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The Effect Of Added Pole Mass On The Metabolic Cost Of Cross-Country Skiing, Petra Hyncicova 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

The Effect Of Added Pole Mass On The Metabolic Cost Of Cross-Country Skiing, Petra Hyncicova

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The optimal length, mass, and stiffness of poles are still a matter of debate in modern cross-country ski racing. Therefore, this study examined the effect of adding pole mass on the metabolic cost and poling frequency during cross-country skiing with the double poling technique. Twelve sub-elite cross-country skiers performed 5-minute roller skiing trials on a motorized treadmill with three different added masses (50g, 100g, 150g) at the center of mass of the pole and with 100g at pole grip. We calculated metabolic rate from the rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. We measured poling frequency by counting the ...


Leg Stiffness And The Metabolic Cost Of Hopping With Different Exoskeleton Spring Stiffness Profiles In Parallel To The Legs, Stephen Allen 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Leg Stiffness And The Metabolic Cost Of Hopping With Different Exoskeleton Spring Stiffness Profiles In Parallel To The Legs, Stephen Allen

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

A previous study found that when humans hop on both legs with exoskeletal springs in parallel with the legs, net metabolic power decreases compared to normal hopping. Further, they retained near constant overall vertical stiffness. Here, I quantified the biomechanics and metabolic costs of 10 subjects (3F) who hopped on both legs normally and using a passive-elastic exoskeleton with three different spring stiffness profiles in parallel to the legs at 2.4-3.0 Hz. The springs had degressive (DG – stiff then compliant), linear (LN), or progressive (PG – compliant then stiff) stiffness. Compared to normal hopping (NH) at 2.4 – 3 ...


The Effect Of Stride Frequencies On Running Performance At The Velocity Of Vo2max, Boram Lim 2018 Humboldt State University

The Effect Of Stride Frequencies On Running Performance At The Velocity Of Vo2max, Boram Lim

Theses and projects

Running economy(RE) is considered to be a critical factor to improve running performance. Stride frequency(SF) is an important variable for determining RE. The importance of SF has gained more attention in recent years, especially for recreational runners. However, no previous research has investigated the interaction between running performance and SF at the velocity of VO2max. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of five different SF variations on running performance until volitional fatigue at the velocity of VO2max. METHODS: Fourteen male recreational runners (Age = 25.8 ± 4.96 years, Height = 171 ± 6.2cm, Body Mass = 71 ...


Statistics And Biomechanics: An Interdisciplinary Evaluation Of The Mathematical, Practical, And Athletic Applications Of Principal Component Analysis, Sydney Grace Davis 2018 Gardner-Webb University

Statistics And Biomechanics: An Interdisciplinary Evaluation Of The Mathematical, Practical, And Athletic Applications Of Principal Component Analysis, Sydney Grace Davis

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Excerpt from Introduction

Coaches and athletes around the world are in constant pursuit of improving their athletic performance. For some, a routine amount of weight lifting, cardiovascular exercise, agilities and flexibility training with gradual advancement may be enough to see growth. However, many are not satisfied and turn to in-depth analyses of their techniques in order to measure their progress. After an intense workout or competition, coaches spend time breaking down athletic performances based on major movements. By compartmentalizing these activities, they can identify which motions are efficient and which ones hinder fluid motion. From this evaluation and discernment, athletes ...


Development And Utilization Of Ultrasound Imaging Techniques To Evaluate The Role Of Vascularity In Adult And Aged Rat Achilles Tendon Healing, Corinne Nicole Riggin 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Development And Utilization Of Ultrasound Imaging Techniques To Evaluate The Role Of Vascularity In Adult And Aged Rat Achilles Tendon Healing, Corinne Nicole Riggin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Tendons are hypovascular tissues, undergoing angiogenesis only during development, wound healing, and pathogenesis. Injured tendons exhibit a healing response with vascular ingrowth during the proliferative phase and vascular regression during remodeling. Despite this normal healing response, tendons never fully regain their original structure or composition. Additionally, aging further increases tendon risk of rupture and impairs healing response. Since the optimal vascularization level and timing during tendon healing is currently unknown, modulating the vascular response during healing could elucidate the role of angiogenesis in tendon injury and ultimately improve the tendon healing outcome. Furthermore, new ultrasound technologies allow for the evaluation ...


