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Effects Of Shoe Outsole Design And Incline On Walking Biomechanics, Sarah Horsch, Janet Dufek 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Effects Of Shoe Outsole Design And Incline On Walking Biomechanics, Sarah Horsch, Janet Dufek

Interdisciplinary Research Scholarship Day

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of incline at foot contact of treadmill walking between rounded outsole (ROS) and traditional outsole (TOS) shoes. A rounded outsole shoe (ROS) is specifically designed with a fulcrum under the sole so that when the mass of the body is over it, the foot is forced to roll anteriorly. Traditional ROS studies have included analyses on bipedal stance single leg standing, muscle
activity during treadmill walking, kinetics during over ground walking, and kinematics after a 6-week accommodation period. Presently, there is no research comparing a ROS and a TOS at …


New Perspectives In Human Movement Variability, Thurmon Lockhart, Nikolaos Stergiou 2013 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

New Perspectives In Human Movement Variability, Thurmon Lockhart, Nikolaos Stergiou

Journal Articles

Movement variability is defined as the normal variations that occur in motor performance across multiple repetitions of a task.2 Bernstein1 described movement variability quite eloquently as ‘‘repetition without repetition.’’ Traditionally, movement variability has been linked to noise and error, being considered to be random and independent. This theoretical approach blends well with traditional statistical and assessment methods of movement variability that assume randomness and independence of observations. However, numerous studies have indicated that when movement is observed over time variations are closely related with each other neither being random nor independent. Practically, traditional methods can mask the temporal structure of …


Sitting Postural Control In Infants With Typical Development, Motor Delay, Or Cerebral Palsy, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Regina T. Harbourne, Sandra L. Willett, Nikolaos Stergiou 2013 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Sitting Postural Control In Infants With Typical Development, Motor Delay, Or Cerebral Palsy, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Regina T. Harbourne, Sandra L. Willett, Nikolaos Stergiou

Journal Articles

Purpose: To determine whether infants born full-term, infants born preterm with motor delays, and infants born preterm who have a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP) differed in postural control at the emergence of early sitting.

Methods: Thirty infants born at term who were developing typically, 6 infants born preterm who were later diagnosed with CP, and 5 infants born preterm who were delayed in motor development participated in this study. Center-of-pressure data from unsupported sitting were recorded and analyzed using measures of both amount and temporal organization of center-of-pressure variability.

Results: Infants born full-term, infants born preterm …


Transtibial Amputee Joint Motion Has Increased Attractor Divergence During Walking Compared To Non-Amputee Gait, Shane R. Wurdeman, Sara A. Myers, Nikolaos Stergiou 2013 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Transtibial Amputee Joint Motion Has Increased Attractor Divergence During Walking Compared To Non-Amputee Gait, Shane R. Wurdeman, Sara A. Myers, Nikolaos Stergiou

Journal Articles

The amputation and subsequent prosthetic rehabilitation of a lower leg affects gait. Dynamical systems theory would predict the use of a prosthetic device should alter the functional attractor dynamics to which the system self-organizes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the largest Lyapunov exponent (a nonlinear tool for assessing attractor dynamics) for amputee gait compared to healthy non-amputee individuals. Fourteen unilateral, transtibial amputees and fourteen healthy, non-amputee individuals ambulated on a treadmill at preferred, self-selected walking speed. Our results showed that the sound hip (p = 0.013), sound knee (p = 0.05), and prosthetic ankle …


Enhancing Fundamental Robot-Assisted Surgical Proficiency By Using A Portable Virtual Simulator, Jung Hung Chien, I. H. Suh, Shi-Huyn Park, Mukul Mukherjee, D. Oleynikov, Ka-Chun Siu 2013 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Enhancing Fundamental Robot-Assisted Surgical Proficiency By Using A Portable Virtual Simulator, Jung Hung Chien, I. H. Suh, Shi-Huyn Park, Mukul Mukherjee, D. Oleynikov, Ka-Chun Siu

Journal Articles

Background. The development of a virtual reality (VR) training platform provides an affordable interface. The learning effect of VR and the capability of skill transfer from the VR environment to clinical tasks require more investigation.

