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Leg Stiffness And The Metabolic Cost Of Hopping With Different Exoskeleton Spring Stiffness Profiles In Parallel To The Legs, Stephen Allen 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Leg Stiffness And The Metabolic Cost Of Hopping With Different Exoskeleton Spring Stiffness Profiles In Parallel To The Legs, Stephen Allen

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

A previous study found that when humans hop on both legs with exoskeletal springs in parallel with the legs, net metabolic power decreases compared to normal hopping. Further, they retained near constant overall vertical stiffness. Here, I quantified the biomechanics and metabolic costs of 10 subjects (3F) who hopped on both legs normally and using a passive-elastic exoskeleton with three different spring stiffness profiles in parallel to the legs at 2.4-3.0 Hz. The springs had degressive (DG – stiff then compliant), linear (LN), or progressive (PG – compliant then stiff) stiffness. Compared to normal hopping (NH) at 2.4 – 3 ...


Independent Contributions Of Supporting Body Weight And Accelerating Body Mass To Metabolic Power During Walking On Uphill And Downhill Slopes, Claire Zora Zai 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Independent Contributions Of Supporting Body Weight And Accelerating Body Mass To Metabolic Power During Walking On Uphill And Downhill Slopes, Claire Zora Zai

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The metabolic cost of walking is partially determined by the muscle force needed to support body weight and the muscle work needed to redirect and accelerate the center of mass (CoM). During level-ground walking, ~28% of the net metabolic power (NMP) is due to supporting body weight and ~45% is due to performing CoM work. We hypothesized that supporting body weight would incur a greater percentage of NMP for uphill and a lower percentage of NMP for downhill compared to level-ground walking. Additionally, we hypothesized that performing work incur a greater percentage of NMP for uphill and a lower percentage ...


Injury And Illness In Marching Band And Color Guard Members And The Need For Athletic Trainers: A Critically Appraised Topic, Alissa C. Rhode 2017 Saginaw Valley State University

Injury And Illness In Marching Band And Color Guard Members And The Need For Athletic Trainers: A Critically Appraised Topic, Alissa C. Rhode

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: To determine the prevalence, incidence, risk, rate, and type of injury and illness suffered by collegiate and high school marching band (MB) and color guard (CG) members and determine if there is a need for medical coverage. Methods: Articles were identified from: PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Physical Therapy and Sports Medicine Collection, ScienceDirect, and single-citation matching using search string, ["marching band" OR "color guard" OR "marching athlete" AND injury] from January 1990-to-October 2016, resulting in 141 articles. Following screening (title, abstract), six articles were reviewed. Four met these inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, cross-sectional studies, (2) high school or collegiate-aged members ...


The Head Shake Sensory Organization Test (Hs-Sot): Normative Data And Correlation With Dynamic Visual Acuity Testing, Andrea E. Cripps, Scott C. Livingston 2017 Bowling Green State University

The Head Shake Sensory Organization Test (Hs-Sot): Normative Data And Correlation With Dynamic Visual Acuity Testing, Andrea E. Cripps, Scott C. Livingston

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Background: Among healthy (asymptomatic) subjects and patients, the relationship between performance on the Head Shake Sensory Organization Test (HS-SOT) and performance on the Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) testing has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for the HS-SOT and compare performance on the HS-SOT and the DVA test. Hypothesis: A strong positive correlation would exist between the DVA and the HS-SOT. Study Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Sixty asymptomatic subjects (34 females, 26 males, ages 20 to 26 years, 23.7±1.6) participated. Each subject ...


Utilization Of Cupping Therapy In The Treatment Of Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome In A Collegiate Pitcher: A Case Study, Stephen A. Cage, Diana M. Gallegos, Brandon J. Warner 2017 The University of Texas at Tyler

Utilization Of Cupping Therapy In The Treatment Of Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome In A Collegiate Pitcher: A Case Study, Stephen A. Cage, Diana M. Gallegos, Brandon J. Warner

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Objective: Present a clinical case detailing the effectiveness of dry cupping therapy in treating thoracic outlet syndrome. The utilization of dry cupping therapy on a 20-year-old collegiate baseball pitcher with diagnosed thoracic outlet syndrome is presented. Background: Thoracic outlet syndrome is a relatively rare musculoskeletal condition affecting 1/100,000 patients annually. Dry cupping therapy is an ancient therapeutic modality that utilizes various means of suction with the goal of decompressing myofascial layers. Treatment: Following diagnosis, patient was successfully treated in two weeks using dry cupping therapy. The patient experienced no further incidence of thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms and was ...