Characterizing Sensory-Mediated Changes In Human Movement: Studies On Flexibility And Joint-Related Pain, Robyn Ann Capobianco 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Characterizing Sensory-Mediated Changes In Human Movement: Studies On Flexibility And Joint-Related Pain, Robyn Ann Capobianco

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Human movement is controlled by the dynamic interplay between sensory input and motor output. Varying sensory input, either deliberately through manipulation, or unintentionally via pain or injury, will alter the outgoing motor command and subsequent movement patterns. My dissertation examined these interactions by evaluating sensory-mediated changes in flexibility and assessing movement in the presence of musculoskeletal disorders with associated joint-related pain.

In our first two studies, we explored changes in flexibility with sensory stimulation. First, we assessed the influence of adding transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or self-massage using therapy balls to a stretching intervention of the plantar flexor muscles ...


The Effects Of Prophylactic Ankle Bracing On Knee And Hip Mechanics In Basketball Players During Jump Landing, Riann Thayer 2018 Humboldt State University

The Effects Of Prophylactic Ankle Bracing On Knee And Hip Mechanics In Basketball Players During Jump Landing, Riann Thayer

Theses and projects

Background: Many athletes of various sports have been required to wear ankle braces for prophylactic uses. Ankle braces have been shown to decrease range of motion in all directions, which means the main force absorption mechanism of the ankle may be inhibited. This decrease in force absorption at the ankle may increase the mechanical demands at the more proximal knee and hip joints. In this study, the change in knee, hip and lower back mechanics will be investigated to gain understanding as to whether bracing the ankle could create a higher injury potential. Methods: In this study, 12 intercollegiate basketball ...


Predictive Modeling Of Hip Dislocation: Assessment Of Surgical And Patient Factors To Reduce The Occurrence Of Hip Instability And Adverse Clinical Outcomes, Daniel N. Huff 2018 University of Denver

Predictive Modeling Of Hip Dislocation: Assessment Of Surgical And Patient Factors To Reduce The Occurrence Of Hip Instability And Adverse Clinical Outcomes, Daniel N. Huff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Instability and dislocation remain leading indications for revision of primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). Many studies have addressed the links between implant design and propensity for dislocation, however a comprehensive review of the ability of modern THA constructs to protect against joint instability is needed.

Accordingly, the objective of this study is to provide objective data about THA risks to be considered in the treatment algorithm to protect against adverse joint loading conditions and joint instability. Adverse loading conditions were assessed in a population of activities of daily living using data from telemetric hip implant representation in an FE simulation ...


The Effect Of Asymmetry On Pregnancy-Related Pain In The Postpartum Period, Krista G. Meder 2018 West Virginia University

The Effect Of Asymmetry On Pregnancy-Related Pain In The Postpartum Period, Krista G. Meder

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nearly 50% of women experience back pain and other lower extremity pain during pregnancy, with many reporting lasting pain postpartum. Pregnant women experience changes to their pelvis and lower extremities that do not always return to pre-pregnancy baseline. Not much is known of the lingering effects of pregnancy related asymmetry and its relationship to pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess asymmetries of the pelvis and lower extremities to determine whether malalignment is related to areas of pain at the low back, hip, thigh, knee, leg, and foot/ankle. Methods: Seventeen postpartum women and seven nulliparous controls ...


Mathematical And Computational Studies Of The Biomechanics Of Biofilms, Jay Alexander Stotsky 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Mathematical And Computational Studies Of The Biomechanics Of Biofilms, Jay Alexander Stotsky

Applied Mathematics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Bacterial biofilms are communities of bacteria growing on a surface to which they have adhered, typically in an aqueous environment. The motivation to understand biofilm behavior arises from a variety of applications including the development of strategies to mitigate corrosion in industrial machinery, the treatment of bacterial infections, and process control in bioreactors. The focus in this thesis is on fluid-structure interaction and biomechanical properties of biofilms. Detailed studies of a mathematical biofilm model that includes the heterogeneous rheology observed in biofilms, a statistical model of biofilm microstructure, and an application of techniques from a posteriori numerical analysis to the ...


