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Ecological Niche Modeling Of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species In Iowa, Scott R. Larson, John P. DeGroote, Lyric Bartholomay, Ramathan Sugumaran 2010 University of Northern Iowa

Ecological Niche Modeling Of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species In Iowa, Scott R. Larson, John P. Degroote, Lyric Bartholomay, Ramathan Sugumaran

Entomology Publications

Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito — two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species from a state-wide arbovirus surveillance program were used in combination with climatic and landscape layers. Maxent successfully created more appropriate niche models with greater accuracy than GARP. The three Maxent species' models ...


Increased Perfusion And Angiogenesis In A Hindlimb Ischemia Model With Plasmid Fgf-2 Delivered By Noninvasive Electroporation, B. Ferraro, Y. L. Cruz, M. Baldwin, D. Coppola, R. Heller 2010 Old Dominion University

Increased Perfusion And Angiogenesis In A Hindlimb Ischemia Model With Plasmid Fgf-2 Delivered By Noninvasive Electroporation, B. Ferraro, Y. L. Cruz, M. Baldwin, D. Coppola, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy approaches delivering fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) have shown promise as a potential treatment for increasing blood flow to ischemic limbs. Currently, effective noninvasive techniques to deliver plasmids encoding genes of therapeutic interest, such as FGF-2, are limited. We sought to determine if intradermal injection of plasmid DNA encoding FGF-2 (pFGF) followed by noninvasive cutaneous electroporation (pFGFE+) could increase blood flow and angiogenesis in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia. pFGFE+ or control treatments were administered on postoperative day 0. Compared to injection of pFGF alone (pFGFE-), delivery of pFGFE+ significantly increased FGF-2 expression for 10 days. Further, the ...


Electric Pulses To Prepare Feeder Cells For Sustaining And Culturing Of Undifferentiated Embryonic Stem Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu 2010 Old Dominion University

Electric Pulses To Prepare Feeder Cells For Sustaining And Culturing Of Undifferentiated Embryonic Stem Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Current challenges in embryonic-stem-cell (ESC) research include inability of sustaining and culturing of undifferentiated ESCs over time. Growth-arrested feeder cells are essential to the culture and sustaining of undifferentiated ESCs, and they are currently prepared using gammaradiation and chemical inactivation. Both techniques have severe limitations. In this study, we developed a new, simple and effective technique (pulsed-electric-fields, PEFs) to produce viable growth-arrested cells (RTS34st) and used them as high-quality feeder cells to culture and sustain undifferentiated zebrafish ESCs over time. The cells were exposed to 25 sequential 10- nanosecond-electric-pulses (10nsEPs) of 25, 40 and 150 kV/cm with 1s pulse ...


Candida Albicans Cellwall Components And Farnesol Stimulate The Expression Of Both Inflammatory And Regulatory Cytokines In The Murine Raw264.7 Macrophage Cell Line, Suman Ghosh, Nina Howe, Katie Volk, Swetha Tati, Kenneth W. Nickerson, Thomas M. Petro 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Candida Albicans Cellwall Components And Farnesol Stimulate The Expression Of Both Inflammatory And Regulatory Cytokines In The Murine Raw264.7 Macrophage Cell Line, Suman Ghosh, Nina Howe, Katie Volk, Swetha Tati, Kenneth W. Nickerson, Thomas M. Petro

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Candida albicans causes candidiasis, secretes farnesol, and switches from yeast to hyphae to escape from macrophages after phagocytosis. However, before escape, macrophages may respond to C. albicans’ pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and dectin-1 receptors by expressing cytokines involved in adaptive immunity, inflammation, and immune regulation. Therefore, macrophages and the RAW264.7 macrophage line were challenged with C. albicans preparations of live wild-type cells, heat-killed cells, a live mutant defective in hyphae formation, a live mutant producing less farnesol, or an isolate producing farnesoic acid instead of farnesol. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1b, IL- 10, and tumor ...


An Evaluation Of Miru-Vntr Analysis And Spoligotyping For Genotyping Of Mycobacterium Bovis Isolates And A Comparison With Rflp Typing., Joanne McLernon, Eamonn Costello, Orla Flynn, Gillian Madigan, Fergus Ryan 2010 Technological University Dublin

An Evaluation Of Miru-Vntr Analysis And Spoligotyping For Genotyping Of Mycobacterium Bovis Isolates And A Comparison With Rflp Typing., Joanne Mclernon, Eamonn Costello, Orla Flynn, Gillian Madigan, Fergus Ryan

Articles

Strain typing of Mycobacterium bovis isolates based on the variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR) and on spoligotyping was evaluated in this study and these typing methods were compared with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. A total of 386 M. bovis isolates from cattle, badgers and deer in the Republic of Ireland that had previously been typed by IS6110, polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS) and direct repeat (DR) RFLP were included in the study. Spoligotyping and analysis of six VNTR loci (2163a, 2163b, 2165, 4052, 2996 and 1895) was performed on the samples. RFLP was the method ...


Process Optimization For The Developmenht Of A Functional Beverage Based On Lactic Acid Fermentation Of Oats, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2010 Technological University Dublin

Process Optimization For The Developmenht Of A Functional Beverage Based On Lactic Acid Fermentation Of Oats, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

Oats (Avena sativa) have received considerable interest for their high content of soluble and insoluble fibre and for their high fermentability upon applying probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In the present study, Box–Behnken optimization design was used to optimize three different levels of oat, sucrose and starter culture concentration on the final viable cell population of Lactobacillus plantarum for the development of a fermented drink. A second-order polynomial response surface equation was developed indicating the effect of the studied variables on L. plantarum growth. Contour maps generated using the response surface equation showed that the experimental variables significantly affected ...


Analysing The Effects Of Loss Of Sin3 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aishwarya Swaminathan 2010 Wayne State University

Analysing The Effects Of Loss Of Sin3 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aishwarya Swaminathan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Sin3A has been previously shown to be an essential gene for Drosophila viability and is implicated in the regulation of cell cycle. In this study, we show that SIN3 is not only required for embryonic viability but also for post-embryonic development. Genetic analysis suggests that the different isoforms of SIN3 may regulate unique sets of genes during development. The developmental lethality occurring due to ubiquitous knock down of SIN3 is hypothesized to be to the result of defects in cell proliferation. Conditional knock down of SIN3 in the wing discs results in a curly wing phenotype in the adult fly ...


Characterization Of Biofilms Formed By Mycobacterium Aviumn Subspecies Paratuberculosis In Psychologically Relevant Conditions, Richard Brunner 2010 Minnesota State University - Mankato

Characterization Of Biofilms Formed By Mycobacterium Aviumn Subspecies Paratuberculosis In Psychologically Relevant Conditions, Richard Brunner

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mpt) is the cause of Johne's disease, a gastrointestinal disease that mainly affects ruminants. Despite being an obligate intracellular pathogen, Mpt can survive in the environment for months. How Mpt survives in the environment has yet to be determined, but one tactic Mpt may use is the formation of biofilms. Biofilms may provide sufficient protection and allow Mpt endure in the environment until a new host is encountered. The conditions affecting Mpt biofilm formation have not been investigated. Both in the host and in the environment, Mpt experiences physiological stresses that may induce biofilm formation ...


Bioinformatic And Sequence Analysis Of Four Resuscitation Promoting Factor (Rpf) Gene Homologues In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Mpt), And Expression Of The Putative Mpt Rpfb In Escherichia Coli., David Dale Hedlund 2010 Minnesota State University - Mankato

Bioinformatic And Sequence Analysis Of Four Resuscitation Promoting Factor (Rpf) Gene Homologues In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Mpt), And Expression Of The Putative Mpt Rpfb In Escherichia Coli., David Dale Hedlund

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mpt), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), is a global problem in the agricultural industry. It is estimated that 25% of all U.S. dairy herds are JD positive. One obstacle in the management of JD is the lack a sensitive diagnostic test for use during the early stages of infection. Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpf) are proteins that promote the growth of many species of Actinobacteria. If Rpf proteins could enhance the growth of Mpt, the sensitivity of diagnostic fecal culture could be improved, and the impact of JD on the dairy industry would ...


Enhancement Of The Antibacterial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Beta-Cyclodextrin As A Capping Agent, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Niall Stobie, Patrick McHale, Amit Jaiswal 2010 Technological University Dublin

Enhancement Of The Antibacterial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Beta-Cyclodextrin As A Capping Agent, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Niall Stobie, Patrick Mchale, Amit Jaiswal

Articles

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by reducing silver salts using NaBH4 followed by capping with varying concentrations of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and were physically characterised. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was determined by a microtitre well method. The AgNPs were spherical under TEM while DLS showed average diameters of capped particles to be smaller (4-7 nm) than their uncapped equivalents (17 nm). Capped particles demonstrated superior photostability when exposed to intense UV radiation for 4 hours and a significantly (p


Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, YW Luo, MAM Friedrichs, SC Doney, MJ Church, HW Ducklow 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, Yw Luo, Mam Friedrichs, Sc Doney, Mj Church, Hw Ducklow

VIMS Articles

Previous studies have focused on the role of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) (defined as turnover time of similar to 1 d) in supporting heterotrophic bacterial production, but have mostly neglected semilabile DOM (defined as turnover time of similar to 100 to 1000 d) as a potential substrate for heterotrophic bacterial growth. To test the hypothesis that semilabile DOM supports substantial amounts of heterotrophic bacterial production in the open ocean, we constructed a 1-dimensional epipelagic ecosystem model and applied it to 3 open ocean sites: the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The ...


Visible And Hyperspectral Imaging Systems For The Detection And Discrimination Of Mechanical And Microbiological Damage Of Mushrooms, Edurne Gaston 2010 Technological University Dublin

Visible And Hyperspectral Imaging Systems For The Detection And Discrimination Of Mechanical And Microbiological Damage Of Mushrooms, Edurne Gaston

Doctoral

Horticultural products such as mushrooms are exposed to environmental conditions during their postharvest life, which may affect product quality. Loss of whiteness during storage is particularly important in the mushroom industry. Rough handling and distribution, fruiting body senescence and bacterial infections are among the main causes of mushroom discolouration. The aim of this work was to study the use of visible and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems for the detection and discrimination of mechanical and microbiological damage of mushrooms. This piece of research involved a) monitoring the browning of mushroom with visible computer imaging systems, b) investigating the effect of mechanical ...


Quantitative Pcr Assay For Mycobacterium Pseudoshottsii And Mycobacterium Shottsii And Application To Environmental Samples And Fishes From The Chesapeake Bay, D. T. Gauthier, K. S. Reece, J. Xiao, M. W. Rhodes, H. I. Kator, R. J. Latour, C. F. Bonzek, J. M. Hoenig, W. K. Vogelbein 2010 Old Dominion University

Quantitative Pcr Assay For Mycobacterium Pseudoshottsii And Mycobacterium Shottsii And Application To Environmental Samples And Fishes From The Chesapeake Bay, D. T. Gauthier, K. S. Reece, J. Xiao, M. W. Rhodes, H. I. Kator, R. J. Latour, C. F. Bonzek, J. M. Hoenig, W. K. Vogelbein

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay are currently experiencing a very high prevalence of mycobacteriosis associated with newly described Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii. The ecology of these mycobacteria outside the striped bass host is currently unknown. In this work, we developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii and applied these assays to DNA extracts from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment samples, as well as to tissues from two dominant prey of striped bass, Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) and bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii was found to be ubiquitous in water ...


Chloroquine Susceptibility And Reversibility In A Plasmodium Falciparum Genetic Cross, Jigar J. Patel, Drew Thacker, John C. Tan, Perri Pleeter, Lisa Checkley, Joseph M. Gonzales, Bingbing Deng, Paul D. Roepe, Roland A. Cooper, Michael T. Ferdig 2010 Old Dominion University

Chloroquine Susceptibility And Reversibility In A Plasmodium Falciparum Genetic Cross, Jigar J. Patel, Drew Thacker, John C. Tan, Perri Pleeter, Lisa Checkley, Joseph M. Gonzales, Bingbing Deng, Paul D. Roepe, Roland A. Cooper, Michael T. Ferdig

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter (PfCRT) are major determinants of verapamil (VP)-reversible CQ resistance (CQR). In the presence of mutant PfCRT, additional genes contribute to the wide range of CQ susceptibilities observed. It is not known if these genes influence mechanisms of chemosensitization by CQR reversal agents. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of progeny clones from the HB3 x Dd2 cross, we show that the P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) interacts with the South-East Asia-derived mutant pfcrt haplotype to modulate CQR levels. A novel chromosome 7 locus is predicted to contribute with ...


The Distribution, Composition, And Formation Of Sahara Desert Microbialites From The Base Of The Meski Plateau, Outside Erfoud, Morocco, Sean Faulkner 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Distribution, Composition, And Formation Of Sahara Desert Microbialites From The Base Of The Meski Plateau, Outside Erfoud, Morocco, Sean Faulkner

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Seven distinctly different museum-quality concretionary morphotypes of elongate, spheroidal, banded, botryoidal, columnar, rosette, and speleothem in regolith at two small sites at the base of the Meski Plateau near Erfoud, Morocco are described. Although most are isolated hand samples, the largest concretions are meter-sized blocks. Not one sample resembles any surrounding outcrop or bedrock. The barite rosettes formed first via periodic mixing of Ba2+/SO42- saturated solutions. They provided nuclei for cyclical precipitation-based concentric concretion development. The speleothem formed via precipitation from a carbonate-saturated solution in a large void within porous sandstone. The sand concretions formed when calcite precipitated around ...


Soil Organic Matter Fractions And Aggregate Distribution In Response To Tall Fescue Stands, I. P. Handayani, Mark S. Coyne, R. S. Tokosh 2010 Murray State University

Soil Organic Matter Fractions And Aggregate Distribution In Response To Tall Fescue Stands, I. P. Handayani, Mark S. Coyne, R. S. Tokosh

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The study was conducted to evaluate the influences of tall fescue management on soil organic matter fractions and macro- and microaggregate distribution. Soil samples were collected from four paired adjacent fields consisting of five years of tall fescue mono and poly stands in Western Kentucky. Soil samples from 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm soil depths were analyzed for soil organic C and N, particulate organic matter C (POM-C) and N (POM-N), macro- and micro aggregate distribution and C-associated with macro- and micro- aggregates. Significant effects were observed between stands for all the properties, except total C ...


Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy 2010 Technological University Dublin

Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy

Conference papers

A unique space oriented filer is presented in order to detect and isolate the cell of a nucleus for applications in cytopathology. A classification method for nuclei is then considered based on the application of a set of features which includes certain fractal parameters. Segmentation algorithms are considered in which a self-adjustable sharpening filter is designed to enhance object location. Although the methods discussed and the algorithms developed have a range of applications, in this work we focus the engineering of a system for automating a Papanicolaou screening test using standard optical images


Phocine Distemper Virus Induced Demyelination In The Spinal Cord Of Infected Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina), Thomas Siemens 2010 University of New England

Phocine Distemper Virus Induced Demyelination In The Spinal Cord Of Infected Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina), Thomas Siemens

All Theses And Dissertations

Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) is a Morbillivirus that has been responsible for the death of approximately 40,000 phocid seals in the last three decades. The most commonly reported pathology is virally induced demyelination of the cerebrum and brainstem which leaves axons bare and limits their conductivity of action potentials. While these conditions have been studied at length, there is little mention of spinal cord involvement. This study aims to determine whether demyelination found in the brainstem continues into the cervical spinal cord. The results indicate that demyelination in the cervical spinal cord does not occur alongside the brainstem. It ...


Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken 2009 Gettysburg College

Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken

Ryan Kerney

Genetic and developmental alterations associated with the evolution of amphibian direct development remain largely unexplored. Specifically, little is known of the underlying expression of skeletal regulatory genes, which may reveal early modifications to cranial ontogeny in direct-developing species. We describe expression patterns of three key skeletal regulators (runx2, sox9, and bmp4) along with the cartilage-dominant collagen 2a1 gene (col2a1) during cranial development in the direct- developing anuran, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Expression patterns of these regulators reveal transient skeletogenic anlagen that correspond to larval cartilages, but which never fully form in E. coqui. Suprarostral anlagen in the frontonasal processes are detected through ...


Biosensors As Environmental Monitors, S. Ripp, M. DiClaudio, Gary Sayler 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Biosensors As Environmental Monitors, S. Ripp, M. Diclaudio, Gary Sayler

Gary S. Sayler

This is the long-awaited and much-anticipated revision of the bestselling text and reference. Based on the latest information and investigative techniques from molecular biology and genetics, this Second Edition offers an in-depth examination of the role of microbiological processes related to environmental deterioration with an emphasis on the detection and control of environmental contaminants. Its goal is to further our understanding of the complex microbial processes underlying environmental degradation, its detection and control, and ultimately, its prevention.


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