Athletic Trainers’ Knowledge Of Legal Practice Within Information Technology And Social Media, Elizabeth R. Neil, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Lindsey E. Eberman 2017 Indiana State University

Athletic Trainers’ Knowledge Of Legal Practice Within Information Technology And Social Media, Elizabeth R. Neil, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Lindsey E. Eberman

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: As healthcare and technology continue to connect in daily practice, athletic trainers (ATs) must be knowledgeable of the governing acts for ethical and legal clinical practice. This is vital to ensure ethical and legal practice as a clinician and protection of confidential protected health information (PHI). The objective of this study was to assess certified athletic trainers’ knowledge of regulations within technology and social media (SoMe). Methods: Certified ATs were recruited from the National Athletic Trainers’ Association membership database. Respondents completed an instrument of 28 questions, including 16 participant demographics, clinical site demographics, SoMe usage and general questions, and ...


Mechanics Of The Developing Brain: From Smooth-Walled Tube To The Folded Cortex, Kara Ellspermann Garcia 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Mechanics Of The Developing Brain: From Smooth-Walled Tube To The Folded Cortex, Kara Ellspermann Garcia

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Over the course of human development, the brain undergoes dramatic physical changes to achieve its final, convoluted shape. However, the forces underlying every cinch, bulge, and fold remain poorly understood. This doctoral research focuses on the mechanical processes responsible for early (embryonic) and late (preterm) brain development.

First, we examine early brain development in the chicken embryo, which is similar to human at these stages. Research has primarily focused on molecular signals to describe morphogenesis, but mechanical analysis can also provide important insights. Using a combination of experiments and finite element modeling, we find that actomyosin contraction is responsible for ...


Characterizing Anisotropy In Fibrous Soft Materials By Mr Elastography Of Slow And Fast Shear Waves, John Larson Schmidt 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Characterizing Anisotropy In Fibrous Soft Materials By Mr Elastography Of Slow And Fast Shear Waves, John Larson Schmidt

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

The general objective of this work was to develop experimental methods based on magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to characterize fibrous soft materials. Mathematical models of tissue biomechanics capable of predicting injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), are of great interest and potential. However, the accuracy of predictions from such models depends on accuracy of the underlying material parameters. This dissertation describes work toward three aims. First, experimental methods were designed to characterize fibrous materials based on a transversely isotropic material model. Second, these methods are applied to characterize the anisotropic properties of white matter brain tissue ex vivo. Third ...


Effects Of Direction Time Constraints And Walking Speed On Turn Strategies And Gait Adaptations In Healthy Older And Young Adults, Dennis Torre 2017 Seton Hall University

Effects Of Direction Time Constraints And Walking Speed On Turn Strategies And Gait Adaptations In Healthy Older And Young Adults, Dennis Torre

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Hip fractures can be life-threatening, debilitating, and costly. The odds for hip fracture increases from impact of sideways falls. While turning has been strongly associated with hip fracture & sideways falls, the distinction between the risks for walking-turns as opposed to low-velocity in-place turning is not clear. The present study sought to fill a gap as previous research had not compared walking-turn performance in young & healthy older adults at low-fall risk within the same study and response-conditions of speed interacting with direction-cue time constraints. Spatial-temporal variables representative of AP braking/propulsion (i.e. stride-length & speed) & ML stability (left/right H-H BOS) were collected with the Gaitrite upon approach of a turning zone whose entrance width was just 73 cm; and turn-strategy categorical data for stable wide-BOS step-turns, biomechanically challenging narrow-BOS spin-turns, and combined subtypes of mixed-turns either of the “extra-step” variety representative of an AP stability/braking issue or “small-amplitude” variety representative of a ML stability/balance issue were captured on video. Mixed-ANOVA of gait measures for AP propulsion/braking revealed no age-group differences in speed despite a trend for less of a fast-pace increase in elderly stride-length, yet similar anticipatory ...