Methods. Here, 14 medical students performed 2 fundamental surgical tasks—bimanual carrying (BC) and peg transfer (PT)—in actual and virtual environments. Participants in the VR group received VR training, whereas participants in the control group played a 3D game. The learning effect was examined by comparing kinematics between pretraining and posttraining in the da Vinci Surgical System. Differences between VR and playing the 3D game were …


Motor Control Of The Lower Extremity Musculature In Children With Cerebral Palsy, David J. Arpin, Wayne A. Stuberg, Nick Stergiou, Max J. Kurz 2013 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Motor Control Of The Lower Extremity Musculature In Children With Cerebral Palsy, David J. Arpin, Wayne A. Stuberg, Nick Stergiou, Max J. Kurz

Journal Articles

The aim of this investigation was to quantify the differences in torque steadiness and variability of the muscular control in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) children. Fifteen children with CP (age = 14.2 ± 0.7 years) that had a Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) score of I-III and 15 age and gender matched TD children (age = 14.1 ± 0.7 years) participated in this investigation. The participants performed submaximal steady-state isometric contractions with the ankle, knee, and hip while surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the steady-state isometric torques …


Lower Extremity Biomechanics During Single Leg Drop Landings In Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain, Stacey L. Gaven 2013 Old Dominion University

Lower Extremity Biomechanics During Single Leg Drop Landings In Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain, Stacey L. Gaven

Human Movement Sciences & Special Education Theses & Dissertations

Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is one of the most common afflictions of the active population. While etiological factors encompassing the entire lower extremity have been associated with PFP, participation in athletic activities while fatigued may further influence abnormal biomechanics in individuals with this condition. The aim of Project I was to investigate the lower extremity (LE) biomechanics during a single leg(SL) drop landing in individuals with and without PFP. Project II aimed to investigate the LE biomechanics of individuals with PFP during a SL drop landing pre and post an aerobic exercise protocol. Project 111 investigated the LE biomechanics of …


An Informational Algorithm As The Basis For Perception-Action Control Of The Instantaneous Axes Of The Knee, Wangdo Kim, Margarida M. Espanha, António P. Veloso, Duarte Araújo, Filipa João, Luis Carrão, Sean S. Kohles 2013 Portland State University

An Informational Algorithm As The Basis For Perception-Action Control Of The Instantaneous Axes Of The Knee, Wangdo Kim, Margarida M. Espanha, António P. Veloso, Duarte Araújo, Filipa João, Luis Carrão, Sean S. Kohles

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Traditional locomotion studies emphasize an optimization of the desired movement trajectories while ignoring sensory feedback. We propose an information based theory that locomotion is neither triggered nor commanded but controlled. The basis for this control is the information derived from perceiving oneself in the world. Control therefore lies in the human-environment system. In order to test this hypothesis, we derived a mathematical foundation characterizing the energy that is required to perform a rotational twist, with small amplitude, of the instantaneous axes of the knee (IAK). We have found that the joint’s perception of the ground reaction force may be replaced …


A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce The Metabolic Cost Of Human Walking, Philippe Malcolm, Wim Derave, Samuel Galle, Dirk De Clercq 2013 Ghent University

A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce The Metabolic Cost Of Human Walking, Philippe Malcolm, Wim Derave, Samuel Galle, Dirk De Clercq

Journal Articles

Background

Even though walking can be sustained for great distances, considerable energy is required for plantarflexion around the instant of opposite leg heel contact. Different groups attempted to reduce metabolic cost with exoskeletons but none could achieve a reduction beyond the level of walking without exoskeleton, possibly because there is no consensus on the optimal actuation timing. The main research question of our study was whether it is possible to obtain a higher reduction in metabolic cost by tuning the actuation timing.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We measured metabolic cost by means of respiratory gas analysis. Test subjects walked with a simple …


A Comparison Of Upper Extremity Function Between Female Breast Cancer Survivors And Healthy Controls: Typical Self-Report Of Function, Motion, Strength, And Muscular Endurance, Mary Insana Fisher 2013 University of Dayton

A Comparison Of Upper Extremity Function Between Female Breast Cancer Survivors And Healthy Controls: Typical Self-Report Of Function, Motion, Strength, And Muscular Endurance, Mary Insana Fisher

Physical Therapy Faculty Publications

Many women who have experienced breast cancer (BC) report continued impairments in upper extremity (UE) function beyond the time required for normal healing after surgical treatment. Most research supporting this has not made comparisons between survivors of breast cancer (BCS) to a sample of healthy women. This lack of comparison to a healthy cohort prevents an understanding of whether continued deficits in UE function are due to normal aging or the BC treatment.

