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The Ratio Of Gametophytes To Tetrasporophytes Of Intertidal Chondrus Crispus (Gigartinaceae) Across A Salinity Gradient, Michele Guidone, Sean Grace 2010 Sacred Heart University

The Ratio Of Gametophytes To Tetrasporophytes Of Intertidal Chondrus Crispus (Gigartinaceae) Across A Salinity Gradient, Michele Guidone, Sean Grace

Biology Faculty Publications

Population studies of the Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta) have often observed that the ratio of gametophytes to tetrasporophytes varies with the location of the population or the time of sampling. For some species, patterns have emerged that correlate this ratio to one or a few particular environmental variables, such as elevation, wave exposure, or season. Identifying these distributional patterns is an important step towards understanding what (if any) ecological differences exist between the two free-living life history stages.

The purpose of this study was to measure the ratio of gametophytes to tetrasporophytes of intertidal populations of Chondrus crispus across a decreasing salinity ...


Observations Of Distribution, Size, And Sex Ratio Of Mature Blue Crabs, Callinectes Sapidus, From A Chesapeake Bay Tributary In Relation To Oyster Habitat And Environmental Factors, JM Harding, R Mann 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Observations Of Distribution, Size, And Sex Ratio Of Mature Blue Crabs, Callinectes Sapidus, From A Chesapeake Bay Tributary In Relation To Oyster Habitat And Environmental Factors, Jm Harding, R Mann

VIMS Articles

Blue crabs Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1896) > 100 mm carapace width were sampled from a constructed oyster reef (1996 and 1997), a sand bar (1997) and a natural oyster bar (1997) in the Piankatank River, Chesapeake Bay, USA to describe habitat use, sex ratios, and demographics across a gradient of habitat types. Patterns of blue crab catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE), and demographics were similar on the oyster reef in 1996 and 1997. Average annual CPUE on the reef was 6-8 crabs pot(-1) with maximum CPUE of 15 crabs pot(-1). Daylength and water temperature significantly affected reef CPUE with more crabs observed ...


Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay, January 2009-December 2009 : Annual Progress Report, Leonard S. Machut, Mary C. Fabrizio 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay, January 2009-December 2009 : Annual Progress Report, Leonard S. Machut, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

The 2009 striped bass juvenile abundance index is 8.42 and is not significantly different from the historic average of 7.54. Additional methods of calculating the regional index support this conclusion. Catches in the York River were nearly identical to its historic average. Although the James River catches were higher and the Rappahannock River catches were lower than historic averages, they were not significantly so. Striped bass catches at auxiliary stations provide greater spatial coverage of the nursery grounds and suggest that juvenile striped bass were broadly distributed throughout the sampling area in 2009.


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2009, John A. Lucy, Lewis Gillingham 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2009, John A. Lucy, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2009, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program has maintained a 15-year database for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission/VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under VIMS Sea Grant Marine Extension Program).


The Status Of Virginia's Public Oyster Resource 2009, Melissa Southworth, Juliana Harding, Roger L. Mann 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Status Of Virginia's Public Oyster Resource 2009, Melissa Southworth, Juliana Harding, Roger L. Mann

Reports

This report summarizes data collected during 2009 in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay. The report is composed of two parts, part one, oyster recruitment (shell string) in Virginia and part two, dredge survey of selected oyster bars in Virginia.


2010 Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation And Management Plan (Ccmp), Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2010 University of New Hampshire

2010 Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation And Management Plan (Ccmp), Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership

PREP Reports & Publications

In the fall of 2010, the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) completed an 18-month effort to understand current and future environmental issues affecting the Region’s estuaries, to establish realistic goals and objectives for the next 10 years, and to create effective action plans to systematically achieve the shared environmental goals of a broad base of Regional stakeholders.

With input from more than 150 individuals, representing 82 organizations, PREP compiled the 2010 Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP) that lays the foundation for work over the next decade to protect and restore the Region’s estuaries and associated ...


2010 Piscataqua Region Comprehensive : Executive Summary, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2010 University of New Hampshire

2010 Piscataqua Region Comprehensive : Executive Summary, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership

PREP Reports & Publications

In the fall of 2010, the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) completed an 18-month effort to understand current and future environmental issues affecting the Region’s estuaries, to establish realistic goals and objectives for the next 10 years, and to create effective action plans to systematically achieve the shared environmental goals of a broad base of Regional stakeholders.

With input from more than 150 individuals, representing 82 organizations, PREP compiled the 2010 Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP) that lays the foundation for work over the next decade to protect and restore the Region’s estuaries and associated ...


Regional Management Units For Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework For Prioritizing Conservation And Research Across Multiple Scales, Bryan P. Wallace, John A. Musick 2010 et al

Regional Management Units For Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework For Prioritizing Conservation And Research Across Multiple Scales, Bryan P. Wallace, John A. Musick

VIMS Articles

Background: Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques - including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry - can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings: To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all ...


Evolutionary Characters, Phenotypes And Ontologies: Curating Data From The Systematic Biology Literature, Wasila M. Dahdul, Eric J. Hilton 2010 et al

Evolutionary Characters, Phenotypes And Ontologies: Curating Data From The Systematic Biology Literature, Wasila M. Dahdul, Eric J. Hilton

VIMS Articles

Background: The wealth of phenotypic descriptions documented in the published articles, monographs, and dissertations of phylogenetic systematics is traditionally reported in a free-text format, and it is therefore largely inaccessible for linkage to biological databases for genetics, development, and phenotypes, and difficult to manage for large-scale integrative work. The Phenoscape project aims to represent these complex and detailed descriptions with rich and formal semantics that are amenable to computation and integration with phenotype data from other fields of biology. This entails reconceptualizing the traditional free-text characters into the computable Entity-Quality (EQ) formalism using ontologies. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used ontologies ...


Increased Ocean Carbon Export In The Sargasso Sea Linked To Climate Variability Is Countered By Its Enhanced Mesopelagic Attenuation, M. W. Lomas, Deborah K. Steinberg, T. Dickey, C.A. Carlson, N.B. Nelson, R.H. Condon, N.R. Bates 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Increased Ocean Carbon Export In The Sargasso Sea Linked To Climate Variability Is Countered By Its Enhanced Mesopelagic Attenuation, M. W. Lomas, Deborah K. Steinberg, T. Dickey, C.A. Carlson, N.B. Nelson, R.H. Condon, N.R. Bates

VIMS Articles

Photosynthetic CO(2) uptake by oceanic phytoplankton and subsequent export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean interior comprises a globally significant biological carbon pump, controlled in part by the composition of the planktonic community. The strength and efficiency of this pump depends upon the balance of particle production in the euphotic zone and remineralization of those particles in the mesopelagic (defined here as depths between 150 and 300 m), but how these processes respond to climate-driven changes in the physical environment is not completely understood. In the Sargasso Sea, from similar to 1996-2007, we have observed a decade-long ...


Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa de Melo, Kimberly S. Reece 2010 et al

Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuca (Para state) to Santos (Sao Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceara state) to Florianopolis ...


Net Removal Of Nitrogen Through Ingestion Of Phytoplankton By Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia Tyrannus In Chesapeake Bay, Patrick D. Lynch, Mark J. Brush, Elizabeth D. Condon, Robert J. Latour 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Net Removal Of Nitrogen Through Ingestion Of Phytoplankton By Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia Tyrannus In Chesapeake Bay, Patrick D. Lynch, Mark J. Brush, Elizabeth D. Condon, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

As filter-feeding planktivores, Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus have the potential to influence water quality through ingestion of phytoplankton and assimilation of resultant nutrients. To evaluate the influence of young-of-the-year (YOY) and age-1+ menhaden in Chesapeake Bay, rates of phytoplankton (chl a) ingestion and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) excretion were measured experimentally across varying phytoplankton concentrations. Ingestion rates of YOY menhaden increased (0.03 to 185 mu g chl a fish(-1) min(-1)) in response to increasing phytoplankton concentration (4.98 to 198.22 mu g chl a l(-1)), while age-1+ menhaden exhibited virtually no ingestion of the phytoplankton ...


Growth, Reproductive Condition, And Digestive Tubule Atrophy Of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas In Gamakman Bay Off The Southern Coast Of Korea, DH Kang, Fu-Lin E. Chu, HS Yang, CH Lee, CH Lee, HB Koh, KS Choi 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Growth, Reproductive Condition, And Digestive Tubule Atrophy Of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas In Gamakman Bay Off The Southern Coast Of Korea, Dh Kang, Fu-Lin E. Chu, Hs Yang, Ch Lee, Ch Lee, Hb Koh, Ks Choi

VIMS Articles

Spat of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were collected from Gamakman Bay, Korea, and raised in a spat hardening facility located in the low intertidal zone of the bay for a "hardening/stunting" period of 10 mo. Seasonal changes in growth, reproductive condition, and digestive tubule atrophy (DTA) of these "hardened/stunted" oysters were monitored for more than a year after transplanting to a suspended longline system in a grow-out area in the bay. After transplantation, the hardened/stunted oysters showed a logarithmic increase in shell size for the first 4 mo, from June to October, and growth remained stable from ...


A Comparison Of Crassostrea Virginica And C. Ariakensis In Chesapeake Bay: Does Oyster Species Affect Habitat Function?, HD Harwell, PR Kingsley-Smith, M. Lisa Kellogg, Standish K. Allen Jr., DW Meritt, Kennedy Paynter, Mark Luckenbach 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Comparison Of Crassostrea Virginica And C. Ariakensis In Chesapeake Bay: Does Oyster Species Affect Habitat Function?, Hd Harwell, Pr Kingsley-Smith, M. Lisa Kellogg, Standish K. Allen Jr., Dw Meritt, Kennedy Paynter, Mark Luckenbach

VIMS Articles

We examined the possibility that a nonnative oyster species would provide an ecologically functional equivalent of the native oyster species if introduced into the Chesapeake Bay. Habitat complexity and associated benthic communities of experimental triploid Crassostrea virginica and Crassostrea ariakensis reefs were investigated at 4 sites of varying salinity, tidal regime, water depth, predation intensity, and disease pressure in the Chesapeake Bay region (Maryland and Virginia). Four experimental treatments were established at each site: C. virginica, C. ariakensis, 50:50 of C. virginica and C. ariakensis, and shell only. Abundance, biomass, species richness, evenness, dominance, and diversity of reef-associated fauna ...


Assessing The Apparent Imbalance Between Geochemical And Biochemical Indicators Of Meso- And Bathypelagic Biological Activity: What The @$#! Is Wrong With Present Calculations Of Carbon Budgets?, AB Burd, DA Hansell, DK Steinberg, TR Anderson, J Aristegui 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Assessing The Apparent Imbalance Between Geochemical And Biochemical Indicators Of Meso- And Bathypelagic Biological Activity: What The @$#! Is Wrong With Present Calculations Of Carbon Budgets?, Ab Burd, Da Hansell, Dk Steinberg, Tr Anderson, J Aristegui

VIMS Articles

Metabolic activity in the water column below the euphotic zone is ultimately fuelled by the vertical flux of organic material from the surface. Over time, the deep ocean is presumably at steady state, with sources and sinks balanced. But recently compiled global budgets and intensive local field studies suggest that estimates of metabolic activity in the dark ocean exceed the influx of organic substrates. This imbalance indicates either the existence of unaccounted sources of organic carbon or that metabolic activity in the dark ocean is being over-estimated. Budgets of organic carbon flux and metabolic activity in the dark ocean have ...


Phocine Distemper Virus Induced Demyelination In The Spinal Cord Of Infected Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina), Thomas Siemens 2010 University of New England

Phocine Distemper Virus Induced Demyelination In The Spinal Cord Of Infected Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina), Thomas Siemens

All Theses And Dissertations

Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) is a Morbillivirus that has been responsible for the death of approximately 40,000 phocid seals in the last three decades. The most commonly reported pathology is virally induced demyelination of the cerebrum and brainstem which leaves axons bare and limits their conductivity of action potentials. While these conditions have been studied at length, there is little mention of spinal cord involvement. This study aims to determine whether demyelination found in the brainstem continues into the cervical spinal cord. The results indicate that demyelination in the cervical spinal cord does not occur alongside the brainstem. It ...


Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica, Gmelin 1791) Population Dynamics On Public Reefs In The Great Wicomico River, Virginia, Usa, Melissa Southworth, Juliana M. Harding, James A. Wesson, Roger L. Mann 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica, Gmelin 1791) Population Dynamics On Public Reefs In The Great Wicomico River, Virginia, Usa, Melissa Southworth, Juliana M. Harding, James A. Wesson, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

We describe oyster population trends in the Great Wicomico River, VA, from 2000 through 2009 using quantitative fishery independent survey data collected using a stratified random design. The seven public reefs examined cover a total of 2.8 X 10(5) m(2) and vary in individual size from 1.36 X 10(4) to 7.16 X 10(4) m(2). The river is functionally divided by a sand spit into upriver and downriver regions. Oyster densities on the upriver reefs were typically an order of magnitude higher than densities on the downriver reefs within the same time period ...


Dynamics And Distribution Of Natural And Human-Caused Hypoxia, N. N. Rabalais, Robert J. Diaz, L.A. Levin, R.E. Turner, D. Gilbert, J. Zhang 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Dynamics And Distribution Of Natural And Human-Caused Hypoxia, N. N. Rabalais, Robert J. Diaz, L.A. Levin, R.E. Turner, D. Gilbert, J. Zhang

VIMS Articles

Water masses can become undersaturated with oxygen when natural processes alone or in combination with anthropogenic processes produce enough organic carbon that is aerobically decomposed faster than the rate of oxygen re-aeration. The dominant natural processes usually involved are photosynthetic carbon production and microbial respiration. The re-supply rate is indirectly related to its isolation from the surface layer. Hypoxic water masses (< 2 mg L-1, or approximately 30% saturation) can form, therefore, under 'natural' conditions, and are more likely to occur in marine systems when the water residence time is extended, water exchange and ventilation are minimal, stratification occurs, and where carbon production and export to the bottom layer are relatively high. Hypoxia has occurred through geological time and naturally occurs in oxygen minimum zones, deep basins, eastern boundary upwelling systems, and fjords. Hypoxia development and continuation in many areas of the world's coastal ocean is accelerated by human activities, especially where nutrient loading increased in the Anthropocene. This higher loading set in motion a cascading set of events related to eutrophication. The formation of hypoxic areas has been exacerbated by any combination of interactions that increase primary production and accumulation of organic carbon leading to increased respiratory demand for oxygen below a seasonal or permanent pycnocline. Nutrient loading is likely to increase further as population growth and resource intensification rises, especially with increased dependency on crops using fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels, urbanization, and waste water generation. It is likely that the occurrence and persistence of hypoxia will be even more widespread and have more impacts than presently observed. Global climate change will further complicate the causative factors in both natural and human-caused hypoxia. The likelihood of strengthened stratification alone, from increased surface water temperature as the global climate warms, is sufficient to worsen hypoxia where it currently exists and facilitate its formation in additional waters. Increased precipitation that increases freshwater discharge and flux of nutrients will result in increased primary production in the receiving waters up to a point. The interplay of increased nutrients and stratification where they occur will aggravate and accelerate hypoxia. Changes in wind fields may expand oxygen minimum zones onto more continental shelf areas. On the other hand, not all regions will experience increased precipitation, some oceanic water temperatures may decrease as currents shift, and frequency and severity of tropical storms may increase and temporarily disrupt hypoxia more often. The consequences of global warming and climate change are effectively uncontrollable at least in the near term. On the other hand, the consequences of eutrophication-induced hypoxia can be reversed if long-term, broad-scale, and persistent efforts to reduce substantial nutrient loads are developed and implemented. In the face of globally expanding hypoxia, there is a need for water and resource managers to act now to reduce nutrient loads to maintain, at least, the current status.


Autotrophic Picoplankton In Mesozooplankton Guts: Evidence Of Aggregate Feeding In The Mesopelagic Zone And Export Of Small Phytoplankton, S. E. Wilson, D. K. Steinberg 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Autotrophic Picoplankton In Mesozooplankton Guts: Evidence Of Aggregate Feeding In The Mesopelagic Zone And Export Of Small Phytoplankton, S. E. Wilson, D. K. Steinberg

VIMS Articles

Zooplankton play a key role in affecting the efficiency by which organic matter is exported to depth. Mesozooplankton consumption of detrital aggregates has been hypothesized as a mechanism for enhancing the export of picoplankton from surface layers. We analyzed the gut contents of mesopelagic copepods and ostracods using light and epifluorescence microscopy to determine if cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phytoplankton too small to be ingested individually were present. Hind-guts were dissected from multiple species collected in discrete depth intervals between 0 and 1000 m during the day and night, at contrasting sites in the subtropical (Hawaii Ocean Time-series site ALOHA) and ...


Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, YW Luo, MAM Friedrichs, SC Doney, MJ Church, HW Ducklow 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, Yw Luo, Mam Friedrichs, Sc Doney, Mj Church, Hw Ducklow

VIMS Articles

Previous studies have focused on the role of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) (defined as turnover time of similar to 1 d) in supporting heterotrophic bacterial production, but have mostly neglected semilabile DOM (defined as turnover time of similar to 100 to 1000 d) as a potential substrate for heterotrophic bacterial growth. To test the hypothesis that semilabile DOM supports substantial amounts of heterotrophic bacterial production in the open ocean, we constructed a 1-dimensional epipelagic ecosystem model and applied it to 3 open ocean sites: the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The ...


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