Energy Neutral: The Human Foot And Ankle Subsections Combine To Produce Near Zero Net Mechanical Work During Walking, Kota Z. Takahashi, Kate Worster, Dustin A. Bruening 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Energy Neutral: The Human Foot And Ankle Subsections Combine To Produce Near Zero Net Mechanical Work During Walking, Kota Z. Takahashi, Kate Worster, Dustin A. Bruening

Journal Articles

The human foot and ankle system is equipped with structures that can produce mechanical work through elastic (e.g., Achilles tendon, plantar fascia) or viscoelastic (e.g., heel pad) mechanisms, or by active muscle contractions. Yet, quantifying the work distribution among various subsections of the foot and ankle can be difficult, in large part due to a lack of objective methods for partitioning the forces acting underneath the stance foot. In this study, we deconstructed the mechanical work production during barefoot walking in a segment-by-segment manner (hallux, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank). This was accomplished by isolating the forces acting within ...


Measuring Coupling Of Rhythmical Time Series Using Cross Sample Entropy And Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis, John D. McCamley, William Denton, Elizabeth E. Lyden, Jennifer M. Yentes 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Measuring Coupling Of Rhythmical Time Series Using Cross Sample Entropy And Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis, John D. Mccamley, William Denton, Elizabeth E. Lyden, Jennifer M. Yentes

Journal Articles

The aim of this investigation was to compare and contrast the use of cross sample entropy (xSE) and cross recurrence quantification analysis (cRQA) measures for the assessment of coupling of rhythmical patterns. Measures were assessed using simulated signals with regular, chaotic, and random fluctuations in frequency, amplitude, and a combination of both. Biological data were studied as models of normal and abnormal locomotor-respiratory coupling. Nine signal types were generated for seven frequency ratios. Fifteen patients with COPD (abnormal coupling) and twenty-one healthy controls (normal coupling) walked on a treadmill at three speeds while breathing and walking were recorded. xSE and ...


Pertinacity Volume 3 Issue 1, Yuri Hosokawa 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Pertinacity Volume 3 Issue 1, Yuri Hosokawa

Pertinacity

No abstract provided.


Perceived Stress Levels May Impact Upper Extremity Function Among Women Treated For Breast Cancer, Mary Insana Fisher, Ann Fleischer, Lynn Hendricks, Megan McClure, Kim Parent, Renee Roberts 2017 University of Dayton

Perceived Stress Levels May Impact Upper Extremity Function Among Women Treated For Breast Cancer, Mary Insana Fisher, Ann Fleischer, Lynn Hendricks, Megan Mcclure, Kim Parent, Renee Roberts

Physical Therapy Faculty Publications

Purpose/Hypothesis: Women treated for breast cancer report ongoing upper extremity disability with functional limitations; however, objective measures do not appear to explain the extent of perceived dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived stress level, fear of physical activity, self-reported upper extremity function, and objective measures of upper extremity function including range of motion (ROM), strength, and muscular endurance, among women treated for breast cancer.

Number of Subjects: 25

Materials/Methods: Women diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in the past 12-60 months were evaluated using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and ...


Pertinacity Volume 3 Issue 2, Yuri Hosokawa 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Pertinacity Volume 3 Issue 2, Yuri Hosokawa

Pertinacity

No abstract provided.


Human-In-The-Loop Bayesian Optimization Of Wearable Device Parameters, Myunghee Kim, Ye Ding, Philippe Malcolm, Jozefien Speeckaert, Christopher Siviy, Conor J. Walsh 2017 Harvard University

Human-In-The-Loop Bayesian Optimization Of Wearable Device Parameters, Myunghee Kim, Ye Ding, Philippe Malcolm, Jozefien Speeckaert, Christopher Siviy, Conor J. Walsh

Journal Articles

The increasing capabilities of exoskeletons and powered prosthetics for walking assistance have paved the way for more sophisticated and individualized control strategies. In response to this opportunity, recent work on human-in-the-loop optimization has considered the problem of automatically tuning control parameters based on realtime physiological measurements. However, the common use of metabolic cost as a performance metric creates significant experimental challenges due to its long measurement times and low signal-to-noise ratio. We evaluate the use of Bayesian optimization—a family of sample-efficient, noise-tolerant, and global optimization methods—for quickly identifying near-optimal control parameters. To manage experimental complexity and provide comparisons ...


