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Trunk Stability And Postural Stability In People With Multiple Sclerosis, Derek Tolbert 2018 South Dakota State University

Trunk Stability And Postural Stability In People With Multiple Sclerosis, Derek Tolbert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multiple Sclerosis is a neurological disease which affects an estimated 2.5million people worldwide. People with Multiple Sclerosis often experience high rates of falls, which have been associated with age, disability, and increased postural sway. Additionally, people with Multiple Sclerosis often exhibit muscular weakness and poor responses to perturbations. PURPOSE: To determine if trunk stability and postural control are altered among PwMS and if trunk muscle activity is correlated with postural stability. METHODS: Ten participants with a physician's diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (9 female, 1 male) were included in this study. Ten healthy controls were matched for age, height ...


Prosthetic Energy Return During Walking Increases After 3 Weeks Of Adaptation To A New Device, Samuel F. Ray, Shane R. Wurdeman, Kota Z. Takahashi 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Prosthetic Energy Return During Walking Increases After 3 Weeks Of Adaptation To A New Device, Samuel F. Ray, Shane R. Wurdeman, Kota Z. Takahashi

Journal Articles

Background: There are many studies that have investigated biomechanical differences among prosthetic feet, but not changes due to adaptation over time. There is a need for objective measures to quantify the process of adaptation for individuals with a transtibial amputation. Mechanical power and work profiles are a primary focus for modern energystorage- and-return type prostheses, which strive to increase energy return from the prosthesis. The amount of energy a prosthesis stores and returns (i.e., negative and positive work) during stance is directly influenced by the user’s loading strategy, which may be sensitive to alterations during the course of ...


The Effects Of Predisposition And Direction On Ankle Sprain Risk Predictive Factors During Jump Landing, Caleb R. Radley 2018 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Predisposition And Direction On Ankle Sprain Risk Predictive Factors During Jump Landing, Caleb R. Radley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ankle sprains are regarded as one of the most common lower extremity injury in sports. Previous research studying ankle sprain risk factors has examined the role of anticipation on dynamic movements such as cutting and jump landing. However, no previous research has examined the role of predisposition on ankle sprain risk during jump landing. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of jump direction and predisposition on ankle sprain risk predictive factors during jump landing. Seventeen participants participated in a jump-land-jump task in which the direction of the second jump was indicated before the ...


Independent Contributions Of Supporting Body Weight And Accelerating Body Mass To Metabolic Power During Walking On Uphill And Downhill Slopes, Claire Zora Zai 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Independent Contributions Of Supporting Body Weight And Accelerating Body Mass To Metabolic Power During Walking On Uphill And Downhill Slopes, Claire Zora Zai

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The metabolic cost of walking is partially determined by the muscle force needed to support body weight and the muscle work needed to redirect and accelerate the center of mass (CoM). During level-ground walking, ~28% of the net metabolic power (NMP) is due to supporting body weight and ~45% is due to performing CoM work. We hypothesized that supporting body weight would incur a greater percentage of NMP for uphill and a lower percentage of NMP for downhill compared to level-ground walking. Additionally, we hypothesized that performing work incur a greater percentage of NMP for uphill and a lower percentage ...


Adjustments In Motor Unit Activity And Mobility Induced By Electrical Nerve Stimulation In Young And Older Adults, Diba Mani 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Adjustments In Motor Unit Activity And Mobility Induced By Electrical Nerve Stimulation In Young And Older Adults, Diba Mani

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation comprises five experimental studies that investigated the influence of electrical nerve stimulation on motor unit discharge characteristics and mobility in young and older adults. Three studies evaluated the acute effects of electrical nerve stimulation and two were derived from an intervention that aimed to improve motor function in older adults.

In the first study, fine-wire electrodes were used to track single motor unit activity in the biceps brachii of the left arm while electrical nerve stimulation was applied to the biceps brachii of the right arm. Although there was no change in the discharge characteristics of motor units ...


The Effect Of Stride Frequencies On Running Performance At The Velocity Of Vo2max, Boram Lim 2018 Humboldt State University

The Effect Of Stride Frequencies On Running Performance At The Velocity Of Vo2max, Boram Lim

Theses and projects

Running economy(RE) is considered to be a critical factor to improve running performance. Stride frequency(SF) is an important variable for determining RE. The importance of SF has gained more attention in recent years, especially for recreational runners. However, no previous research has investigated the interaction between running performance and SF at the velocity of VO2max. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of five different SF variations on running performance until volitional fatigue at the velocity of VO2max. METHODS: Fourteen male recreational runners (Age = 25.8 ± 4.96 years, Height = 171 ± 6.2cm, Body Mass = 71 ...


Statistics And Biomechanics: An Interdisciplinary Evaluation Of The Mathematical, Practical, And Athletic Applications Of Principal Component Analysis, Sydney Grace Davis 2018 Gardner-Webb University

Statistics And Biomechanics: An Interdisciplinary Evaluation Of The Mathematical, Practical, And Athletic Applications Of Principal Component Analysis, Sydney Grace Davis

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Excerpt from Introduction

Coaches and athletes around the world are in constant pursuit of improving their athletic performance. For some, a routine amount of weight lifting, cardiovascular exercise, agilities and flexibility training with gradual advancement may be enough to see growth. However, many are not satisfied and turn to in-depth analyses of their techniques in order to measure their progress. After an intense workout or competition, coaches spend time breaking down athletic performances based on major movements. By compartmentalizing these activities, they can identify which motions are efficient and which ones hinder fluid motion. From this evaluation and discernment, athletes ...


Development And Utilization Of Ultrasound Imaging Techniques To Evaluate The Role Of Vascularity In Adult And Aged Rat Achilles Tendon Healing, Corinne Nicole Riggin 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Development And Utilization Of Ultrasound Imaging Techniques To Evaluate The Role Of Vascularity In Adult And Aged Rat Achilles Tendon Healing, Corinne Nicole Riggin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Tendons are hypovascular tissues, undergoing angiogenesis only during development, wound healing, and pathogenesis. Injured tendons exhibit a healing response with vascular ingrowth during the proliferative phase and vascular regression during remodeling. Despite this normal healing response, tendons never fully regain their original structure or composition. Additionally, aging further increases tendon risk of rupture and impairs healing response. Since the optimal vascularization level and timing during tendon healing is currently unknown, modulating the vascular response during healing could elucidate the role of angiogenesis in tendon injury and ultimately improve the tendon healing outcome. Furthermore, new ultrasound technologies allow for the evaluation ...


Saccadic Eye Movements Between Strategic, Interceptive, And Non-Athletes, Brian Szekely 2018 Georgia Southern University

Saccadic Eye Movements Between Strategic, Interceptive, And Non-Athletes, Brian Szekely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Athletes have differences in object tracking, search strategies, number and duration of fixations, dynamic visual acuity (DVA), and predictive eye movements than non-athletes (NON). However, these eye functions have not been assessed between athlete groups during a task that encompasses antisaccade and DVA characteristics. Purpose: To evaluate the oculomotor control sport paradigm differences between interceptive (INT) and strategic (STR) Division I collegiate athletes, as well as NON with an antisaccade task (AS) and a sport-like dual task (SDT). Methods: Fifty-seven participants (19 STR, 19 INT, and 19 NON) performed 2 trials of an AS and a SDT. Participants stood ...


Characterizing Sensory-Mediated Changes In Human Movement: Studies On Flexibility And Joint-Related Pain, Robyn Ann Capobianco 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Characterizing Sensory-Mediated Changes In Human Movement: Studies On Flexibility And Joint-Related Pain, Robyn Ann Capobianco

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Human movement is controlled by the dynamic interplay between sensory input and motor output. Varying sensory input, either deliberately through manipulation, or unintentionally via pain or injury, will alter the outgoing motor command and subsequent movement patterns. My dissertation examined these interactions by evaluating sensory-mediated changes in flexibility and assessing movement in the presence of musculoskeletal disorders with associated joint-related pain.

In our first two studies, we explored changes in flexibility with sensory stimulation. First, we assessed the influence of adding transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or self-massage using therapy balls to a stretching intervention of the plantar flexor muscles ...


Grail Based Sensory Perturbations - A New Tool To Assess Sensory Organization And Fall Risk During Walking In The Elderly, Harbir Bhatti 2018 Chapman University

Grail Based Sensory Perturbations - A New Tool To Assess Sensory Organization And Fall Risk During Walking In The Elderly, Harbir Bhatti

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Every 11 seconds, an older adult is treated in the emergency room for a fall; and every 19 minutes, an older adult die from a fall. According to the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting (WISQARS), one in four Americans aged 65+ falls each year. In 2014, the total medical cost of fall injuries was $31 billion. These fall accident and injury statistics may remain unchanged unless an automated highly accurate mechanism for fall risk assessment is available. Having said that, the purpose of this research study is to identify fall prone elderly and prevent fall from occurring ...


The Effect Of Asymmetry On Pregnancy-Related Pain In The Postpartum Period, Krista G. Meder 2018 West Virginia University

The Effect Of Asymmetry On Pregnancy-Related Pain In The Postpartum Period, Krista G. Meder

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nearly 50% of women experience back pain and other lower extremity pain during pregnancy, with many reporting lasting pain postpartum. Pregnant women experience changes to their pelvis and lower extremities that do not always return to pre-pregnancy baseline. Not much is known of the lingering effects of pregnancy related asymmetry and its relationship to pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess asymmetries of the pelvis and lower extremities to determine whether malalignment is related to areas of pain at the low back, hip, thigh, knee, leg, and foot/ankle. Methods: Seventeen postpartum women and seven nulliparous controls ...


Injury And Illness In Marching Band And Color Guard Members And The Need For Athletic Trainers: A Critically Appraised Topic, Alissa C. Rhode 2017 Saginaw Valley State University

Injury And Illness In Marching Band And Color Guard Members And The Need For Athletic Trainers: A Critically Appraised Topic, Alissa C. Rhode

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: To determine the prevalence, incidence, risk, rate, and type of injury and illness suffered by collegiate and high school marching band (MB) and color guard (CG) members and determine if there is a need for medical coverage. Methods: Articles were identified from: PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Physical Therapy and Sports Medicine Collection, ScienceDirect, and single-citation matching using search string, ["marching band" OR "color guard" OR "marching athlete" AND injury] from January 1990-to-October 2016, resulting in 141 articles. Following screening (title, abstract), six articles were reviewed. Four met these inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, cross-sectional studies, (2) high school or collegiate-aged members ...


The Head Shake Sensory Organization Test (Hs-Sot): Normative Data And Correlation With Dynamic Visual Acuity Testing, Andrea E. Cripps, Scott C. Livingston 2017 Bowling Green State University

The Head Shake Sensory Organization Test (Hs-Sot): Normative Data And Correlation With Dynamic Visual Acuity Testing, Andrea E. Cripps, Scott C. Livingston

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Background: Among healthy (asymptomatic) subjects and patients, the relationship between performance on the Head Shake Sensory Organization Test (HS-SOT) and performance on the Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) testing has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for the HS-SOT and compare performance on the HS-SOT and the DVA test. Hypothesis: A strong positive correlation would exist between the DVA and the HS-SOT. Study Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Sixty asymptomatic subjects (34 females, 26 males, ages 20 to 26 years, 23.7±1.6) participated. Each subject ...


Utilization Of Cupping Therapy In The Treatment Of Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome In A Collegiate Pitcher: A Case Study, Stephen A. Cage, Diana M. Gallegos, Brandon J. Warner 2017 The University of Texas at Tyler

Utilization Of Cupping Therapy In The Treatment Of Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome In A Collegiate Pitcher: A Case Study, Stephen A. Cage, Diana M. Gallegos, Brandon J. Warner

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Objective: Present a clinical case detailing the effectiveness of dry cupping therapy in treating thoracic outlet syndrome. The utilization of dry cupping therapy on a 20-year-old collegiate baseball pitcher with diagnosed thoracic outlet syndrome is presented. Background: Thoracic outlet syndrome is a relatively rare musculoskeletal condition affecting 1/100,000 patients annually. Dry cupping therapy is an ancient therapeutic modality that utilizes various means of suction with the goal of decompressing myofascial layers. Treatment: Following diagnosis, patient was successfully treated in two weeks using dry cupping therapy. The patient experienced no further incidence of thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms and was ...


Athletic Trainers’ Knowledge Of Legal Practice Within Information Technology And Social Media, Elizabeth R. Neil, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Lindsey E. Eberman 2017 Indiana State University

Athletic Trainers’ Knowledge Of Legal Practice Within Information Technology And Social Media, Elizabeth R. Neil, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Lindsey E. Eberman

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: As healthcare and technology continue to connect in daily practice, athletic trainers (ATs) must be knowledgeable of the governing acts for ethical and legal clinical practice. This is vital to ensure ethical and legal practice as a clinician and protection of confidential protected health information (PHI). The objective of this study was to assess certified athletic trainers’ knowledge of regulations within technology and social media (SoMe). Methods: Certified ATs were recruited from the National Athletic Trainers’ Association membership database. Respondents completed an instrument of 28 questions, including 16 participant demographics, clinical site demographics, SoMe usage and general questions, and ...


Mechanics Of The Developing Brain: From Smooth-Walled Tube To The Folded Cortex, Kara Ellspermann Garcia 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Mechanics Of The Developing Brain: From Smooth-Walled Tube To The Folded Cortex, Kara Ellspermann Garcia

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Over the course of human development, the brain undergoes dramatic physical changes to achieve its final, convoluted shape. However, the forces underlying every cinch, bulge, and fold remain poorly understood. This doctoral research focuses on the mechanical processes responsible for early (embryonic) and late (preterm) brain development.

First, we examine early brain development in the chicken embryo, which is similar to human at these stages. Research has primarily focused on molecular signals to describe morphogenesis, but mechanical analysis can also provide important insights. Using a combination of experiments and finite element modeling, we find that actomyosin contraction is responsible for ...


Characterizing Anisotropy In Fibrous Soft Materials By Mr Elastography Of Slow And Fast Shear Waves, John Larson Schmidt 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Characterizing Anisotropy In Fibrous Soft Materials By Mr Elastography Of Slow And Fast Shear Waves, John Larson Schmidt

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

The general objective of this work was to develop experimental methods based on magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to characterize fibrous soft materials. Mathematical models of tissue biomechanics capable of predicting injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), are of great interest and potential. However, the accuracy of predictions from such models depends on accuracy of the underlying material parameters. This dissertation describes work toward three aims. First, experimental methods were designed to characterize fibrous materials based on a transversely isotropic material model. Second, these methods are applied to characterize the anisotropic properties of white matter brain tissue ex vivo. Third ...


Control Surfaces Of Aquatic Vertebrates: Active And Passive Design And Function, Frank E. Fish, George V. Lauder 2017 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Control Surfaces Of Aquatic Vertebrates: Active And Passive Design And Function, Frank E. Fish, George V. Lauder

Biology Faculty Publications

Aquatic vertebrates display a variety of control surfaces that are used for propulsion, stabilization, trim and maneuvering. Control surfaces include paired and median fins in fishes, and flippers and flukes in secondarily aquatic tetrapods. These structures initially evolved from embryonic fin folds in fishes and have been modified into complex control surfaces in derived aquatic tetrapods. Control surfaces function both actively and passively to produce torque about the center of mass by the generation of either lift or drag, or both, and thus produce vector forces to effect rectilinear locomotion, trim control and maneuvers. In addition to fins and flippers ...


Effects Of Direction Time Constraints And Walking Speed On Turn Strategies And Gait Adaptations In Healthy Older And Young Adults, Dennis Torre 2017 Seton Hall University

Effects Of Direction Time Constraints And Walking Speed On Turn Strategies And Gait Adaptations In Healthy Older And Young Adults, Dennis Torre

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Hip fractures can be life-threatening, debilitating, and costly. The odds for hip fracture increases from impact of sideways falls. While turning has been strongly associated with hip fracture & sideways falls, the distinction between the risks for walking-turns as opposed to low-velocity in-place turning is not clear. The present study sought to fill a gap as previous research had not compared walking-turn performance in young & healthy older adults at low-fall risk within the same study and response-conditions of speed interacting with direction-cue time constraints. Spatial-temporal variables representative of AP braking/propulsion (i.e. stride-length & speed) & ML stability (left/right H-H BOS) were collected with the Gaitrite upon approach of a turning zone whose entrance width was just 73 cm; and turn-strategy categorical data for stable wide-BOS step-turns, biomechanically challenging narrow-BOS spin-turns, and combined subtypes of mixed-turns either of the “extra-step” variety representative of an AP stability/braking issue or “small-amplitude” variety representative of a ML stability/balance issue were captured on video. Mixed-ANOVA of gait measures for AP propulsion/braking revealed no age-group differences in speed despite a trend for less of a fast-pace increase in elderly stride-length, yet similar anticipatory ...


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