The purpose of this research was to compare quality of life (QOL) and UE function among long term breast cancer survivors and similar aged women without cancer. …


Temporal Structure Of Variability Decreases In Upper Extremity Movements Post Stroke, Amit Sethi, Tara Patterson, Theresa McGuirk, Carolynn Patten, Lorie G. Richards, Nikolaos Stergiou 2013 University of Texas Medical Branch

Temporal Structure Of Variability Decreases In Upper Extremity Movements Post Stroke, Amit Sethi, Tara Patterson, Theresa Mcguirk, Carolynn Patten, Lorie G. Richards, Nikolaos Stergiou

Journal Articles

Methods: Sixteen participants with chronic stroke and nine age-matched controls performed three trials of functional reach-to-grasp. The amount of variability was quantified by computing the standard deviation of shoulder, elbow, wrist and index finger flexion/extension joint angles. The temporal structure of variability was determined by calculating approximate entropy in shoulder, elbow, wrist and index finger flexion/extension joint angles.

Findings: Individuals with stroke demonstrated greater standard deviations and significantly reduced approximate entropy values as compared to controls. Furthermore, motor impairments and kinematics demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with temporal structure of variability.

Interpretation: Changes in the temporal structure of variability in …


Stroke Survivors Control The Temporal Structure Of Variability During Reaching In Dynamic Environments, Mukul Mukherjee, Panagiotis Koutakis, K.-C. Siu, Pierre B. Fayad, Nikolaos Stergiou 2013 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Stroke Survivors Control The Temporal Structure Of Variability During Reaching In Dynamic Environments, Mukul Mukherjee, Panagiotis Koutakis, K.-C. Siu, Pierre B. Fayad, Nikolaos Stergiou

Journal Articles

Learning to control forces is known to reduce the amount of movement variability (e.g., standard deviation; SD) while also altering the temporal structure of movement variability (e.g., approximate entropy; ApEn). Such variability control has not been explored in stroke survivors during reaching movements in dynamic environments. Whether augmented feedback affects such variability control, is also unknown. Chronic stroke survivors, assigned randomly to a control/experimental group, learned reaching movements in a dynamically changing environment while receiving either true feedback of their movement (control) or augmented visual feedback (experimental). Hand movement variability was analyzed using SD and ApEn. A significant change in …


The Appropriate Use Of Approximate Entropy And Sample Entropy With Short Data Sets, Jenna M. Yentes, Nathaniel Hunt, Kendra K. Schmid, Jeffrey P. Kaipust, Denise McGrath, Nikolaos Stergiou 2013 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Appropriate Use Of Approximate Entropy And Sample Entropy With Short Data Sets, Jenna M. Yentes, Nathaniel Hunt, Kendra K. Schmid, Jeffrey P. Kaipust, Denise Mcgrath, Nikolaos Stergiou

Journal Articles

Approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) are mathematical algorithms created to measure the repeatability or predictability within a time series. Both algorithms are extremely sensitive to their input parameters: m (length of the data segment being compared), r (similarity criterion), and N (length of data). There is no established consensus on parameter selection in short data sets, especially for biological data. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine the robustness of these two entropy algorithms by exploring the effect of changing parameter values on short data sets. Data with known theoretical entropy qualities as well as experimental …


Changes In The Activation And Function Of The Ankle Plantar Flexor Muscles Due To Gait Retraining In Chronic Stroke Survivors, Brian A. Knarr, Trisha M. Kesar, Darcy S. Reiman, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod 2013 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Changes In The Activation And Function Of The Ankle Plantar Flexor Muscles Due To Gait Retraining In Chronic Stroke Survivors, Brian A. Knarr, Trisha M. Kesar, Darcy S. Reiman, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod

Journal Articles

Background

A common goal of persons post-stroke is to regain community ambulation. The plantar flexor muscles play an important role in propulsion generation and swing initiation as previous musculoskeletal simulations have shown. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that simulation results quantifying changes in plantar flexor activation and function in individuals post-stroke were consistent with (1) the purpose of an intervention designed to enhance plantar flexor function and (2) expected muscle function during gait based on previous literature.