The Runsmart Training Program: Effect On Oxygen Consumption And Lower Extremity Biomechanics During Running, Jennifer Bogulski, Steven Gonser, Doug Bush, Raechel Bugner, Lindsay Clark, Lisa Farrell, Kristen Swanson, Michael Ross 2017 Daemen College

The Runsmart Training Program: Effect On Oxygen Consumption And Lower Extremity Biomechanics During Running, Jennifer Bogulski, Steven Gonser, Doug Bush, Raechel Bugner, Lindsay Clark, Lisa Farrell, Kristen Swanson, Michael Ross

Faculty Articles

As recreational running continues to gain popularity, more individuals are seeking ways to improve running performance. RunSmart is a running intervention program designed to enhance a runner’s form. In addition to correcting flaws in a runner’s form, RunSmart offers the opportunity for runners to continue a regular regimen while slowly integrating changes in form. The purpose of this case series was twofold: to determine if the RunSmart program coincides with improvements in oxygen consumption (VO2), a variable often associated with better running performance times, and to evaluate the RunSmart program in regard to enhancing gait biomechanics. Five ...


Dynamics Of Stride Interval Characteristics During Continuous Stairmill Climbing, Peter C. Raffalt, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Jessica J. Renz, Mukul Mukherjee, Nicholas Stergiou 2017 Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Dynamics Of Stride Interval Characteristics During Continuous Stairmill Climbing, Peter C. Raffalt, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Jessica J. Renz, Mukul Mukherjee, Nicholas Stergiou

Journal Articles

It has been shown that statistical persistence in stride intervals characteristics exist during walking, running and cycling and were speed-dependent among healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if such statistical persistence in stride time interval, stride length and stride speed also exists during self-paced continuous stairmill climbing and if the strength is dependent on stepping rate. Stride time, stride length, and stride speed were collected from nine healthy participants during 3 min of stairmill climbing at 100, 110, and 120% of their preferred stepping rate (PSR) and 5 min of treadmill walking at preferred walking ...


On The Rules For Aquatic Locomotion, M. Saadat, Frank E. Fish, A. G. Domel, G. V. Lauder, H. Haj-Hariri 2017 Harvard University

On The Rules For Aquatic Locomotion, M. Saadat, Frank E. Fish, A. G. Domel, G. V. Lauder, H. Haj-Hariri

Biology Faculty Publications

We present unifying rules governing the efficient locomotion of swimming fish and marine mammals. Using scaling and dimensional analysis, supported by new experimental data, we show that efficient locomotion occurs when the values of the Strouhal (St) number St(=f A/U) and A∗(=A/L), two nondimensional numbers that relate forward speed U, tail-beat amplitude A, tail-beat frequency f , and the length of the swimmer L are bound to the tight ranges of 0.2–0.4 and 0.1–0.3, respectively. The tight range of 0.2–0.4 for the St number has previously been associated ...


The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction

40 million Americans run regularly.1 Contrary to many runner’s beliefs, increased strength may be beneficial while not adding body mass. An increase in strength in specific muscles may improve running gait and performance. 9,6 Strength training may also play an important role in preventing common overuse injuries in running 11,12 Depending on the style of strength training, it may also have an enhanced benefit on running economy.4,16

Participation in CrossFit is also widely popular, with an increase in participation of 923% in the past ten years.2 CrossFit is a type of strength ...


Analysis Of Human Movement Patterns During Endurance Running, Joshua Paul Bailey 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of Human Movement Patterns During Endurance Running, Joshua Paul Bailey

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Endurance running and participation in racing events has flourished over the last decade. Recreational runners enter the training period for an upcoming race at differing levels of fitness and training. As individuals sign-up for the race, they typically follow the commitment with an increase in training load. The increases in training load are accomplished through a combination of increasing mileage, or duration of running, and running intensity through increase velocity. These increases are theoretically being applied in a progressive overload principle, where the musculoskeletal system has time to adapt to the breakdown provided from the previous training session. Progressive overload ...


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