cell Line: A Model For Evaluating Tcdd-Induced Modulation Of The Polymorphic Human Hs1,2 Enhancer Within The 3' Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Regulatory Region, Ruth C. Chambers-Turner

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a disrupter, of B-cell differentiation, induces binding of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) nuclear complex to dioxin responsive elements (DRE) within the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain regulatory region (3'IgHRR), and produces a marked inhibition of 3'IgHRR activation, IgH expression, and antibody secretion in a well-characterized mouse B-cell line (CH12.LX). The mouse 3'IgHRR consists of at least four enhancers (hs3a; hs1,2; hs3b; hs4), and is highly homologous with the three enhancers (hs3; hs1,2; hs4) of the human 3'IgHRR. A polymorphism of the human hs1,2 enhancer (resulting in varying ...


Phocine Distemper Virus Induced Demyelination In The Spinal Cord Of Infected Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina), Thomas Siemens 2010 University of New England

Phocine Distemper Virus Induced Demyelination In The Spinal Cord Of Infected Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina), Thomas Siemens

All Theses And Dissertations

Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) is a Morbillivirus that has been responsible for the death of approximately 40,000 phocid seals in the last three decades. The most commonly reported pathology is virally induced demyelination of the cerebrum and brainstem which leaves axons bare and limits their conductivity of action potentials. While these conditions have been studied at length, there is little mention of spinal cord involvement. This study aims to determine whether demyelination found in the brainstem continues into the cervical spinal cord. The results indicate that demyelination in the cervical spinal cord does not occur alongside the brainstem. It ...


Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, YW Luo, MAM Friedrichs, SC Doney, MJ Church, HW Ducklow 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, Yw Luo, Mam Friedrichs, Sc Doney, Mj Church, Hw Ducklow

VIMS Articles

Previous studies have focused on the role of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) (defined as turnover time of similar to 1 d) in supporting heterotrophic bacterial production, but have mostly neglected semilabile DOM (defined as turnover time of similar to 100 to 1000 d) as a potential substrate for heterotrophic bacterial growth. To test the hypothesis that semilabile DOM supports substantial amounts of heterotrophic bacterial production in the open ocean, we constructed a 1-dimensional epipelagic ecosystem model and applied it to 3 open ocean sites: the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The ...


Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly 2010 Iowa State University

Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 (GH44) protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli.The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2.2-Å resolution revealed a triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-like structure with additional Greek key and β-sandwich folds, similar to other GH44 crystal structures. The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is ...


Characterization Of Biofilms Formed By Mycobacterium Aviumn Subspecies Paratuberculosis In Psychologically Relevant Conditions, Richard Brunner 2010 Minnesota State University - Mankato

Characterization Of Biofilms Formed By Mycobacterium Aviumn Subspecies Paratuberculosis In Psychologically Relevant Conditions, Richard Brunner

All Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mpt) is the cause of Johne's disease, a gastrointestinal disease that mainly affects ruminants. Despite being an obligate intracellular pathogen, Mpt can survive in the environment for months. How Mpt survives in the environment has yet to be determined, but one tactic Mpt may use is the formation of biofilms. Biofilms may provide sufficient protection and allow Mpt endure in the environment until a new host is encountered. The conditions affecting Mpt biofilm formation have not been investigated. Both in the host and in the environment, Mpt experiences physiological stresses that may induce biofilm formation ...


Bioinformatic And Sequence Analysis Of Four Resuscitation Promoting Factor (Rpf) Gene Homologues In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Mpt), And Expression Of The Putative Mpt Rpfb In Escherichia Coli., David Dale Hedlund 2010 Minnesota State University - Mankato

Bioinformatic And Sequence Analysis Of Four Resuscitation Promoting Factor (Rpf) Gene Homologues In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Mpt), And Expression Of The Putative Mpt Rpfb In Escherichia Coli., David Dale Hedlund

All Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mpt), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), is a global problem in the agricultural industry. It is estimated that 25% of all U.S. dairy herds are JD positive. One obstacle in the management of JD is the lack a sensitive diagnostic test for use during the early stages of infection. Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpf) are proteins that promote the growth of many species of Actinobacteria. If Rpf proteins could enhance the growth of Mpt, the sensitivity of diagnostic fecal culture could be improved, and the impact of JD on the dairy industry would ...


Ecological Niche Modeling Of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species In Iowa, Scott R. Larson, John P. DeGroote, Lyric Bartholomay, Ramathan Sugumaran 2010 University of Northern Iowa

Ecological Niche Modeling Of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species In Iowa, Scott R. Larson, John P. Degroote, Lyric Bartholomay, Ramathan Sugumaran

Entomology Publications

Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito — two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species from a state-wide arbovirus surveillance program were used in combination with climatic and landscape layers. Maxent successfully created more appropriate niche models with greater accuracy than GARP. The three Maxent species' models ...


Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken 2009 Gettysburg College

Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken

Ryan Kerney

Genetic and developmental alterations associated with the evolution of amphibian direct development remain largely unexplored. Specifically, little is known of the underlying expression of skeletal regulatory genes, which may reveal early modifications to cranial ontogeny in direct-developing species. We describe expression patterns of three key skeletal regulators (runx2, sox9, and bmp4) along with the cartilage-dominant collagen 2a1 gene (col2a1) during cranial development in the direct- developing anuran, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Expression patterns of these regulators reveal transient skeletogenic anlagen that correspond to larval cartilages, but which never fully form in E. coqui. Suprarostral anlagen in the frontonasal processes are detected through ...


Biosensors As Environmental Monitors, S. Ripp, M. DiClaudio, Gary Sayler 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Biosensors As Environmental Monitors, S. Ripp, M. Diclaudio, Gary Sayler

Gary S. Sayler

This is the long-awaited and much-anticipated revision of the bestselling text and reference. Based on the latest information and investigative techniques from molecular biology and genetics, this Second Edition offers an in-depth examination of the role of microbiological processes related to environmental deterioration with an emphasis on the detection and control of environmental contaminants. Its goal is to further our understanding of the complex microbial processes underlying environmental degradation, its detection and control, and ultimately, its prevention.


The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson 2009 University of Rhode Island

The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson

David R. Nelson

Background: The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a limited-genome organism that must obtain many of its biochemical building blocks, including N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), from its tick or vertebrate host. GlcNAc can be imported into the cell as a monomer or dimer (chitobiose), and the annotation for several B. burgdorferi genes suggests that this organism may be able to degrade and utilize chitin, a polymer of GlcNAc. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi to utilize chitin in the absence of free GlcNAc, and we attempted to identify genes involved in the process. We also examined the ...


Bioenergy Sustainability In China: Potential And Impacts, Jie Zhuang, Randall Gentry, Gui-Rui Yu, Gary Sayler, John Bickham 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Bioenergy Sustainability In China: Potential And Impacts, Jie Zhuang, Randall Gentry, Gui-Rui Yu, Gary Sayler, John Bickham

Gary S. Sayler

The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China’s bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts ...


China-Us Workshop On Biotechnology Of Bioenergy Plants, C. Stewart, Lee Shugart, Gong-She Liu, Jie Zhuang, Yongqing Ma, Gerald Tuskan, Richard Meilan, Randall Gentry, Gary Sayler 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

China-Us Workshop On Biotechnology Of Bioenergy Plants, C. Stewart, Lee Shugart, Gong-She Liu, Jie Zhuang, Yongqing Ma, Gerald Tuskan, Richard Meilan, Randall Gentry, Gary Sayler

Gary S. Sayler

DOI: 10.1007/s10646-009-0448-5


The Genome Of Geobacter Bemidjiensis, Exemplar For The Subsurface Clade Of Geobacter Species That Predominate In Fe(Iii)-Reducing Subsurface Enviorments, Derek Lovley, Muktak Aklujkar, Nealson Young, Dawn Holmes, Milind Chavan, Carla Risso, Hajnalka Kiss, Cliff Han, Miriam Land 2009 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

The Genome Of Geobacter Bemidjiensis, Exemplar For The Subsurface Clade Of Geobacter Species That Predominate In Fe(Iii)-Reducing Subsurface Enviorments, Derek Lovley, Muktak Aklujkar, Nealson Young, Dawn Holmes, Milind Chavan, Carla Risso, Hajnalka Kiss, Cliff Han, Miriam Land

Muktak Aklujkar

BACKGROUND: Geobacter species in a phylogenetic cluster known as subsurface clade 1 are often the predominant microorganisms in subsurface environments in which Fe(III) reduction is the primary electron-accepting process. Geobacter bemidjiensis, a member of this clade, was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated subsurface sediments in Bemidji, Minnesota, and is closely related to Geobacter species found to be abundant at other subsurface sites. This study examines whether there are significant differences in the metabolism and physiology of G. bemidjiensis compared to non-subsurface Geobacter species. RESULTS: Annotation of the genome sequence of G. bemidjiensis indicates several differences in metabolism compared to previously sequenced ...


Video: Body Languages: Choreographing Biology, Katja Kolcio 2009 Wesleyan University

Video: Body Languages: Choreographing Biology, Katja Kolcio

Katja Kolcio Ph.D.