Methods

Three-dimensional, forward dynamic simulations were created to determine the changes in model activation and function of the paretic ankle …


Role Of Satellite Cells In Long Term Fiber Type Shifts, Honglu Liu 2013 University of Kentucky

Role Of Satellite Cells In Long Term Fiber Type Shifts, Honglu Liu

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

Muscle fiber type shifts in respect to satellite cells, muscle stem cells, are not well understood currently. The Peterson Lab has generated a mouse model (PAX7-DTA) that ablates satellite cells to determine if these muscle stem cells contribute to mouse muscle fiber type changes over an eight week period. In the study, control and satellite-cell-ablated mouse groups were split into control and overload groups (via synergist ablation surgery) and placed under similar environmental conditions. Eight weeks post-experiment, muscles were dissected to obtain the plantaris muscles of animals from all groups. Muscle cross-sections obtained were immunohistochemically stained, imaged, quantified by fiber …


Whole-Body Vibration Improves Functional Mobility, Flexibility, And Relative Risk For Falling In The Assisted Living Elderly: A Case Series, Christina Garrity, Harold L. Merriman, C. Jayne Brahler 2013 University of Dayton

Whole-Body Vibration Improves Functional Mobility, Flexibility, And Relative Risk For Falling In The Assisted Living Elderly: A Case Series, Christina Garrity, Harold L. Merriman, C. Jayne Brahler

Physical Therapy Faculty Publications

Study design: A randomized double blind repeated measures, case series study of whole body vibration (WBV) in the assisted living elderly.

Background: A single exposure to WBV has been shown to have benefit with respect to muscle activity, strength, balance, and power in some studies while other studies have found no benefit. Its overall effectiveness is unknown due to the conflicting findings reported in the literature.

Case description: Six subjects (5 female, 1 male; mean age = 85.4) in an assisted living community volunteered to participate. Subjects were exposed to a single bout of WBV at 0, 2, 20, and …


Modulation Of Cell-Matrix Interaction For Cryopreservation Of Engineered Tissue, Angela Christine Seawright 2013 Purdue University

Modulation Of Cell-Matrix Interaction For Cryopreservation Of Engineered Tissue, Angela Christine Seawright

Open Access Theses

Long term preservation of functional engineered tissues can significantly advance tissue engineering industry and regenerative medicine. Several preservation techniques have been proposed and investigated for this purpose, and cryopreservation is a leading candidate. While tissues are cryopreserved, ice forms in both the extracellular and intracellular spaces and causes freezing-induced spatiotemporal deformation of the tissue. During this process the cells undergo dehydration by the freezing-induced osmotic pressure difference and mechanical deformation, transmitted through cell-extracellular matrix adhesions. However, the significance and interaction of these cellular level transport and mechanics processes are not well understood. Therefore, this study aims to establish mechanistic understanding …


Modeling Of Legged Locomotion With A Suspended Load In The Sagittal Plane, Karna P. Potwar 2013 Purdue University

Modeling Of Legged Locomotion With A Suspended Load In The Sagittal Plane, Karna P. Potwar

Open Access Theses

Walking or running while carrying loads has always been a tedious task, more so when the loads are heavy. Such a task of carrying loads not only requires extra effort but also leads to physical pain and in some cases injury. Prior studies on human locomotion with a suspended load have used models that are restricted in their DOFs and so are not able to take into account the fore aft movement in human beings. The objective of this thesis is to model the dynamics of sagittal plane center-of-mass locomotion with a suspended load and apply findings to carrying loads …


Implementing Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (Pogil) In Undergraduate Biomechanics: Lessons Learned By A Novice, Shawn R. Simonson, Susan E. Shadle 2013 Boise State University

Implementing Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (Pogil) In Undergraduate Biomechanics: Lessons Learned By A Novice, Shawn R. Simonson, Susan E. Shadle

Kinesiology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Process Oriented Guided Inquiry (POGIL) uses cooperative learning activities to teach content and to actively engage students in inquiry, analytical thinking, and teamwork. It has been used extensively in Chemistry education, but its use is not well documented in other areas. This is a summary of the initial implementation of POGIL in a university biomechanics course and includes the benefits, challenges, and recommendations for teachers interested in using this effective instructional strategy.


A Perspective On Human Movement Variability With Applications In Infancy Motor Development, Nikolaos Stergiou, Yawen Yu, Anastasia Kyvelidou 2013 University of Nebraska at Omaha

A Perspective On Human Movement Variability With Applications In Infancy Motor Development, Nikolaos Stergiou, Yawen Yu, Anastasia Kyvelidou

Journal Articles

Movement variability is considered essential to typical motor development. However, multiple theoretical perspectives and measurement tools have limited interpretation of the importance of movement variability in biological systems. The complementary use of linear and nonlinear measures have recently allowed for the evaluation of not only the magnitude of variability but also the temporal structure of variability. As a result, the theoretical model of optimal movement variability was introduced. The model suggests that the development of healthy and highly adaptable systems relies on the achievement of an optimal state of variability. Alternatively, abnormal development may be characterized by a narrow range …


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