The Effect Of An External And Internal Focus Of Attention On Emg, Acceleration And Dart Throwing With A Secondary Task, Cody Chen 2018 University of Colorado Boulder

The Effect Of An External And Internal Focus Of Attention On Emg, Acceleration And Dart Throwing With A Secondary Task, Cody Chen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Many research studies have shown the advantages of an external focus of attention (FOA) on motor performance and the benefits of learning with an external FOA. For example, research such as Lohse, Sherwood, and Healy (2010)have found that an external FOA, such as on the flight of a dart, led to better performance and reduced errors compared to an internal FOA. Other findings include decreased preparation time and reduced agonist muscle EMG activity compared to an internal FOA (Lohse et al. 2010). A study by Hitchcock and Sherwood (in press) found that there was less muscular co-contraction and increased ...


Influence Of Gluteus Medius Strength On Interlimb Asymmetry In Female Recreational Runners., Morgan Meyer, Olivia Moody, Kathryn Harrison, Gregory Crosswell, Bhushan Thakkar 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Influence Of Gluteus Medius Strength On Interlimb Asymmetry In Female Recreational Runners., Morgan Meyer, Olivia Moody, Kathryn Harrison, Gregory Crosswell, Bhushan Thakkar

Undergraduate Research Posters

PURPOSE: Running-related injuries are most often single-sided and are partially attributed to lower limb movement and loading asymmetries.1 Gluteus Medius (GM) plays a significant role in lower limb alignment, especially in the frontal and transverse planes by its influence on the pelvis and the femur.2 Female runners are more prone to GM weakness which has been proposed to be a risk factor for overuse injuries.3 These strength deficits contribute to abnormal lower limb kinematics and kinetics during dynamic tasks like running and jumping.4 These changes include an increase in peak hip adduction angle (HA), hip internal ...


Grail Based Sensory Perturbations - A New Tool To Assess Sensory Organization And Fall Risk During Walking In The Elderly, Harbir Bhatti 2018 Chapman University

Grail Based Sensory Perturbations - A New Tool To Assess Sensory Organization And Fall Risk During Walking In The Elderly, Harbir Bhatti

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Every 11 seconds, an older adult is treated in the emergency room for a fall; and every 19 minutes, an older adult die from a fall. According to the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting (WISQARS), one in four Americans aged 65+ falls each year. In 2014, the total medical cost of fall injuries was $31 billion. These fall accident and injury statistics may remain unchanged unless an automated highly accurate mechanism for fall risk assessment is available. Having said that, the purpose of this research study is to identify fall prone elderly and prevent fall from occurring ...


Relationships Between Throwing Velocity And Selected Kinematics In Youth Baseball Players, Nick Hedgecock 2018 Eastern Washington University

Relationships Between Throwing Velocity And Selected Kinematics In Youth Baseball Players, Nick Hedgecock

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

Research investigating baseball position players has been limited primarily to pitchers. The current study examined several kinematic variables and their relationship with ball velocity in middle and high school-aged baseball players using two-dimensional (2D) motion analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate these relationships using 2D motion analysis and compare these results to those reported in the literature using 3D analysis. Thirteen baseball players (15.31 ± 1.25 yrs., 72.29 ± 10.79 kg and 177.09 ± 5.59 cm tall) participated in the study. A video camera was used to record three throwing trials for each participant ...


Effects Of Age, Power Output, And Cadence On Energy Cost And Lower Limb Antagonist Muscle Co-Activation During Cycling, Harsh H. Buddhadev, Philip E. Martin 2018 Western Washington University

Effects Of Age, Power Output, And Cadence On Energy Cost And Lower Limb Antagonist Muscle Co-Activation During Cycling, Harsh H. Buddhadev, Philip E. Martin

Kinesiology Publications

It is unknown if higher antagonist muscle co-activation is a factor contributing to higher energy cost of cycling in older adults. We determined how age, power output, and cadence affect metabolic cost and lower extremity antagonist muscle co-activation during submaximal cycling. Thirteen young and 12 older male cyclists completed 6-minute trials at four power output-cadence conditions (75W-60rpm, 75W-90rpm, 125W-60rpm, and 125W-90rpm) while electromyography (EMG) and oxygen consumption were measured. Knee and ankle co-activation indices were calculated using vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior EMG data. Net rate of energy cost of cycling was higher in older compared to ...


Trunk Stability And Postural Stability In People With Multiple Sclerosis, Derek Tolbert 2018 South Dakota State University

Trunk Stability And Postural Stability In People With Multiple Sclerosis, Derek Tolbert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multiple Sclerosis is a neurological disease which affects an estimated 2.5million people worldwide. People with Multiple Sclerosis often experience high rates of falls, which have been associated with age, disability, and increased postural sway. Additionally, people with Multiple Sclerosis often exhibit muscular weakness and poor responses to perturbations. PURPOSE: To determine if trunk stability and postural control are altered among PwMS and if trunk muscle activity is correlated with postural stability. METHODS: Ten participants with a physician's diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (9 female, 1 male) were included in this study. Ten healthy controls were matched for age, height ...


Prosthetic Energy Return During Walking Increases After 3 Weeks Of Adaptation To A New Device, Samuel F. Ray, Shane R. Wurdeman, Kota Z. Takahashi 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Prosthetic Energy Return During Walking Increases After 3 Weeks Of Adaptation To A New Device, Samuel F. Ray, Shane R. Wurdeman, Kota Z. Takahashi

Journal Articles

Background: There are many studies that have investigated biomechanical differences among prosthetic feet, but not changes due to adaptation over time. There is a need for objective measures to quantify the process of adaptation for individuals with a transtibial amputation. Mechanical power and work profiles are a primary focus for modern energystorage- and-return type prostheses, which strive to increase energy return from the prosthesis. The amount of energy a prosthesis stores and returns (i.e., negative and positive work) during stance is directly influenced by the user’s loading strategy, which may be sensitive to alterations during the course of ...


Introducing Statistical Persistence Decay – A Quantification Of Stride-To-Stride Time Interval Dependency In Human Gait, P. C. Raffalt, J. M. Yentes 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Introducing Statistical Persistence Decay – A Quantification Of Stride-To-Stride Time Interval Dependency In Human Gait, P. C. Raffalt, J. M. Yentes

Journal Articles

Stride-to-stride time intervals during human walking are characterised by predictability and statistical persistence quantified by sample entropy (SaEn) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) which indicates a time dependency in the gait pattern. However, neither analyses quantify time dependency in a physical or physiological interpretable time scale. Recently, entropic half-life (ENT½) has been introduced as a measure of the time dependency on an interpretable time scale. A novel measure of time dependency, based on DFA, statistical persistence decay (SPD), was introduced. The present study applied SaEn, DFA, ENT½, and SPD in known theoretical signals (periodic, chaotic, and random) and stride-to-stride time ...


Saccadic Eye Movements Between Strategic, Interceptive, And Non-Athletes, Brian Szekely 2018 Georgia Southern University

Saccadic Eye Movements Between Strategic, Interceptive, And Non-Athletes, Brian Szekely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Athletes have differences in object tracking, search strategies, number and duration of fixations, dynamic visual acuity (DVA), and predictive eye movements than non-athletes (NON). However, these eye functions have not been assessed between athlete groups during a task that encompasses antisaccade and DVA characteristics. Purpose: To evaluate the oculomotor control sport paradigm differences between interceptive (INT) and strategic (STR) Division I collegiate athletes, as well as NON with an antisaccade task (AS) and a sport-like dual task (SDT). Methods: Fifty-seven participants (19 STR, 19 INT, and 19 NON) performed 2 trials of an AS and a SDT. Participants stood ...


Patient-Specific Quantification Of The Relationship Between The Left Atrium Pressure And The Ostial Diameter Of The Left Atrial Appendage, Sky Tianqi Gao 2018 University of Denver

Patient-Specific Quantification Of The Relationship Between The Left Atrium Pressure And The Ostial Diameter Of The Left Atrial Appendage, Sky Tianqi Gao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The left atrial appendage has been a historically understudied region of the heart until fairly recently with the new understanding of its role in the stroke pathway of patients with atrial fibrillation. The goal of this study is to take a look at the biomechanical behavior of the left atrium and left atrial appendage under normal physiological loading conditions using material properties taken from biaxial stretch tests. Several different options for material properties models were tested and biaxial stretch test data of cadaveric human tissue samples for the left atrium and appendage were fit to a Fung-type strain-energy function for ...


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