Co-taught by professors Manju Hingorani and Katja Kolcio at Wesleyan University, this course was an introduction to human biology. From scientific and choreographic perspectives, students practiced movement awareness and learned basic principles of choreography, and applied these skills to the exploration of human biology. Manju Hingorani, Professor of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Katja Kolcio, Associate Professor of Dance and Environmental Studies


Towardssustainablecellulosicbioenergy, Randall Gentry, Gary Sayler, ZHUANG Jie 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Towardssustainablecellulosicbioenergy, Randall Gentry, Gary Sayler, Zhuang Jie

Gary S. Sayler

Abstract: Biomass is an abundant, domestically available source of clean energy that has the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from cellulosic biomass is attractive because of its low fossil energy-to-carbon ratio compared to corn and other grain-based technologies. However, biofuel production systems are not simple. They are subject to multiple factors: energy supply, economic development in rural communities, land and ecosystem protection, potential for reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and social training. This paper provides a brief overview of the environmental and economic impacts of bioenergy development. Different regions should have their own optimized portfolio ...


Contributions Of Francisella Tularensis Subsp. Novicida Chitinases And Sec Secretion System To Biofilm Formation On Chitin, Jeffrey J. Margolis, Sahar H. El-Etr, Lydia-Marie Joubert, Emily Moore, Richard Robinson, Amy Rasley, Alfred M. Spormann, Denise M. Monack 2009 Stanford University School of Medicine

Contributions Of Francisella Tularensis Subsp. Novicida Chitinases And Sec Secretion System To Biofilm Formation On Chitin, Jeffrey J. Margolis, Sahar H. El-Etr, Lydia-Marie Joubert, Emily Moore, Richard Robinson, Amy Rasley, Alfred M. Spormann, Denise M. Monack

Jeffrey Margolis

Francisella tularensis, the zoonotic cause of tularemia, can infect numerous mammals and other eukaryotes.
Although studying F. tularensis pathogenesis is essential to comprehending disease, mammalian infection is
just one step in the ecology of Francisella species. F. tularensis has been isolated from aquatic environments and
arthropod vectors, environments in which chitin could serve as a potential carbon source and as a surface for
attachment and growth. We show that F. tularensis subsp. novicida forms biofilms during the colonization of
chitin surfaces. The ability of F. tularensis to persist using chitin as a sole carbon source is dependent on
chitinases, since ...


Autonomous Bioluminescent Expression Of The Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (Lux) In A Mammalian Cell Line, Dan M. Close, Stacey S. Patterson, Steven Ripp, Seung J. Baek, John Sanseverino, Gary S. Sayler 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Autonomous Bioluminescent Expression Of The Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (Lux) In A Mammalian Cell Line, Dan M. Close, Stacey S. Patterson, Steven Ripp, Seung J. Baek, John Sanseverino, Gary S. Sayler

Steven Ripp

Background

The bacterial luciferase (lux) gene cassette consists of five genes (luxCDABE) whose protein products synergistically generate bioluminescent light signals exclusive of supplementary substrate additions or exogenous manipulations. Historically expressible only in prokaryotes, the lux operon was re-synthesized through a process of multi-bicistronic, codon-optimization to demonstrate for the first time self-directed bioluminescence emission in a mammalian HEK293 cell line in vitro and in vivo.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Autonomous in vitro light production was shown to be 12-fold greater than the observable background associated with untransfected control cells. The availability of reduced riboflavin phosphate (FMNH2) was identified as the limiting bioluminescence ...


Spatial Structure And Activity Of Sedimentary Microbial Communities Underlying A Beggiatoa Spp. Mat In A Gulf Of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep, Karen Lloyd, Daniel B. Albert, Jennifer F. Biddle, Jeffrey P. Chanton, Oscar Pizarro, Andreas Teske 2009 Selected Works

Spatial Structure And Activity Of Sedimentary Microbial Communities Underlying A Beggiatoa Spp. Mat In A Gulf Of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep, Karen Lloyd, Daniel B. Albert, Jennifer F. Biddle, Jeffrey P. Chanton, Oscar Pizarro, Andreas Teske

Karen Lloyd

Background Subsurface fluids from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps undergo methane- and sulfur-cycling microbial transformations near the sediment surface. Hydrocarbon seep habitats are naturally patchy, with a mosaic of active seep sediments and non-seep sediments. Microbial community shifts and changing activity patterns on small spatial scales from seep to non-seep sediment remain to be examined in a comprehensive habitat study. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a transect of biogeochemical measurements and gene expression related to methane- and sulfur-cycling at different sediment depths across a broad Beggiatoa spp. mat at Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in the Gulf of Mexico. High process rates within ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress